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International Conference on Novel Approaches in Science Engineering and Technologies(NASET), 24-25 February 2017
02
International Conference on Novel Approaches in Science Engineering and Technologies(NASET), 24-25 February 2017

 

International Conference on Novel Approaches in Science Engineering and Technologies (NASET)-2017
Date of Conference: February 24-25, 2017 | Organised by  Madhav University, Sirohi (Rajasthan), India

S. No

ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-6, Issue-NASET17, February 2017
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Devendra Kumar Sharma

Paper Title:

Digital Libraries and Digital Preservation

Abstract: Today Digital Technology (computers and communication technology) is enabling information to be created, manipulated, disseminated, located and stored with increasing ease over the traditional one. On the other side Technological Obsolescence is the result of evolution of technology: as newer technology appears, older ones ceased to be used. Consequently, information, which relies on obsolete technology, becomes inaccessible. And preserving access to this (digital) information poses a significant challenge to the Library and Information Community. The present study highlights the digital preservation techniques and issues involved with it.

Keywords:
 Digital Library, Digital Preservations


References:

1.       Rajiv Gupta, Preservation of digital information: some aspects, IASLIC Bulletin, 48 (4), 2003 p206-212
2.       Lynch, Clifford A., Integrity of Digital Information: Mechanics of definitional issues. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 45, 1994

3.       Deegan, Marilyn. Digital futures: Strategies for the information age, London: Library Association, 2002.

4.       Raitt, David., Libraries for the new millennium: Implications for managers London: Library Association, 1997.

5.       http://www.dpconline.org/graphics/digpres/index.html (accessed on 21st Sep 2005)

6.       http://www.kulisfd.cjb.net (accessed on 23 sep 2005)

7.       Ekpo, Akpan H., 2001,, ‘Developing the Knowledge and Skills on the New Information Technologies’ A Futuristic Approach in Information Technology in Nigeria, Umanakwe, E.,

8.       Onyanwu, O. and Ukpong, Ebebe A., Ibadan: Sibon books, p..55.

9.       Eboka, B.E., 2000, Introduction to Library Science, Onitsha: Palma Publishing and Links, pp1-12.

10.    Bimber, Bruce, 2003, Information and American Democracy: Technology in the Evolution of Political Power, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.210.

11.    Thioune, Ramata Molo, et al, 2003, ‘Information and Communication Technologies for Development in Africa: Opportunities and Challenges for Community Development’, Vol.1,

12.    Ottawa: IDRC and CODESRIA, p. 64.


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2.

Authors:

Shambhu Prasad, Shiv Kumar

Paper Title:

Analysis of Red Soil Fertility Rate for Rice using Data Mining 

Abstract:  Data Mining is a collection of exploration techniques which is used to operate large amount of data based on analytical methods and tools. Paddy is the main crop of Jharkhand state and red soil is good for rice production. To enhance the production of rice, soil fertility rate should be analyzed and appropriate action should be taken by agriculture department or farmers. In This Research Paper, the classification technique (J48 algorithm) is used for analysis of soil fertility rate.

Keywords:
Data Mining, Classification Technique, J48 algorithm, Weka, Red Soil, Rice, Analysis, Fertility Rate


References:

1.       G.K.Gupta,”Introduction to Data Mining with Case Studies”, PHI,Third Edition 2014, p.p. 03
2.       Dr.S.Hari Ganesh, Mrs. Jayasudha, “An Enhanced Technique to Predict the Accuracy of Soil Fertility in Agricultural Mining”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, Vol. 4, Page 1-3, 2015

3.       Kumar & N. Kannathasan, “A Survey on Data Mining and Pattern Recognition Techniques for Soil Data Mining “, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 8, Issue 3, 2011.

4.       Thales Sehn Korting,” C4.5 algorithm and Multivariate Decision Trees”, Image Processing Division, National Institute for Space Research, 5. Web. 2 Feb. 2013.

5.       S. S. Baskar, L. Arockiam, S. Charles, “Applying Data Mining Techniques on Soil Fertility Prediction‖”, International Conference on Engineering Trends and Science & Humanities (ICETSH-2015) ISSN: 2348 – 8387 www.internationaljournalssrgorg Page 83.

6.       Jay Gholap, Anurag Ingole, Jayesh Ghoil, Shailesh Gargade, Vahida Attar, “Soil Data Analysis Using Classification Techniques and Soil Attribute Prediction” , 2012.

7.       Youvrajsinh chauhan, Jignesh Vania, “J48 Classifier Approach to Detect Characteristic of Bt Cotton base on Soil Micro Nutrient”, International Journal of Computer Trends and Technolgy, Vol. 5, Issues 6, 2013.

8.       Suman, Bharat Bhusan Naib, “Soil Fertilizer Recommendation using WEKA”, International journal of Computer Science & Management Studies, Vol. 13, Issue 05, 2013.

9.       Dildarkhan T. Pathan, Pushkar D. Joshi, Prof. S. U. Balvir, “Prediction of soil Quality for Agriculture”, IRJSSE International Research Journals of sustainable Science
& engineering, Vol. 2, Issues 3, 2014.

10.    Vrushali Bhuyar, “Comparative Analysis of Classification Techniques on Soil Data to Predict Fertility Rate for Aurangabad district”, IJETTCS International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science Issues, Vol. 3, Issues 2, 2014.

11.    Dr.S.Hari Ganesh, D.PrittyCindrella, “An Approach to Predict Soil Fertility in Agriculture using J48 Algorithm”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET) Volume 4 Issue 7, July 2015.

12.    “Nutrients of Red Soil,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_soil, April 10,2016.

13.    “Nutrients for Rice Production,” nfsm.gov.in/Presentations/Soil_Rice_22may2010.ppt,March 16,2016.

14.    “pH value of crops,” http://efu-soil-ph.htm, Feb 2,2016

15.    “Rice Production,” http://drdpat.bih.nic.in/Productivity%20Analysis%20-%2002.htm, June 15, 2016.

16.    “J48 Algorithm,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C4.5_algorithm, June 15,2016.

17.    “Confusion Matrix,” http://researchpublications.org/IJCSA/NCAICN-13/189.pdf, Feb 2, 2016.

18.    “Evaluation of Accuracy” http://research.ijcaonline.org/volume54/number13/pxc3882492.pdf,  Dec 18,  2016


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3.

Authors:

Awanit Kumar, Abdul Hamid Qureshi

Paper Title:

Replication Algorithm for Hadoop Distributed File System

Abstract:   Distributed file System forms the basis of those computing paradigms which implement network intensive frameworks. In literature many distributed file systems are exist. Hadoop Distributed file system (HDFS) is popular Distributed File System for storing, processing and accessing large data. HDFS implemented by Apache Hadoop which is the core component of Hadoop. Hadoop Distributed File System stores data on commodity machines, providing very high aggregate bandwidth across the cluster. The main objective of this paper is to mimic the behavior of HDFS and propose a new replication strategy. In order to achieve this we have simulated all the architectural components of HDFS like name node and datanodes. Then we implemented and verified all the procedures of HDFS's client, reading files from HDFS, writing files into HDFS, heartbeat messages and block reports from datanodes to namenode. The advantage of proposed replication strategy is that the name node dynamically allocates replica nodes by incorporating dynamic load balancing technique.

Keywords:
 Apache Hadoop, Hadoop Distributed File System.


References:

1.    T. White, Hadoop: The Definitive Guide. O'Reilly Media, Yahoo! Press, June 5, 2009.
2.    Lustre. http://www.lustre.org

3.    Konstantin Shvachko, Hairong Kuang, Sanjay Radia, Robert Chansler "The Hadoop Distributed File System" Yahoo!, Sunnyvale, California USA,2010,pp.1-10

4.    Apache Hadoop. http://hadoop.apache.org/

5.    S. Ghemawat, H. Gobioff, S. Leung. "The Google _le system," In Proc. of ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, Lake George, NY, Oct 2003, pp 2943.

6.    IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation, IEEE Std 829, 1998

7.    J. Dean, S. Ghemawat, "MapReduce: Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters," In Proc. of the 6th Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation, San Francisco CA, Dec. 2004,pp.1-13


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4.

Authors:

Jalpesh Solanki

Paper Title:

The Suggested Methodology of Survey of Electrical Network Assets by GIS using PDAs

Abstract: Customer Indexing is defined here as a unique coding of index process for all types of Customers into a data base structure, created with pre determined attributes connected to a uniquely coded electrical network including locations with a facility using GIS tools to query and retrieve information. The Customer indexing and Asset management system is essential for gearing of Electric Distribution utilities to maintain the system in a dynamic mode to meet the day-to-day imperative changes.

Keywords:
 RAPDRP, GCP, CCC, Feeder Manager, GIS, HT Network, LT Network, Base map, DGPS, PDAs.


References:

1.       Gonen T., 1986: Electric Power Distribution System Engineering, McGraw-Hill, USA
2.       Lakervi E., Holmes E.J., 1995: Electricity Distribution network design. IEE, London, UK.

3.       H.L. Willis, Power Distribution Planning Reference Book, Marcel Dekker, 1997.

4.       College of India,  Power sector Restructuring and Regulation, Delhi, India, February 1997

5.       Tanenbaum, Bernard, Regulation: What the Prime Minister Needs to know, The Electricity Journal, Seattle, WA, March 1996, Seattle, pp.28-36.

6.       Indian Power Sector, Challenge and Response, RV Shahi

7.       ITIA (Information  Technology Implementation Agency), Restructured–Accelerated  Power

8.       Development and Reform Programme (R-APDRP), Rajasthan 2009 – 2010

9.       Lakervi, E., Holmes E.J. (1995). Electricity Distribution network design. IEE, London, UK.

10.    R-APDRP project, Power Finance Corporation of India 2009-2010

11.    Skrlec,D.et al.(1994).“Application  of  GIS  Technology  in  Electrical  Distribution  Network

12.    Optimization” Proceedings, Fifth  European  Conference  and  Exhibition  on  Geographical

13.    Information Systems (EGIS/MARI ‘94), Paris, France.

14.    www.esri.com/what-is-gis

15.    Bernhardsen, T. (1992). Geographic Information System. Viak IT, Arendal, Norway.

16.    GIS BLOGS for INDIA


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5.

Authors:

Geetanjali Amarawat

Paper Title:

Ubiquitous Computing Technique: Ambient Intelligence (AmI)

Abstract:  Computing Ambient intelligence (AmI) refers to electronic environments that are sensitive and responsive to the presence of people. Ambient intelligence is a vision on the future of consumer electronics, telecommunication and computing that was originally developed in the late 1990s for the time frame 2010–2020. In the Ambient Intelligence world, devices work in concert to support people in carrying out their everyday life activities, tasks and rituals in easy and natural way by using information and intelligence that are hidden in the network connecting these devices. As these devices grow smaller, more connected and more integrated into our environment, the technology disappears into our surroundings until only the user interface remains perceivable by users. Ambient intelligence is closely related to the long term vision of an intelligent service system, in which technologies are able to automate a platform embedding that is required in devices for powering context aware, personalized, adaptive and anticipatory services. Ambient Intelligence = Ubiquitous Computing + Intelligent social user interfaces

Keywords:
Intelligent System, Ambient Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence, Ubiquitous Computing, Sensors, Decision Making, Context Awareness


References:

1.       E. Aarts and J. Encarnacao. True Visions:&  Emergence of Ambient Intelligence, Springer, 2006.
2.       E. Aarts and L. Appelo. Ambient intelligence: thuisomgevingen van de toekomst. ITMonitor.

3.       http://www.google.co.in/search?q=ambient+intelligence&hl=en&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=70FAUYH2Orai4APkp

YF4&sqi=2&ved=0CDcQsAQ&biw=1366&bih=638#imgrc=ff86_XB

4.       http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1574119209000.

5.       ImthiyazAli,"5Gthenanocore,"Availablefrom:www.4gwirelessjobs.com/pdf/5G_NanoCore.pdf (Accessed 13th March 2011)

6.       Interesting URLsThe European Union report, Scenarios for Ambient Intelligence in 2010 (ftp://ftp.cordis.lu/pub/ist/docs/istagscenarios2010.pdf)

7       e2Home, a joint venture between Electrolux and Ericsson to build smart condominiums (www.e2-home.com)

8.       Georgia Tech’s Aware Home (www.cc.gatech.edu/fce/ahri)

9.       MIT’sHouse_n (http://architecture.mit.edu/house_n) MIT Oxygen project for pervasive humancenteredcomputing (http://oxygen.lcs.mit.edu/Overview.html).


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6.

Authors:

Shiv Kumar, Shrawan Kumar Sharma

Paper Title:

Secure Document Printing

Abstract: In today's scenario, most of organization use document processing devices like printers, scanner and fax machines etc., on network. Many confidentiels and important data and documents are handling by these devices. This may cause document theft or snooping. The miss use and loss of sensitive data may damage the réputation of organization or any employée. Such kind of loss may lead to crime or fraud also. That’s why need of Security should be apply on such équipements. Printing security prevent user from document theft. Most of printer manufacturing companies provide security solutions but 90% people are not aware about security solutions. This unawareness causes the leakage of confidential data. This paper highlights the better printing security solutions and make people aware about that solution. Through these security solution, printing of Secure data will be improve and protect sensitive data. In this security solution, security will be done through password protection.  When user will print document, User will get option for security of data. If user chooses security of data then user has to enter user name with password. At the printer side, job will be held on printer till the user unlocks the document through password. With this technique user will not only be aware about security solutions but also user will Secure data

Keywords:
 sensitive data, network security, printing security, password, user


References:

1.    Annik Stahl,”Secure printing: No more mad dashes to the copy room” http://office.microsoft.com/en-in/help/secure-printing-no-more-mad-dashes-to-the-copy-room-HA001227631.aspx
2.    John Henshel,”How to print securely” http://www.pcworld.com/article/210197/how_to_print_securely.html

3.    ”The State of Print Security” “Results of new ISMG and HP print security survey” http://www.healthcareinfosecurity.com/webinars/state-print-security-2012-w-284

4.    http://louellafernandes.com/print-security-businesses-complacent/

5.    ”Security Printing”  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security_printing

6.    ”Security threats in Employee Misuse of IT Resources”, March-2009 http://www.computereconomics.com/article.cfm?id=1436

7.    Frank Topinka and Amy Jaffe, “Data Security” http://www.enxmag.com/2013_months/march2013/article_HowSecureIsYourDocument_32013.html


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7.

Authors:

Shiv Kumar

Paper Title:

Future Technology of Engineering

Abstract:  Now a days’ industry is transforming towards automation to produce very high quality product to save their money and time. Automation is mandatory for the organization to survive in the competitive market. Automation cuts the cost of the product as well as production time without any change in quality. Now, question rises, how automation is achieved? Is it possible without artificial intelligence? If no, then how machine learn? The impact of automation is so high that it plays a very important role in our daily life that is why every customer searching automatic product like smart car, automatic gear box, washing machine, refrigerator, oven, lighting system, chapati making machine, etc. this is really a threatening and alarming situation for all the aspirants of graduate engineers of any stream to get the job without knowledge and skill of artificial intelligence and machine learning in coming year. 

Keywords: AI, automation, future technology, machine learning, etc.

References:

1.       Types of Machine Learning Algorithms Taiwo Oladipupo Ayodele  University of Portsmouth United Kingdom http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/10694.pdf
2.       http://www.astroml.org/sklearn_tutorial/general_concepts.html

3.       http://werner.yellowcouch.org/phd03/PhdOnTheWeb/node8.html

4.       http://software.ucv.ro/~cmihaescu/ro/teaching/AIR/docs/Lab4-NaiveBayes.pdf

5.       http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~schapire/talks/picasso-minicourse.pdf

6.       https://page.mi.fu-berlin.de/rojas/neural/chapter/K4.pdf

7.       http://osp.mans.edu.eg/elbeltagi/AI%20Introduction.pdf

8.       https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0705/0705.1673.pdf

9.       http://iosrjournals.org/iosr-jce/papers/necon/volume-1/B.pdf

10.    http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/specialissueinfo?specialissueid=239008&journalid=239

11.    https://www.journals.elsevier.com/engineering-applications-of-artificial-intelligence/recent-articles


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8.

Authors:

Kirti Kumar Joshi, B. L. Pal

Paper Title:

An Approach towards Pattern Recognition for Webpage Accessing in Web Mining

Abstract:   The popularity of World Wide Web (WWW) is increasing day by day as technology changing and it is the best way of communication and sharing information on the network. WWW serves as a source for sharing different kinds of information and Data. There are numbers of websites available on the web but still requirements for the new web pages arise every day and to accomplish this requirement, new web page are added day by day. Vast amount of information is available on web. It is very difficult to retrieve user’s choice information and data from the web pages within second. To overcome this problem certain suitable pattern of web page arrangements are required to full fill the user’s requirement. The log data is the base to resolve the accessibility time and pattern search. The web usage mining is a technique of web mining used to extract knowledge from web data. In this paper we suggest new pattern that gives a minimum access time with respect to a most frequent pattern and Maximum hits pattern.

Keywords:
 Web Mining, Web Usage Mining, Web Log file, Data Preprocessing, Pattern Design, Pattern Analysis, Proposed Pattern


References:

1.    Naga Lakshmi, Raja Sekhara Rao , Sai Satyanarayana Reddy, “An Overview of Preprocessing on Web Log Data for Web Usage Analysis”, International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE), Volume-2, Issue-4, March 2013.
2.    K.S.R. Paven Kumar, V.V. Sreedhar, Manoj Chowdary, “A Critique on Web Usage Mining”, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Volume-3, Issue-5, May 2012.

3.    Shaily G.Langhnoja,Mehul P. Barot,Darshak B. Mehta, “Web Usage Mining Using Association Rule Mining on Clustered Data for Pattern Discovery”, International Journal of Data Mining Techniques and Applications, Vol 02, Issue 01,June 2013.

4.    Mansi Yadav, Pankaj Dalal, “Algorithms for Web Log Data: WUM Pre-Processing phase”, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Volume 4, Issue 12, December 2014.

5.    L.K. Joshila Grace, Dhinaharan Nagamalai, V.Maheswari, “Analysis of Web Logs and Web User in Web Mining”, International Journal of Network Security & Its Applications (IJNSA), Vol.3, No.1, January 2011.

6.    Surbhi Anand, Rinkle Rani Aggarwal, “An Efficient Algorithm for Data Cleaning of Log File using File Extensions”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 48– No.8, June 2012.

7.    Kavita Sharma and Gulshan shrivastva, “Web mining: Today and Tomorrow”, third international conference of Electronics Computer Technology,IEEE, 2011.

8.    Smita Gupta, Aishwarya Rastogi, Srishti Agarwal, Nimisha Agarwal, “Web Mining: A Comparative Study”, International Journal of Computational Engineering Research IJCER, Vol.2, Issue No.2, Mar-Apr 2012.


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9.

Authors:

Geetanjali Amarawat, Bhawesh Kumawat, Krishna Meghwanshi, Jitendra Singh Rajpurohit

Paper Title:

Key Concepts of 5G Mobile Technology

Abstract: Technology has no boundaries. The future is becoming more uncertain as the years pass by. We have seen how technology has advanced over the past few years. But there is need to move beyond the whole idea that an increase in “G” merely means an increase in capacity 5G technologies will change the way most high bandwidth users access their phones. Having a bird eye view on statistics, we have got more than 4.7 billion mobile phone users on our plane The evolution of mobile network started from 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G which will gradually move to the 5G called the next generation, through telecommunication critics had come into conclusion that 4G is a deliberate distraction from 3G. But technological changes in the wireless mobile communication network will continue, because there are over 5.2 billion registered mobile phone users in the world as at January 2011 according to ITU compared to the 4.66 billion registered users in 2010. The advancement in the previous generation wireless network to 4G was carried out by some group of researchers. The aim for advancement is to provide a comprehensive and secure Internet Protocol solution with much faster data speeds than the third generation network, while the 5G is expected to have peak download and upload speeds of more than 1Gbps, implementation of standards for 5G would likely be around the year 2020. This paper will focus on the adverse limitation of the previous generation networks, present challenges of 4G, expected challenges in the NGN and will provide some fresh perspectives on the issue of 5G through the technological changes, not as an absolute isolated phenomenon but as part of the generational evolution in telecommunication.

Keywords:
  ITU, 4G, 5G, NGN, Wireless Communication


References
1.    Shingo Ohmori, Yasushi Yamao, Nobuo Nakajima "The Future Generations of Mobile Communications Based on Broadband Access Technologies," IEEE Communications Magazine, 2000.
2.    Xichun Li, Abudulla Gani, Rosli Salleh, Omar Zakaria, “The Future of Mobile Wireless Communication Networks,” International Conference on Communication Software and Networks, February 2009, ISBN 978-0-7695-3522-7.

3.    Mohsin Jamil, Shahan Parwaiz Shaikh, Mohsin Shahzad , Qasim Awais, "4G: The Future Mobile Technology," IEEE, 2010.

4.    Jivesh Govil, Jivika Govil, "4G: Functionalities Development and an Analysis of Mobile Wireless Grid," icetet, pp.270-275, 2008 First International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, 2008 IEEE [978-0-7695-3267-7/08]

5.    Toni Janevski, “5G Mobile Phone Concept,” Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 2009 6th IEEE [1-4244- 2308-2].

6.    Imthiyaz Ali, "5G the nano core," Available from: www.4gwirelessjobs.com/pdf/5G_NanoCore.pdf (Accessed 13th March 2011)

7.    Prof. Willie W. Lu, "Open Wireless Architecture (OWA) – Defining China's Fourth Generation Mobile Communications," in ITU Telecom World, Hong Kong, 2006.

8.    Kaushal P. Makhecha, Kalpesh H. Wandra.“4G WIRELESS

9.    Yongsuk Park and Taejoon Park, "A Survey of Security Threats on 4G Networks," Globecom Workshops, no. IEEE, pp. 1 - 6, Nov 2007.


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10.

Authors:

Kamal Kumar Agrawal, Sheetal Kumar Jain, Ghanshyam Das Agrawal, M. M. Jagdeesh Kumar, Rohit Misra

Paper Title:

Earth Air Tunnel Heat Exchanger: A Review of Hybrid System and Application

Abstract:  Now days passive heating/cooling requirement are increasing rapidly because active systems are harmful for environment and consume fossil fuels which are rapidly depleting and will not be available in future. There are many renewable and passive system available for heating and cooling. Out of which use of underground earth can be a good option for passive heating and cooling. Earth air tunnel heat exchanger (EATHE) is a promising technique to provide both heating and cooling effect. Till date different EATHE application have been studied to evaluate the performance. The objective of this study is to review Hybrid EAHE system and latest applications of EAHE system. The paper briefly discussed about various hybrid system of EAHE along with various applications. Furthermore this paper briefly discussed about various industrial application of EATHE system

Keywords:
   EATHE, Solar Chimney, Solar PV, Wind Tower


References:

1.       S. Nayak and G.N. Tiwari  “Theoretical performance assessment of an integrated photovoltaic and earth air heat exchanger greenhouse using energy and exergy analysis methods” Energy and Buildings, 2009 Aug 31;41(8):888-96.
2.       V. Bansal and J. Mathur “Performance enhancement of earth air tunnel heat exchanger using evaporative cooling” International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies. 2009 Sep 1; 4(3):150-8.

3.       M. Maerefat and A.P. Haghighi “Passive cooling of buildings by using integrated earth to air heat exchanger and solar chimney” Renewable Energy, 2010 Oct 31; 35(10):2316-24.

4.       F. Tavakolinia “Wind Chimney: Integrating the Principles of a Wind-catcher and a Solar-chimney to Provide Natural Ventilation: a Thesis” California Polytechnic State University; 2011.

5.       R. Misra, V. Bansal, G.D. Agarwal, J. Mathur and T. Aseri  “Thermal performance investigation of hybrid earth air tunnel heat exchanger” Energy and Buildings. 2012 Jun 30; 49:531-5.

6.       D. Yang and D. Zhang “Theoretical assessment of the combined effects of building thermal mass and earth–air-tube ventilation on the indoor thermal environment” Energy and Buildings. 2014 Oct 31; 81:182-99.

7.       S. Gokarakonda and G. Kokogiannakis “Integrated dehumidification and downdraft evaporative cooling system for a hot-humid climate, 30th International PLEA Conference, 2014, pp. 1-8, Ahmedabad, India, CEPT University Press

8.       H. Li, Y. Yu, F. Niu, M. Shafik and B. Chen “Performance of a coupled cooling system with earth-to-air heat exchanger and solar chimney” Renewable Energy. 2014 Feb 28; 62:468-77.

9.       M. Benhammou,  B. Draoui,  M. Zerrouki  and  Y. Marif  “Performance analysis of an earth-to-air heat exchanger assisted by a wind tower for passive cooling of buildings in arid and hot climate” Energy Conversion and Management. 2015 Feb 28; 91:1-1.

10.    M. Kaushal, P. Dhiman, S. Singh and H. Patel “Finite volume and response surface methodology based performance prediction and optimization of a hybrid earth to air tunnel heat exchanger” Energy and Buildings. 2015 Oct 1; 104:25-35.

11.    S. Jakhar, R. Misra, M.S. Soni, and N. Gakkhar “Parametric simulation and experimental analysis of earth air heat exchanger with solar air heating duct” Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal. 2016 Jun 30; 19(2):1059-66.

12.    M.S. Sodha, A.K. Sharma, S.P. Singh, N.K. Bansal and A. Kumar “Evaluation of an earth—air tunnel system for cooling/heating of a hospital complex” Building and Environment. 1985 Dec 31; 20(2):115-22.

13.    R. Ralegaonkar, M.V. Kamath and V.A. Dakwale “Design and Development of Geothermal Cooling System for Composite Climatic Zone in India” Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Series A. 2014 Sep 1; 95(3):179-83.

14.    M.K. Ghosal, G.N. Tiwari and N.S. Srivastava “Thermal modeling of a greenhouse with an integrated earth to air heat exchanger: an experimental validation” Energy and Buildings. 2004 Mar 31; 36(3):219-27.

15.    Shukla, G.N. Tiwari and M.S. Sodha “Thermal modeling for greenhouse heating by using thermal curtain and an earth–air heat exchanger”  Building and Environment. 2006 Jul 31; 41(7):843-50.

16.    J. Goswami “Dry Cooling in Solar Thermal Power Plants” ASME 2011 5th International Conference on Energy Sustainability 2011 Jan 1 (pp. 663-670). American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

17.    R. Vidhi, D.Y. Goswami and E.K. Stefanakos “Parametric study of supercritical Rankine cycle and earth-air-heat-exchanger for low temperature power generation” Energy Procedia. 2014 Dec 31; 49:1228-37.

18.    S. Barakat, A. Ramzy, A.M. Hamed and S.H. El Emam “Enhancement of gas turbine power output using earth to air heat exchanger (EAHE) cooling system” Energy Conversion and Management. 2016 Mar 1; 111:137-46.


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11.

Authors:

Rajendra Kumar Yadav, Jogendra Choudhary

Paper Title:

To Reduce Process Parameters at Metalizing Shop and Ultrasonic Washing

Abstract:   Ultrasonic washing is a process that uses ultrasound (usually from 20–400 kHz) and an appropriate cleaning solvent (sometimes ordinary tap water) to clean items. The ultrasound can be used with just water, but use of a solvent appropriate for the item to be cleaned and the type of soiling present enhances the effect. Cleaning normally lasts between three and six minutes, but can also exceed 20 minutes, depending on the object to be cleaned. The “ultrasonic washing  and “metalizing process” of manufacturing the Reflectors of head lights are studied in detail and the problem areas that contribute more significantly to the defects are identified. We found the major problem is due to the collective effect of cycle time of “ultrasonic washing machine and in metalizing due to “improper handling and maintenance of vacuum chamber used in metalizing shop”. After the detailed study and observation some of the inconsistencies in above process andmachine maintenance were removed that resulted in quality improvements and defects at theprocess stage were reduced in metalizing shop from 9.282% to 6.356 % and in Ultrasonic washing is from 2.06% to 1.23% by using quality control tools such as Histogram, Paretochart, Fishbone diagram and X-Bar and R-Chart.

Keywords:
Reflector, Histogram, Water, Vacuum pressure, Current, Cycle time.


References:

1.       About the company and reflectors of headlights available on http://www.autolite.com
2.       Toshihiro Okabe, Kouji Saito and Kazuo Hokkirigawa: “The effect of burningtemperature on the structural changes of Wood ceramics”, Journal of Porous Materials Vol.- 2, No.- 3, pp. 215-221, 1995.

3.       Michael N. Fried, SabetaiUnguru, “Apollonius of Perga'sConica”, ISBN 90-04-11977-9, Brill Academic Publication, pp. 162–164, 2001

4.       Lucio Russo, “Birkhauser The forgotten revolution: how science was born in 300 BC and why it had to be reborn”, ISBN 3-540-20068-1, Springer-Verlag publication Berlin Heidelberg Newyork, pp. 73–74, 1996

5.       BhaskerShrivastava, D.S.Kumani, “To reduce the rejection at H4 cutting and forming machine in halogen lamp making process” Paripex - Indian Journal of Research, ISSN - 2250-1991, Vol-1, Issue-9, pp.73-77, September 2012

6.       SharadShrivastava, D.S.Kumani, “To Reduce the Rejection of Halogen Lamp at Sealing Stage during Manufacturing” Paripex - Indian Journal of Research, ISSN - 2250-1991, Vol-1, Issue-10, pp.57-61 October 2012

7.       Caswell, “An introduction to buffing and polishing” Electroplating in miniature, vol.-1, no.-3, pp.1-20, 2012.

8.       T.R. Vijayaram, S. Sulaiman, A.M.S. Hamouda, M.H.M. Ahmad. “Foundry quality control aspects and prospects to reduce scrap rework” Journal of material processing Technology vol.-178, no.-3, pp. 39-43, 2006.

9.       Kalpakjian, Schmid, “Sheet-Metal Forming Processes” ISBN No. 0-13-2272717, Pearson Education ,Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed,2008. 132

10.    Prof. J.S. Colton “Sheet Metal Forming Processes” Manufacturing Processes and Systems: Georgia institute of technology ME 6222: vol.-3, pp.1-26, GIT 2009

11.    Rochester “Ultrasonic Cleaning of Automotive Parts” National Centre for Remanufacturing and resource Recovery 2001, 2002, 2005, NY 14623-5608, 2005.

12.    E.Gurunathan, A.Senthilkumar “Optimization of zinc phosphating process using staticaltool” International Conference on Recent trends in Engineering and Management e- ISSN:2278,p-ISSN:2320-334X,pp. 19-28, Jan 2014

13.    Using Fishbone Diagrams as a Problem Solving Tools, available on International Labour Organization.


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12.

Authors:

Shweta Sharma, Raghav Singh Dhaker

Paper Title:

Assessing Sampling Application in Manufacturing Products

Abstract: Statistical inference, namely, an inference that goes beyond the information contained in a set of data, one must always proceed with caution. One must decide carefully how far one can go in generalizing from a given set of data, whether such generalizations are at all reasonable or justifiable, whether it might be wise to wait until there are more data, and so forth. Indeed, some of the most important problems of statistical inference concern the appraisal of the risks and the consequences to which one might be exposed by making generalizations from sample data. This includes an appraisal of the probabilities of making wrong decisions, the chances of making incorrect predictions, and the possibility of obtaining estimates that do not lie within permissible limits. In this research paper, our attention will be directed largely toward engineering applications, but we shall not hesitate to refer also to other areas to impress upon the reader the great generality of most statistical techniques. Thus, the reader will find that the statistical method which is used to estimate the average coecient of thermal expansion of a metal serves also to estimate the average time it takes a secretary to perform a given task, the average thickness of a pelican eggshell, or the average IQ of first year college students. Similarly, the statistical method that is used to compare the strength of two alloys serves also to compare the eectiveness of two teaching methods, the merits of two insect sprays, or the performance of men and women in a current-events test.

Keywords:
 Sampling, Advantages, Types of sampling, Random Systematic, Cluster Stratified sampling.


References:

1.    Curtis, S., Gesler, W., Smith, G., & Washburn, S. (2000). Approaches to sampling and case selection in qualitative research: Examples in the geography of health. Social Science and Medicine, 50(2), 1001-1014.
2.    Flick, U. (1998). An introduction to qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

3.    Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine.

4.    Hancock, M., Calnan, M., & Manley, G. (1999). Private or NHS dental service care in the United Kingdom.

5.    A study of public perceptions and experiences. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 21(4), 415-420.

6.    Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26.

7.    Kalafat, J., & Illback, R. J. (1999). Evaluation of Kentucky’s school based family resource and youth services centers: Part I. Louisville, KY: REACH of Louisville.

8.    Kemper, E., Stringfield. S., & Teddlie, C. (2003). Mixed methods sampling strategies in social science research. In

9.    Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research (pp. 273-296).


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13.

Authors:

K R Patel, Dhruv Anand, V D Dhiman

Paper Title:

Water- Diesel Micro Emulsion as Alternate Fuel in Diesel Engine-An Overview

Abstract:  The need for more efficient fuel and a less polluted environment are the prominent research areas that are currently being investigated by many researchers worldwide. Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) is one of the promising alternative fuel. It can improve the combustion efficiency of a diesel engine and reduce harmful exhaust gases, especially nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). There have been many W/D emulsion fuel studies, especially regarding performance, emissions and micro-explosion phenomena. This review paper gathers and discusses the recent advances in emulsion fuel studies in respect of the impact of W/D emulsion fuel on the performance and emission of diesel engines. It is agreed by most of the studies that W/D does result in an improvement in engine performance measurements when the total amount of diesel fuel in the emulsion is compared with that of the neat diesel fuel. NOx and PM exhaust gas emissions are greatly reduced by using the W/D emulsion fuel. Unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) exhaust emissions are found to be increased by using the W/D emulsion fuel.

Keywords:
Micro Emulsion, Engine Performance, Emission, Micro Explosion


References:

1.       Anna Lif, Krister Holmberg, Water- in –diesel emusions and related systems, advances in Colloid and Interface Science 123- 126 (2006) 231- 239
2.       Cherng- Yuan Lin, Kuo- Hua Wang, Diesel engine performance and emission characteristics using three phase emulsions as fuel, Fuel 83(2004) 537-545

3.       Cherng-Yuan Lin, Kuo-Hua Wang, Effects of an oxygenated additive on the emulsification characteristics of two- and three-phase diesel emulsions, fuel.2003.08.014

4.       Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin, Hirofumi Noge, Hasannuddin Abdul Kadir, Wira Jazair , An overview of utilizing water-in-diesel emulsion fuel in diesel engine and its potential
research study, Journal of the Energy Institute 87 (2014) 273–288

5.       E. Mura, P. Massoli, C. Josset, K. Loubar, J. Bellettre, Study of the micro-explosion temperature of water in oil emulsion droplets during the Leidenfrost effect, Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 43 (2012) 63–70.

6.       J. Schramm, R. Sigvardsen, M. Forman, Bitumen/water emulsions as fuels for high-speed CI engines preliminary investigations, SAE Pap. (2003), 2003-01-31.

7.       W.M. Yang, H. An, S.K. Chou, K.J. Chua, B. Mohan, V. Sivasankaralingam, et al., Impact of emulsion fuel with nano-organic additives on the performance of diesel engine, Appl. Energy (2013).

8.       W.M. Yang  H. An, S.K. Chou, K.J. Chua, B. Mohan, V. Sivasankaralingam, V. Raman, A. Maghbouli, J. Li, Impact of emulsion fuel with nano-organic additives on the performance of diesel engine, Applied Energy 112 (2013) 1206–1212

9.       Arun Kumar Wamankar, S. Murugan, Experimental investigation of carbon black-water-diesel emulsion in a stationary DI diesel engine, Fuel processing Technology 125 (2014) 258- 266

10.    Omar Badran, Sadeq Emeish, Mahmoud Abu-Zaid, Tayseer Abu-Rahma, Mohammad Al-Hasan, Impact of Emulsified Water/Diesel Mixture on Engine Performance and Environment, Int. J. of Thermal & Environmental Engineering Volume 3, No. 1 (2011) 1-7

11.    J.S. Basha, R.B. Anand, An experimental study in a CI engine using nanoadditive blended water–diesel emulsion fuel, Int. J. Green Energy 8 (2011) 332–348.

12.    B.D. Hsu, Combustion of water-in-diesel emulsion in an experimental medium speed diesel engine, SAE Pap. (1986), 860300.

13.    J.-K. Park, J.-M. Oh, H.-I. Kim, C.-H. Lee, K.-H. Lee, Combustion characteristics of MDO and MDO emulsion in automotive diesel engine, Trans. Korean Soc. Mech. Eng. B 36 (2012) 945–951.

14.    H. Sheng, L. Chen, C. Wu, The droplet group micro-explosions in W/O diesel fuel emulsion sprays, SAE Pap. (1995), 950855.

15.    Alahmer, J. Yamin, A. Sakhrieh, M.A. Hamdan, Engine performance using emulsified diesel fuel, Energy Convers. Manag. 51 (2010) 1708–1713.

16.    Bertola, R. Li, K. Boulouchos, Influence of water-diesel fuel emulsions and EGR on combustion and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI-diesel engines equipped with common-rail injection system, SAE Pap. (2003), 2003-01-31

17.    Abu-Zaid M. Energy Convers Manag 2004;45:697

18.    Ganesan S, Ramesh AJ. J Inst Energy 2002;75:2

19.    Hsu BD. International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, SAE 860300, Warrendale, PA, USA; 1986. p. 14.


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14.

Authors:

Wasim Akram, S L Soni, Anmesh Srivastava, Amit Jhalani

Paper Title:

A Review on Performance and Emission Studies of CI Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oil and Bio-Diesel

Abstract: World energy demand is expected to increase due to the expanding urbanization, better living standards and increasing population. At a time when society is becoming increasingly aware of the declining reserves of fossil fuels beside the environmental concerns, it has become apparent that biodiesel is destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. There are different potential feed stocks for biodiesel production. Non-edible vegetable oils which are known as the second generation feed stocks can be considered as promising substitutions for traditional edible food crops for the production of biodiesel.They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Straight vegetable oil (SVO), an alternative fuel of petroleum diesel, is mainly used to reduce the environmental impact of emission without modifying engines. Specific fuel consumption increases for both SVO and bio-diesel compared with diesel fuel. The methyl asters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine and they would not require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Besides being a renewable and domestic resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. SVO of rice bran oil (RBO), jatropha, karanja etc. are derived through oil extraction process from respective plant seeds. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine properties, performance and emission of different blends of SVO (RBO and jetropha) and biodiesel (karanja) in comparison to diesel. Results indicate that blends of 25% RBO show results closure to diesel, Thermal efficiency was lower for unheated Jatropha oil compared to heated Jatropha oil and diesel. CO2, CO and HC were higher for Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel. These emissions were found to be close to diesel for preheated Jatropha oil. The engine performance and emissions with biodiesel of Karanja and its blends were comparable to the performance with diesel fuel. The BTE was about 3 - 5% lower with Karanja biodiesel and its blends with respect to diesel. The oxides of nitrogen from Karanja biodiesel and its blends were higher than diesel fuel at all loads and emissions such as CO, smoke density and HC were reduced as compared to diesel.

Keywords:
 Biodiesel, diesel engine performance, emissions, Trans-esterification, Vegetable oil.


References:

1.       Graboski MS, Mc Cormick RL. Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines. Prog Energy Combust Sci 1998;24:125–64.
2.       Bhupendra Singh Chauhan et al “A study on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fuelled with Karanja biodiesel and its blends”; B.S. Chauhan et al. / Energy 56 (2013) 1e7.

3.       Deepak Agarwal et al “Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine”; D.
Agarwal, A.K. Agarwal / Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2314–2323.

4.       Chauhan BS, Kumar N, Cho HM. A study on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fueled with Jatropha biodiesel oil and its blends. Energy 2012;37(1):616-22.

5.       Sahoo PK, Das LM. Combustion analysis of Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine. Fuel 2009; 88(6):994e9.

6.       Agarwal AK, Rajamanoharan K. Experimental investigations of performance and emissions of Karanja oil and its blends in a single cylinder agricultural diesel engine. Applied Energy 2009; 86(1):106e12.

7.       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahua_oil

8.       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatropha

9.       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pongamia_oil

10.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiesel_production


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15.

Authors:

Karan Yadav, Vikash Gora, Mohan Jagadeesh Kumar Mandapati

Paper Title:

Numerical Simulation of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger with and Without Baffles

Abstract:  Numerical simulations were carried out to study the temperature variations across a small sized shell and tube heat exchanger with and without baffles. Heat exchanger with 12 copper tubes arranged in stagger grid was considered for the numerical analysis. Diameter of the shell was assumed to be 40 mm and length as 100 mm. The outer diameter of the tubes was assumed to be 5 mm and inner diameter as 3 mm. Two segmental baffles each of 40 mm included diameter and 3.3 mm thickness were considered. Inlet temperature for the shell fluid (hot water) is assumed to be 95°C and for tube fluid (cold water) as 30°C. Flow rate of shell and tube fluids are assumed to be 1.2 liters per min and 1.388 liters per min respectively. It was observed from the results that the temperature drop for the heat exchanger with segmental baffles is 8oC greater than the heat exchanger without baffles across the shell side. Similarly, the temperature rise for the heat exchanger with segmental baffles is 6oC greater than heat exchanger without baffles across the tube side. The velocity, pressure variations had also been presented.

Keywords:
Shell and tube heat exchanger, CFD, Segmental baffles.


References:

1.       Kadhim Zena K, Kassim Muna S., Abdul Hassan Adel Y., “CFD study for cross flow heat exchanger with integral finned tube”, IJSRP, vol. 6 (2016) 668-677.
2.       You, Chen, Xie, Luo, Jiao, Huang, “Numerical simulation and performance improvement for a small size shell and tube heat exchanger with trefoil hole baffles”, Applied thermal engineering 89 (2015), 220-228.

3.       Pal, Kumar, Joshi, Maheshwari, “CFD simulation of shell side flow in a shell and tube type heat exchanger with and without baffles”, Chemical engineering science 143 (2016) 314-340.

4.       Rehman Usman Ur, “Heat transfer optimization of shell and tube heat exchanger through CFD studies”, Master’s thesis in innovative and sustainable chemical engineering, 2011:09

5.       K. Maheshwari Devi, G.V. Nagamani, “Design and thermal analysis of shell and tube heat exchanger by using fluent tool”, IJMETMR, 2 (2015), 359-366.

6.       Singh D., Pal Narayan Das, “Designing and performance evaluation of shell and tube heat exchanger using ANSYS (CFD), IJSEAS, 2 (2016), 427-446.

7.       Bhutta, M., Hayat, N., Bashir, M., Khan A., Ahmed K., Khan S., “CFD applications in various heat exchangers design: A review”, Applied thermal engg. 32 (2012), 1-12.

8.       Kapale, U., Chand, S., “Modelling for shell side pressure drop for liquid flow in shell and tube heat exchanger”, Int. J. Heat Mass transf. 49 (2006), 601-610.

9.       Ozden, E., Tari, I., “Shell side CFD analysis of shell and tube heat exchanger”, Energy convers. Manag., 51 (2010) 1004-1014.

10.    Gaddis, E., Gnielinski, V., “Pressure drop on the shell side of shell and tube with segmental baffles”. Chem. Engg. Process, 36 (1997), 149-159.

11.    Kim, W., Aicher, T., “Experimental investigation of heat transfer in shell and tube heat exchanger without baffles”. Korean J. Chem. Engg. 14 (1997), 93-100.


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16.

Authors:

Shailendra Kumar, Yogesh Shrivastava, Bhagat Singh

Paper Title:

Prediction of Tool Chatter in Turning

Abstract: Tool chatter is an unstable regenerative phenomenon encountered frequently in turning operation. Identification and suppression of tool chatter improves the product quality and enhances tool life. Therefore, it becomes necessary to develop a suitable technique by the aid of which chatter can be identified and minimized. In this paper, simulation of tool chatter has been done considering a non-linear delay differential equation. Further, effect of various cutting parameters such as; depth of cut, feed rate and spindle speed on chatter have been studied. Moreover, chatter index (‘CI’) has been calculated to ascertain the severity of tool chatter.  Furthermore, regression analysis has been done to develop a mathematical model and explore the relationships between the cutting parameters and chatter severity. Hence, based on the Simulink model a new idea for identification and quantification of chatter has been proposed. Results conclude that developed model is very effective in prediction of chatter.

Keywords:
 wavelet, chatter, Simulink, regression analysis.


References:

1.        G. Quintana, J. Ciurana, “Chatter in machining process: A review”, International Journal of Machine Tool and Manufacture, vol. 51, 2011, pp. 363-376.
2.        M. Siddhpura, R. Paurobally, “A review of chatter vibration research in turning”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol. 61, 2012, pp.  27-47.

3.        F. Taylor, “On the art of cutting metals”, Transactions of ASME, vol. 28, 1907.

4.        G. S. Duncan, M. F. Tummond, & T. L. Schmitz, “ An investigation of the dynamic absorber effect in high-speed machining”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, vol. 45(4), 2005, pp. 497-507.

5.        B. S. Berger, I. Minis, J. Harley, M. Rokni and M. Papadopoulos, “Wavelet-based cutting state identification”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 213, 1998, pp. 813-827.

6.        N. H. Hanna and S. A. Tobias, “A theory of nonlinear regenerative chatter”, J. Eng. Industry, Vol. 96, 1974, pp. 247-255.

7.        S. Sastry, S. G. Kapoor and R. E. DeVor, “Floquet theory based approach for stability analysis of the variable speed face-milling process”, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, vol. 124, 2002, pp.10–7.

8.        T. Sata and T. Inamura, “Development of method to predict and prevent chattering in metal cutting”, Ann. CIRP, vol.  24:, 1975, pp. 309–314.

9.        C. M. Taylor, S. Turner and N. D Sims, “Chatter, process damping, and chip segmentation in turning: A signal processing approach”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 329, 2010, pp. 4922-4935.

10.     Z. Yao, D. Mei and Z. Chen, “On-line chatter detection and identification based on wavelet and support vector machine”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 210, 2010, pp. 713-719.

11.     L. Zhang, X. Wang and S. Liu, “Analysis of dynamic stability in a turning process based on a 2-DoFs model with overlap factor”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 26, 2012, pp. 1891-1899.


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17.

Authors:

Govind Singh Chauhan

Paper Title:

Swachh Bharat Movement: Ek kadam Swachhata Ki ore

Abstract: The “Swachh Bharat” movement is established to solve the sanitation problem in India, to solve the problem of waste management and make India a clean state, ensuring hygiene all across the nation. This missionary work for creating a clean India will be launched on October 2, 2014, the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi with the objective of completing the mission in 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of the father of the country. The aim of the mission is to cover all the rural and urban areas of the country to present this country as an ideal country before the world. The mission has targeted aims like eliminating the open defecation, converting insanitary toilets into pour flush toilets, eradicating manual scavenging, complete disposal and reuse of solid and liquid wastes, bringing behavioral changes to people and motivate health practices, spreading cleanliness Awareness among people, strengthening the cleanliness systems in the urban and rural areas as well as creating user friendly environment for all private sectors interested for investing in India for cleanliness maintenance.

Keywords:
  defecation, scavenging, hygiene, eradicating


References:

1.    www.cleanindia.org
2.    www.pmindia.gov.in/in

3.    Kotter, Philip(2013), marketing management

4.    Chatterji, madhumita, corporate

5.    www.narendramodi.in

6.    Jadhav,H.V. Advanced Environmental Management


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18.

Authors:

Aabida Usta, Javed Khan Bhutto 

Paper Title:

Tracking and Utilization of Maximum Energy with Fuzzy Logic Controller in Solar Power System

Abstract:  In view of the increasing crunch of shortage of energy demands, more attention is being concentrated on the renewable energy technologies. Compared to the traditional energy sources, the photovoltaic (PV) system which converts sunlight directly into electric power, releases no pollutants to environment, are going to be a major future energy source in tropical areas. Unlimited renewable energy is available in our country. Problem is how to utilize the renewable energy on economical basis. Day to day demand of energy is increasing rapidly in urban as well as rural areas of India. However, major disadvantages in using PV energy still exist including high installation cost. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped but it is still high compared to Organic solar cell (OSC) which is new technologies. OSC is very inexpensive compared to PV so that the economical condition of villagers can be enhanced. In this research paper an attempt has been made and improves the efficiency to design a software program to survey the solar energy and its utilization for the power generation.   A software skill program has been developed through which the solar radiation can be estimated in different areas and the total power can be calculated, which can be generated through the solar energy. A scheme has been proposed for tracking maximum energy has implemented in this paper.

Keywords:
 Photovoltaic (PV), Organic solar cell(OSC),fuzzy controllers


References:

1.    Shakil Ahamed Khan, Md. Ismail Hossain, “Design and Implementation of Microcontroller Based Fuzzy Logic Control for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Photovoltaic System”, 6th International Conference on Electrical and Conmputer  Engineering (ICECE), pp. 322-325, 2010.
2.    Petru Lucian Milea, Adrian Zafiu, Marin Dragulinescu, Orest OLTU, “MPP Tracking Method for PV Systems, Based on a Three Points Prediction Algorithm”, U.P.B. Science. Bull, Series C, Vol. 72, Issue 4, 2010.

3.    Ms. ArjyadharaPradhan , Dr S.M Ali , Mr. SthitaPrajna Mishra Mr. Subhranga Mishra, “Design of Solar Charge Controller by the use of MPPT Tracking System”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Vol. 1, Issue 4, October 2012.

4.    Nader Barsoum, “Implementation of Dual-   axisSolar Tracking Pilot Project”, Global Journal of Technology and Optimization Vol. 2, 2011.

5.    Ahmed Rhif, “A Sliding Mode Control for a Sensorless Tracker: Application on a Photovoltaic System”, International Journal of Control Theory and Computer Modelling (IJCTCM), Vol.2, No.2, March 2012.

6.    AlinArgeseanu, Ewen Ritchie, KrisztinaLeban, “New Low Cost Structure for Dual Axis Mount Solar Tracking System Using Adaptive Solar Sensor”, 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment, OPTIM, 2010.

7.    Gustavo Ozuna, Carlos Anaya, Diana Figueroa and Nun Pitalua, “Solar Tracker of Two Degrees of Freedom for Photovoltaic Solar Cell Using Fuzzy Logic”, World Congress on Engineering, WCE, London, U. K., Vol. 2, July 6-8, 2011.

8.    Tiberiu Tudorache and LiviuKreindler,“Design of a Solar Tracker System for PV Power Plants”, ActaPolytechnicaHungarica, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2010.

9.    F. Huang, D. Tien, James Or, “A Microcontroller Based Automatic Sun Tracker Combined with a New Solar Energy Conversion Unit”, IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth, Vol.1, pp. 488-492, 1-3 December, 1998.


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19.

Authors:

Bajarang Lal Agrawal, Mohammad Imran Qureshi

Paper Title:

Smart Grid Technology - Recent Advancement in Power System

Abstract:   A smart grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using two-way digital technology to control appliances at consumers' homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. It is capable of assessing its health in real-time, predicting its behavior, anticipatory behavior, adaptation to new environments, handling distributed resources, stochastic demand, and optimal response to the smart appliances. It is a tool that allows electric utilities to focus on evolving true business drivers by enabling cost containment, end-to-end power delivery control, and a more secure infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance of Smart Grid Deployment in India. The paper throws the light on various problems and challenges related to electricity grids that are faced in India and the solution to manage those problems by adopting the vision of a “Smart Grid.” The essence of this vision is “a fully-automated power delivery network that can ensure a two-way flow of electricity and information between the power grids and appliances and all points in between”. The paper also provides the overview on the three key technological components of Smart Grid that includes:  Distribution Automation (DA), Personal Energy Management (PEM), Advanced Metering Infrastructure(AMI) Focusing in on the role of the above three key components of Smart Grid , this paper lays out the Introduction on the factors that are pulling and pushing the utilities to change the way they operate in order to improve the current services. The flow then involves the explanation on Moving beyond AMI to Adopt Smart Grid Vision which includes the overview of all the key components of Smart Grid and thus focusing on the requirement to make the electricity grid “Smart” and revolutionizing the electric power networks. The further explanation is on the Ongoing and Future Projects on Smart grid in India. Finally, the paper concludes with the suggestions and proposals for the Regional Approach to Smart Grid Development that explains the demand for Smart Grid capability within India which is quite diverse in nature ranging from reflecting the sophisticated nature of electricity demand in developed nations such as Japan and South Korea, to the need for first deployment of grids and massive grid upgrades in the developing

Keywords:
Photovoltaic (PV), Organic solar cell (OSC), fuzzy controllers


References:

1.       zivancovicr. And carins c.,1996. Implementation of PMU technology an overview.                                                  
2.       Atos scientific community, smart homes and buildings ,atos white  white paper,2011.   

3.       marland p., schike H.,electricity smart metering business drivers, atos  paper,2010.

4.       smart grid sc louds , communications, opens ource and automation edited  by david bakken published by CRC press

5.       “The smart grid: enabling  energy efficiency and demand  response”by clark w.gellings, P.E. published by the Fairmont press, Inc(http://www.fairmontpress.com)

6.       smart grid : the future of the electric power system an introduction  to the smart grid.

7.       National  institute of standards and  technology. NIST special  publication.

8.       IEEE transactions on smart grid, smart fault series/8089 “ smart grid opportunities, Developments and  trends location  for smart grids mladen  kezunovic ,fellow, IEEE.

9.       Green energy and technology http://www.springer.com/

10.    Areva, alston, network projection and application guide, 2011 edition.


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20.

Authors:

Komal Bansal, Madhvi Bagga

Paper Title:

Nano Technique used for Anti AIDS

Abstract: Nano technique is an attractive drug-free approach for anti AIDS between the virus and metal nano particles. In this paper, the theoretical application of nano devices is used in the treatment of AIDS. By the use of some drugs of specific composition which are given to the patients are able to increase the life of patient life time to a few years only. To make the treatment more specific the new technology called Nano technique is used which has bio-medical application for the treatment of AIDS. It can easily monitor the cell inside the body. In 2014 about 36.9 million people were living with HIV. It resulted in 1.2 million deaths. Nanorobots  have nano sensors to check the AIDS infected WBCs and convert them back into original WBCs. It operates at specific sites and has no side effects. So the patient can defend himself from AIDS. The AIDS patients have constant immune system.

Keywords:
 Nanoparticles, HIV, nanosensors, etc.


References:

1.    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV/AIDS
2.    Shrruthi Harrsha, V.. Venkatteswarra Rao, “anti HIV using nanorobots”, (IJRDE)  Vol.1: Issue.1, June-July 2012 pp- 38-44.

3.    Dr. Ankita Joshi, Akash Pardeshi “A n ti H I V Using Nanorobots”  IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) e-ISSN: 2278-1676,p-ISSN: 2320-3331, Volume 7, Issue 6 (Sep. - Oct. 2013), PP 84-90.

4.    K.Eric Drexler, “Nanotechnology summary”.

5.    Molecular Biology of the cell by Bruce Alerts & K.Eric drexler , “Nanotechnology summary”.

6.    www. nanoteach.com.

7.    Bodian D & Howe H A (1941). The rate of progression of virus in nerves. Arthur Guyton , “Textbook of medical physiology”.

8.    www. nanoteach.com.


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21.

Authors:

Narayan Singh Solanki, Durga Shanker Menaria

Paper Title:

Power Quality Improvement of Single Phase Solar Photovoltaic System

Abstract:  Solar energy has become one of the most popular renewable energies due to the drastic increase of global energy demand and rapid depletion of conventional fossil fuel resources. Advanced power electronic systems are required to utilize and develop renewable energy sources. In the solar system, the greater the power source using the power electronic converters are one of the most important tasks. My paper explored and expanded beyond the scope of the project aforementioned mounting solar array, the array tracking and DC-AC inversion system with the level of solar cell technologies to improve the efficiency of solar photovoltaic power systems for different avenues for research.

Keywords:
Photovoltaic (PV), DC-AC inversion,


References:

1.       Bidyadhar subudhi, Raseswari Pradhan, “A Comparative study on maximum power point tracking techniques for photovoltaic systems,”IEEE transactions on sustainable energy., vol.4, no.1,pp. 89-98,January2013.
2.       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell

3.       Phang, J. C. H., D. S. H. Chan, and J. R. Phillips. "Accurate analytical method for the extraction of solar cell model parameters," Electronics Letters, vol.20, no.10,
1984, pp. 406-408.

4.       Kawamura, Hajime, et al. "Simulation of I & V characteristics of a pv module with shaded pv cells." Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol.75, no.3, 2003, pp. 613-621.

5.       http://upload.wikipedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Solar_Spectrum.png:

6.       http://gisatnrel.nrel.gov/PVWatts_Viewer/index.html

7.       http://www.smartgrid.gov/the_smart_grid

8.       E. Ahmad, H. M. S. Hussein, and H. H. El-Ghetany, “Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of pv modules,” Renewable Energy, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1159–
1168, 2003.

9.       http://www.ieee-pes.org/

10.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_mass_(solar_energy)

11.    http://www.eere.energy.gov/basics/renewable_energy/pv_cells.html

12.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cost_of_electricity_by_source#Photovoltaics:

13.    www.pwrx.com

14.    http://arraytechinc.com

15.    S. Rahman, M. Khallat, and B. Chowdhury, “A discussion on the diversity in the applications of photo-voltaic system,” IEEE Trans., Energy Conversion,, vol. 3, pp. 738–746, Dec. 1988.

16.    POWEREX 600V/600A Dual IGBT Module Datasheets-http://www.pwrx.com/pwrx/docs/cm600dy_12nf.pdf

17.    Prabha K,Malathi T,Muruganandam M, “Power quality improvement in single phase grid connected nonlinear loads”, vol.4, no.3, pp. 1269-1276, 2015.

18.    Worden, James and Zuercher, Michael M.; How Inverters Work, Solar Pro, issue 2.3 April/May 2009 http://solarprofessional.com/articles/products equipment/inverters/how-inverters-work?v=disable_pagination.

19.    N. C. Sahoo, I. Elamvazuthi, Nursyarizal Mohd Nor, P. Sebastian and B. P. Lim,’’ PV Panel Modelling using Simscape,”pp.10-14,2011.

20.    N. Femia, G. petrone, V. Spagnuolo, M. Vitelli, ‘Optimization of Perturb and Observe maximum Power Point Tracking Method’, IEEE Trans. on Power Electron., Vol. 20, No. 4, July 2005

21.    Y. Zhihao, W. Xiaobo: ‘Compensation loop design of a photovoltaic system based on constant voltage MPPT’. Power and Energy Engineering Conf., APPEEC 2009, Asia-Pacific, pp. 1- 4, March 2009.

22.    http://www.solarcell.net.in/thin-film-solar-cells/


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22.

Authors:

Namra Joshi, Jaya Sharma

Paper Title:

Application of WAMS in Power System Monitoring & Control

Abstract: This paper goes for portraying the current patterns in wide area measurement system (WAMS) and their applications in power system monitoring, protection and control. Outline of WAMS engineering, PMU execution, and distinctive techniques of PMU arrangement and points of interest of WAMS over conventional SCADA framework is depicted herein.

Keywords:
 Phasor Measurement Unit,WAMS, SCADA


References:

1.    M.Zima, M.Larsson, P.Korba, C.Rehtanz and G.Anderson, “Design aspects for wide-area monitoring and control systems,” Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 93, No.5, May 2005.
2.    Novosel, V. Madani, B. Bhargava, K.Vu and J. Cole, “Dawn of the grid synchronization,” IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, pp 49-60, Jan/Feb. 2008.

3.    J. Bertsch, C. Carnal, D. Karlsson, J. Mcdaniel and K. VU, “Wide-area protection and power system utilization,” Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 93, no.5, pp. 997-1003, May 2005.

4.    M. Begovic, D. Novosel, D. Karlsson, C. Henville, and G. Michel, “Wide-area protection and emergency control,” Proc. of the IEEE, vol.93, no. 5,pp. 876-891, May 2005.

5.    IEEE Power System Relaying Committee, “Wide area

6.    protection and emergency controls,” Tech. Rep., 2002, [Online]. Available:

7.    G. Phadke, "Synchronized Phasor measurement in power systems, "IEEE Computer Applications in Power, April 1993, pp. 10-15

8.    Reeve A. “SCADA on the Internet”, Control & Instrumentation, Vol.30, No.5, May 1998, pp.33-4.

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Authors:

Jyothi Singh, Priyanka Dubey, Kshitij Pawar, Patil V.P.

Paper Title:

Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Enhanced Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Network Used For Underwater Applications

Abstract: Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has various applications in research, industries, military monitoring environmental monitoring, disaster prevention. It comprises of various types of sensors capable of sensing different parameters and is placed both at the surface and sea-bed of water. It performs task over a specified area. Due to the emerging technologies the need for underwater communication has became an essential factor. It has several challenges which have put forth in this paper. Major challenge of limitation in energy consumption of battery as each node act as router. Through this paper we have studied performance comparative characteristic of some protocols such as EADARAT, LEACH, and ERP-2RP and based on the performance metrics we have compared these three routing protocols mainly for energy efficiency.

Keywords:
Energy efficiency, end to end delay, underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN), routing protocol.


References:

1.       John Heidemann, Yuan Li, Affan Syed, Jack Wills, Wei Ye, “Underwater Sensor Networking: Research Challenges and Potential Applications”, USC/ISI Technical Report ISI-TR-2005-603.
2.       Thumpi.R, Manjula R.B, SunilkumarS.Manvi, “A Survey on Routing Protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks”, International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE) ISSN: 22773878, Volume-2, Issue-2, May 2013-170.

3.       A.Gkikopouli, G. Nikolakopoulos and S. Manesis, “A Survey on Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications”, 20th Mediterranean Conference on Control & Automation (MED) Barcelona.

4.       Ian F. Akyildiz, Dario Pompili, TommasoMelodia, “Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges”, Ad Hoc Networks 3 (2005) 257–279, 21 January 2005.

5.       Dario Pompili, TommasoMelodia, Ian F. Akyildiz, “Three-dimensional and two-dimensional deployment analysis for underwater acoustic sensor networks”, Ad Hoc Networks 7 (2009) 778–790, 23 July 2008.

6.       “MohsinMurad, Adil A. Sheikh, Muhammad AsifManzoor, EmadFelemban, and SaadQaisar, „A Survey on Current Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network
Applications‟, International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 1, February 2015, pp.51-56

7.       K. Y. Foo, P. R. Atkins, T. Collins, C. Morley, and J. Davies, “A routing and channel-access approach for an ad hoc underwater acoustic network,” in Proc. OCEANS - MTTS/IEEE TECHNO-OCEAN ,Nov. 2004, vol. 2, pp. 789–795.

8.       M. Sozer, M. Stojanovic, and J. G. Proakis, “Underwater acoustic networks,” IEEE J. Oceanic Engr. , vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 72–83, 2000.

9.       G. G. Xie and J. H. Gibson, “A network layer protocol for UANs to address propagation delay induced performance limitations,” in Proc. IEEE/MTS OCEANS, 2001, vol. 4, pp. 2087–2094.

10.    J. Kong, X. Hong, Y. Yi, J. S. Park, J. Liu, and M. Gerla, “A secure ad-hoc routing approach using localized self-healing communities,” in Proc. ACM MOBIHOC , 2005, pp. 254–265.

11.    U. Lee, J. Kong, M. Gerla, J. S. Park and E. Magistretti, “Time-critical underwater sensor diffusion with no proactive exchanges and neglibible reactive floods,” Elsevier Ad Hoc

12.    ”Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy with Deterministic Cluster-Head Selection”; M.J. Handy, M. Haas, D. Timmermann; 2002;

13.    Bhanu Kishore Kamapantula, “Muti-metric adaptive routing algorithm for underwater wireless sensor networks”, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi Corpus Christi, Texas, August 2011.

14.    K. Ovaliadis, N. Savage, V. Kanakaris, “Energy Efficiency in Underwater Sensor Networks: a Research Review”, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 3 (1) (2010) 151-156, 20 June 2010

15.    Abdul Wahid, Sungwon Lee, Dongkyun Kim, “An Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for UWSNs using Physical Distance and Residual Energy”, IEEE, 2011.

16.    Heungwoo Nam, SunshinAn, “Energy-efficient Routing Protocol in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks”, IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing, 2008.

17.    Networks, pp. 943–958, 2007.

18.    H. Nam and S. An, “Energy-efficient routing protocol in underwater acoustic sensor networks,” 2010.

19.    Hong L., Hong F., Guo Z., Li Z. ECS, “Efficient communication scheduling for underwater sensor networks” ,2011;11:2920–2938.

20.    Gao Yufeng, ZongRong, Xia Kai, Yu Jiang, “Research and Improvement of LEACH Algorithm Based on Power Communication”, 2013 International Conference on Mechatronic Sciences, Electric Engineering and Computer (MEC) Dec 20-22, 2013, Shenyang, China.

21.    David Houcque, Northwestern University, “Introduction to Matlab for engineering students”, version 1.2, August 2005.


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24.

Authors:

Umakant Bhaskar Gohatre, V. P. Patil

Paper Title:

Performance Evaluation of Clustering Based Routing Protocols for Improvement of Energy Efficiency In Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:  Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are autonomous networks of spatially distributed the sensor nodes which sensor node that are capable of wirelessly communicating with each other network. The different metrics, network lifetime and utility and energy consumption are key parameters that determine the performance. For maximizing network lifetime is a major objective for designing and deploying a wireless sensor network (WSN). The clustering sensor nodes are an effective topology control approach helping achieve this goal. In this paper, present a new method to prolong the network lifetime based on the Improved Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. This is an optimization method designed to select target nodes. Protocol takes into account both energy efficiency and transmission distance and relay nodes are used for the excessive power consumption of the cluster heads. The protocol results in better distributed sensors and a well-balanced clustering system enhancing the network’s lifetime,  protocol with comparative protocols by varying a number of parameters, e.g., the number of nodes, the network area size, and the position of the base station. The comparative results show that the any one protocol performs well against other comparative protocols in various stages.

Keywords:
Wirless Sensor Networks; Clustering; PSO; Energy Efficiency; NetworkLifetime; Hierarchical Data Aggregation using Compressive Sensing (HDACS);


References:

1.       X. Liu, “Atypical hierarchical routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: A review,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 5372– 5383, October 2015.
2.       S. Ehsan and B. Hamdaoui, “A survey on energy-efficient routing techniques with QoS assurances for wireless multimedia sensor networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 265–278, Second Quarter 2012.

3.       O. Younis, M. Krunz, and S. Ramasubramanian, “Node clustering in wireless sensor networks: recent developments and deployment challenges,” IEEE Network, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 20–25, May-June 2006.

4.       Y. Mo, B. Wang, W. Liu, and L. T. Yang, “A sink-oriented layered clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 639–650, Oct 2013.

5.       Q. Chen, S. S. Kanhere, and M. Hassan, “Analysis of per-node traffic load in multi-hop wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 958–967, February 2009.

6.       M. Chen, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, M. Hassan, and A. Alamri, “AIWAC: affective interaction through wearable computing and cloud technology,” IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 20–27, February 2015.

7.       Y. Zhang, M. Qiu, C.-W. Tsai, M. M. Hassan, and A. Alamri, “Health- CPS: Healthcare cyber-physical system assisted by cloud and big data,” IEEE System Journal, to appear 2015.

8.       De La Piedra, F. Benitez-Capistros, F. Dominguez, and A. Touhafi, “Wireless sensor networks for environmental research: A survey on limitations and challenges,” IEEE EUROCON, pp. 267–274, 2013.

9.       D. Zhang, G. Li, K. Zheng, X. Ming, and Z.-H. Pan, “An energy balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor for wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 766–773, February 2014.

10.    Wang, H. B. Lim, and D.  Ma,  “A coverage-aware clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks,” Computer Networks, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1599–1611, March 2012.

11.    Wang, “Coverage problems in sensor networks: A survey,” ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), vol. 43, no. 4, p. 32, Oct 2011.

12.    B. Singh and D. K. Lobiyal, “A novel energy-aware cluster head selection based on particle swarm optimization for wireless sensor  networks,” Human-Centric Computing and Information Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–18, June 2012.

13.    J. Jin, A. Sridharan, B. Krishnamachari, and M. Palaniswami, “Handling inelastic traffic in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1105–1115, September 2010.

14.    J. Aweya, “Technique for differential timing transfer over packet networks,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 325–336, February 2013.

15.    J.-d. TANG and M. CAI, “Energy-balancing routing algorithm based on LEACH protocol,” Computer Engineering, vol. 7, p. 031, 2013.

16.    W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “Energyefficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 33rd annual Hawaii international conference on System  sciences. IEEE, 2000, pp. 1–10.

17.    O. Younis and S. Fahmy, “HEED: a hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad hoc sensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 366–379, December 2004.

18.    H. Y. Kong et al., “Energy efficient cooperative LEACH protocol for wireless sensor networks,” Journal of Communications and Networks, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 358–365, October 2010.

19.    N. Gautam and J.-Y. Pyun, “Distance aware intelligent clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks,” Journal of Communications and Networks, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 122–129, April 2010.

20.    Manjeshwar, Q.-A. Zeng, and D. P. Agrawal, “An analytical model for information retrieval in wireless sensor networks using enhanced APTEEN protocol,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1290–1302, December 2002.

21.    S. D. Muruganathan, D. C. Ma, R. Bhasin, A. O. Fapojuwo et al., “A centralized energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. S8– S13, March 2005.

22.    K. Akkaya and M. Younis, “A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks,” Ad hoc networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 325–349, May 2005.

23.    X. Gu, J. Yu, D. Yu, G. Wang, and Y. Lv, “Ecdc: An energy and coverage-aware distributed clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks,” Computers & Electrical Engineering, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 384–398, February 2014.

24.    J. Yu, Y. Qi, G. Wang, and X. Gu, “A cluster-based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks with nonuniform node distribution,” AEU International Journal of Electronics and Communications, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 54–61, January 2012.

25.    J. Yu, Y. Qi, G. Wang, Q. Guo, and X. Gu, “An energy-aware distributed unequal clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 2011, no. 3, pp. 876–879, May 2011.

26.    Chamam and S. Pierre, “On the planning of wireless sensor networks: Energy-efficient clustering under the joint routing and coverage constraint,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1077–1086, August 2009.

27.    Ferreira, L.N., Pinto, A.R., Zhao, L.: ‘QK-means: a clustering technique based on community detection and K-means for deployment of cluster head nodes’. Proc. of IEEE Int. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks (IJCNN), June 2012, pp. 1–7

28.    Sasikumar, P., Khara, S.: ‘K-means clustering in wireless sensor networks’. Proc. of IEEE Fourth Int. Conf. of Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN), November 2012, pp. 140–144

29.    Hansen, P., Ngai, E., Cheung, B.K., et al.: ‘Analysis of global K-means, an incremental heuristic for minimum sum-of-squares clustering’, J. Classif., 2005, 22, (2), pp. 287–310

30.    Napoleon, D., Ganga Lakshmi, P.: ‘An enhanced K-means algorithm to improve the efficiency using normal distribution data points’, Int. J. Comput. Sci. Eng., 2010, 2, (7), pp. 2409–2413

31.    Jain, A.K.: ‘Data clustering: 50 years beyond K-means’, Pattern Recognit. Lett., 2010, 31, (8), pp. 651–666

32.    De, D., Ray, A., Mukherjee, S., et al.: ‘Performance analysis of different tree structures in heterogeneous wireless sensor network’, IETE J. Res., 2016, pp. 1–9

33.    Ray, A., De, D.: ‘An energy efficient sensor movement approach using multi-parameter reverse glowworm swarm optimization algorithm in mobile wireless sensor
network’, Simul. Modelling Pract. Theory, 2016, 62, pp. 117 136

34.    Ray, A., De, D.: ‘Energy efficient clustering hierarchy protocol for wireless sensor network’. Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communication and Industrial Application (ICCIA), December 2011, pp. 1–4

35.    Ray, A., De, D.: ‘Energy efficient cluster head selection in wireless sensor network’. Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Information Technology (RAIT)-2012, ISM, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, March 2012, pp. 306 311

36.    Ray, A., De, D.: ‘Energy efficient clustering algorithm for multi-hop green wireless sensor network using gateway node’, Adv. Sci. Eng. Med., 2013, 5, (11), pp.
1199–1204

37.    Ray, A., De, D.: ‘Level wise initial energy assignment in wireless sensor network for better network lifetime’, Proc. Adv. Comput. Netw. Inf., 2014, 2, pp. 67 74

38.    Guo, P., Jiang, T., Zhang, K., et al.: ‘Clustering algorithm in initialization of multi-hop wireless sensor networks’, IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun., 2009, 8, (12), pp. 5713–5717


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25.

Authors:

Venkat P. Patil, Umakant Bhaskar Gohatre

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis of Energy Efficient Depth Based Routing Protocols Used In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract: The unique features of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) motivated the research community to explore different aspects of these networks. Sensor nodes have energy constraint because replacing the batteries of sensor nodes is an expensive and difficult task in aqueous environment. Routing is one of the most important and challenging function in UWSNs, for energy efficient data communication. Providing solutions for interference-free communication are also essential. In this paper, we review different routing for energy-efficient and interference-aware routing protocols and evaluate the performance of some selected depth based protocols used for UWSN like DBR ,REEP, EEIRA, EEORS named as   Depth-Based Routing Protocol (DBR), Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol Energy Efficient Interference And Route Aware, Energy Efficient Optimal Relay Selection Protocol,  metric used for DBR is the depth of the sensor node as forwarding metric for sending the data to the Base station. The data from source to destination is forwarded in multi hop fashion. Sender node includes its depth information in the data packet and broadcast to the nodes within its   range. REEP uses multi sink architecture, in which more than one sink node is deployed at sea surface for collecting data. Several nodes are placed at bottom of ocean whereas the remaining are randomly deployed within ocean. In EEORS, Sensor nodes are randomly deployed in a three dimensional underwater network and is placed into three zones based on depth. The EEIRA protocol combines the direct and relay forwarding mechanisms while transmitting the packets from source node to destination node. The relaying process depends on the process of selection of the best relay from a set of relay nodes. This paper evaluates the performance   of these protocol schemes and is validated through simulation and the results demonstrate better performance in terms of improved energy efficiency, maximized throughput and minimizing end to end delay while transmitting the data.

Keywords:
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks, DBR, REEP, EEIRA, EEORS Energy, Efficiency.


References
:
1.       Felemban, Emad, et al. “Underwater sensor network applications: A comprehensive survey.” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks (2015): 1-14.
2.       Lurton and Xavier. An Introduction to Underwater Acoustics: Principles and Applications. Chichester: Springer, 2002.

3.       Sozer E M, StojanovicM. Underwater Acoustic Networks  IEEE Journal of oceanic engineering.2000 ,25(1):72 -83P

4.       Rice J,Creber B.Evolution of Sea web Underwater Acoustic Networking OCEANS 2000 MTSfIEEE Conference and Exhibition.2000, 3(11-14):2007- 017P

5.       Yan, Hai, Zhijie Jerry Shi, and Jun-Hong Cui. ”DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor networks.” In NETWORKING 2008 Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet, pp. 72-86. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008.

6.       Tan, Do Duy, Tung Thanh Le, and Dong-Seong Kim. ”Distributed cooperative transmission for underwater acoustic sensor networks.” In Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), 2013 IEEE, pp. 205-210. IEEE, 2013.

7.       Zhou, Pan, Wei Liu, and Kanru Xu. ”An energy-efficient multihop cooperative transmission protocol design for sensor networks.” In Local Computer Networks, 2007. LCN 2007. 32nd IEEE Conference on, pp. 220-222. IEEE, 2007.

8.       Yan, Hai, Zhijie Jerry Shi, and Jun-Hong Cui. ”DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor networks.” NETWORKING 2008 Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. 72-86.

9.       Wahid, Abdul, et al. ”Eedbr: Energy-efficient depth-based routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks.” Advanced Computer Science and Information Technology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. 223-234.

10.    Shah, Mehreen, et al. ”Interference Aware Inverse EEDBR Protocol for Underwater WSNs.” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2015 International. IEEE, 2015.

11.    U. Shakeel, N. Javaid, M. Ejaz, S. Zarar, T. Hafeez and Muhammad, ”Improved Interference Aware EEDBR Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks,” 2015 10th International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), Krakow, 2015, pp. 232-239. doi: 10.1109/BWCCA.2015.92

12.    Javaid, Nadeem, et al. ”Iamctd: Improved adaptive mobility of courier nodes in threshold-optimized dbr protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks.”International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 2014 (2014): 1.

13.    Nasir, Hina, et al. ”CoDBR: Cooperative Depth Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.” Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), 2014 Ninth International Conference on. IEEE, 2014.

14.    J. Jornet, M. Stojanovic, and M. Zorzi, Focused beam routing protocol for underwater acoustic networks, in Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Underwater Networks (WUWNet 08), pp. 7581, September 2008.

15.    Cao, Jiabao, Jinfeng Dou, and Shunle Dong. ”Balance transmission mechanism in underwater acoustic sensor networks.” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 2015 (2015): 2.

16.    Zhou, Pan, Wei Liu, and Kanru Xu. An energy-efficient multihopcooperative transmission protocol design for sensor networks. Local Computer Networks, 2007. LCN 2007. 32nd IEEE Conference on. IEEE, 2007.

17.    Wahid, Abdul, Sungwon Lee, and Dongkyun Kim. ”An energy-efficient routing protocol for UWSNs using physical distance and residual energy.” OCEANS, 2011 IEEE-Spain. IEEE, 2011.

18.    Luo, Yu, et al. ”Effective relay selection for underwater cooperative acoustic networks.” Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on. IEEE, 2013.

19.    Li, Zonglin, Nianmin Yao, and Qin Gao. ”Relative distance based forwarding protocol for underwater wireless networks.” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 2014 (2014).

20.    Tan, Do Duy, Tung Thanh Le, and Dong-SeongKim.Distributedcooperative transmission for underwater acoustic sensor networks. Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), 2013 IEEE. IEEE, 2013.

21.    Yan H, Shi ZJ, Cui JH. DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor networks. In NETWORKING 2008 Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet 2008 Jan 1 (pp. 72-86).Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

22.    Wahid, Abdul, et al. “Eedbr: Energy-efficient depth-based routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks.” Advanced Computer Science and Information Technology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. 223-234.

23.    EEIRA: An Energy Efficient Interference and Route Aware Protocol for Underwater WSNsAnwar Khan1, Nadeem Javaid2,, Hasan Mahmood3, Sangeen2, Zahoor Ali Khan4,5, Umar Qasim6 2016 IEEE 10th International Conference on Complex, Intelligent, and Software Intensive Systems

24.    EEORS: Energy Efficient Optimal Relay Selection Protocol for Underwater WSNs Anwar Khan1, Mudassir Ejaz2, Nadeem Javaid2,*, Muhammad Qaisar Azeemi1, Umar Qasim3, Zahoor Ali Khan4,5 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems

25.    Reliable and Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (REEP) for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) Ziaur Rahman, Fazirulhisyam Hashim, Mohamed Othman†, Mohd Fadlee A. Rasid 2015 IEEE 12th Malaysia International Conference on Communications (MICC), Kuching, Malaysia.


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26.

Authors:

Neha Solanki

Paper Title:

A Survey on Invisible Watermarking using Discrete Wavelet Transform

Abstract:  In contemporary world fame of digital video based mostly applications are among the necessity for copyright protection so as to avoid criminal repeating and distribution of digital data. Digital representation offers many advantages for processing and distributing video and other types of information. Copyright protection adds authentication redundant knowledge in original data like the possession details and owner-logo within the digital media while not compromising its sensory activity quality. If within the condition of any dispute, authentication data is extracted from watermarked media and might be utilized for an authoritative proof to validate the possession, because the methodology for copyright protection, digital video watermarking have recently developed as the vital art of interest and a lively space of analysis currently a days. This article discusses major contribution in field of invisible watermarking.

Keywords:
Base Image, Robustness, Steganography, Watermarking.


References:

1.       “Detection Of In-Situ Melanoma Using Symmetry Of Data And Color Spread Factor”, International Journal Of Engineering Research, ISSN: 2319-6890) (Online), 2347-5013(Print), Volume No.3 Issue No: Special 2, Pp: 64-67.
2.       Abraham, V. K. 2002. The International Conference on Commercial Floriculture, Summary Report, 11-12 August, Bangalore.

3.       J. Ning, L. Zhang, D. Zhang and C. Wu, “Robust Object Tracking using Joint Color-Texture Histogram,” International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, vol. 23, pp. 1245–1263, 2009.

4.       Nobuyuki Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Sys., Man., Cyber. vol. 9(1), pp 62–66, 1979.

5.       Greg Welch and Gary Bishop, “An Introduction to the Kalman Filter,” ACM SIGGRAPH, pp 201-204, 2001.

6.       A.K. Jain, Fundamentals of digital image processing, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, pages 569, 1989.

7.       Gonzalez, Rafael C.; Richard E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, 2nd ed, pages 793.

8.       Anderson, Brian D. O., Moore, John, Optimal Filtering, New York. ISBN: 9780486439389, 1979.

9.       C. Johan Masreliez, R D Martin, “Robust Bayesian estimation for the linear model and robustifying the Kalman filter,” IEEE Trans. Automatic Control. vol. 22, pp 361-371, 1977.

10.    Kalman, R.E, “A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems,” Journal of Basic Engineering: vol. 82, pp 35–45,1960.

11.    Chui, K. Charles, Chen, Guanrong, “Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications,” Springer Series in Information Sciences. New York: Springer. vol. 17, pp. 229, 2009.

12.    Linda G. Shapiro and George C. Stockman, Computer Vision, New Jersey, Prentice- Hall, pp 279-325, 2001.

13.    Gregory F. Welch, “History: The Use of the Kalman Filter for Human Motion Tracking in Virtual Reality,” Presence, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, vol.18,pp 72–91, February 2009.

14.    Sin-Joo Lee and Sung –Hwan Jung, “A survey of watermarking techniques applied to multimedia”, Industrial Electronics, 2001. Proceedings. ISIE 2001. IEEE International Symposium on Vol 1.

15.    Lin and Chang, "New semi fragile image authentication watermarking techniques using random bias and non uniform quantization", Proc. SPIE 4675, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IV, 659 (April 29, 2002); doi:10.1117/12.465327.

16.    Nikos Komninos and Tassos Dimitriou, "Protecting Biometric Templates with Image Watermarking Techniques", Vol.4642, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

17.    Bhattacharya, s., chattopadhyay, T. and pal, A.,"A Survey on Different Video Watermarking Techniques and Comparative Analysis with Reference to H.264/AVC", Consumer Electronics, 2006. ISCE '06. 2006 IEEE Tenth International Symposium.

18.    Geoffrey B. Rhoads, “Tile-based digital watermarking techniques”,US09/408,886.

19.    Yuan Yuan, Huang, Decai and Duanyang Liu, "An Integer Wavelet Based Multiple Logo-watermarking Scheme", Computer and Computational Sciences, 2006. IMSCCS '06. First International Multi- Symposiums on (Volume: 2 ).

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27.

Authors:

Nisarg C Joshi

Paper Title:

Next Generation Mobile Communication

Abstract:  As a subscriber becomes more aware of the mobile phone technology. From generation 1G to 2.5G and from 3G to 5G this world of telecommunication has seen a number of improvements along with improved performance with every passing day. This fast revolution in mobile computing changes our day to day life that is way we work, interact, and learn etc. he search for new technology is always the main intention of the prime cell phone giants to out innovate their competitors. In addition, the main purpose of the fifth generation wireless networks is planned to design the best wireless world that is free from limitations and hindrance of the previous generations.5G technologies will change the way most high bandwidth users access their Mobile Radio Communication. This paper also focuses on all preceding generations of mobile communication along with fifth generation technology.

Keywords:
 Wireless Technologies, Interfuse Bandwidth Data Path, 5G.


References:

1.       Dr. Anwar M. Mousa, ―Prospective of Fifth Generation Mobile Communications‖ International Journal  of Next-Generation Networks (IJNGN) Vol.4, No.3, September 2012
2.       Sapana Singh & Pratap Singh, ―Key Concepts and Network Architecture for 5G Mobile Technology‖  International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)Volume 1 Issue 5 pp 165-170 August 2012

3.       T. Janevski, ―Traffic Analysis and Design of Wireless IP Networks‖, Artech House Inc., Boston, USA, 2003. 

4.       Imthiyaz Ali, ―5G the Nanocore” March 5, 2011

5.       ITU-T, Y.2173, ―Management of performance measurement for NGN”, September 2008.

6.       Chen, YP; Yang, YH (2007), ―A new 4G architecture providing multimode terminals always best  connected services,” IEEE Wireless Communications, Volume: 14 Issue: 2 pp. 36-41.

7.       Xichun Li, AbudullaGani, RosliSalleh, Omar Zakaria 2009,‖ The Future of Mobile Wireless  Communication Networks,”2009 International Conference on Communication Software and Networks

8.       3GPP TSG RAN TR 36.913 v8.0.0, Requirements for Further Advancements for E-UTRA  (LTEAdvanced). 

9.       Ermolov V. et al. ―Significance of Nanotechnology for future wireless devices and Communications”, The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on PIMRC’07.

10.    R.K.Jain, Risal Singh, ―Role of Nanotechnology in future wireless and communication systems”, National seminar proceeding, Academy of Business & Engineering Science Ghaziabad, pp-19-28, 1617th January 2009.

11.    Peter Mell and Timothy Grance, “The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing” US National Institute of  Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-145, September 2011.

12.    Engr. Muhammad Farooq, Engr. Muhammad Ishtiaq Ahmed, Engr. Usman M Al,“Future Generations of  Mobile Communication Networks” Academy of Contemporary Research Journal V II (I), 15-21, ISSN: 2305-865,  January 2013

13.    Theodore S. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications Principle and Practice,” published by Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. Ltd,. Second Edition, Chapter Two; URL:

14.    http://ytd2525.wordpress.com/category/all-ip-networks/

15.    http://www3.nd.edu/~mhaenggi/NET/wireless/4G/#3G%20Vs%204G%20

16.    http://www.techopedia.com/definition/9049/quality-of-service

17.    http://spectrum.ieee.org/telecom/wireless/millimeter-waves-may-be-the-future-of-5g-phones

18.    http://www.slideshare.net/noorec786/generations-of-network-1-g-2g-3g-4g-5g


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28.

Authors:

Manoj Saini, Jitendra Rajawat

Paper Title:

Analysis of Future Internet

Abstract: Due to emerging trends and innovation in data communication use of internet has been expanded. It is a big challenge to reducing bandwidth and secure and fast communication in present time. In various countries researchers are trying to build an architecture beyond the complexities and restrictions of TCP/IP protocol. The other major issues regarding future internet will be as content delivery, management and control frameworks, network delay, routing mechanisms, protocol compatibility etc. This paper focus on such type of issues by taking references of some projects and try to design an architecture regarding future internet with some pros and cons.

Keywords:
Internet architecture, Networking, PlanetLab, testbed


References:

1.          NSF Future Internet Architecture Project, accessed on Oct. 25, 2015.[Online].
2.          V. Jacobson, D. K. Smetters, J. D. Thornton, M. F. Plass, N. H. Briggs, and R. L. Braynard, ``Networking named content,'' in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Emerg. Netw. Exp. Technol. (CoNEXT), Rome, Italy, 2009, pp. 1-12.

3.          COAST: Content Aware Searching Retrieval and sTreaming, accessed on Nov. 9, 2015. [Online].

4.          T. Zahariadis, F. Junqueira, L. Celetto, E. Quacchio, S. Niccolini, and P. Plaza, ``Content aware searching, caching and streaming,'' in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Telecommun. Multimedia, Chania, Greece, 2010, pp. 263-265.
5.          D. Raychaudhuri, K. Nagaraja, and A. Venkataramani, ``MobilityFirst: A robust and trustworthy mobility-centric architecture for the future Internet,'' ACM SIGMOBILE Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 2013, 2012.
6.          Seskar, K. Nagaraja, S. Nelson, and D. Raychaudhuri, ``Mobility- First future Internet architecture project,'' in Proc. 7th Asian Int. Eng. Conf. (AINTEC), Bangkok, Thailand, 2011, pp. 1-3.

7.          Venkataramani, J. Kurose, D. Raychaudhuri, K. Nagaraja, M. Mao, and S. Banerjee, ``MobilityFirst: A mobility-centric and trustworthy Internet architecture,'' ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 74-80, 2014.

8.          MobilityFirst Future Internet Architecture Project Overview, accessed on Nov. 15, 2015. [Online].

9.          D. Han et al., ``XIA: Ef_cient support for evolvable internetworking,'' in Proc. NSDI, 2012, pp. 309-322.

10.       New Zealand IPv6 Task Force. FAQs, accessed on May 20, 2016. [Online].

11.       M. Leber. Global IPv6 Deployment Progress Report, accessed on Jun. 26, 2016. [Online]..

12.       Google. IPv6, accessed on Jun. 12, 2016. [Online]. [7] IPv4 Address Report, accessed on Jun. 26, 2016. [Online].

13.       Sinclair. (Nov. 4, 2013). Biggest Risks in IPv6 Security Today. Daya, ``Network security: History, importance, and future,'' Dept. Elect. Comput. Eng., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA, 2013.

14.       J. W. Han, F. D. Jahanian, “Topology aware overlay networks,” Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM, Vol 4, pp 2554-2565, March 13-17, 2005.

15.       WISEBED: Grant Agreement, Deliverable D1.1, 2.1 & 3.1: Design of the Hardware Infrastructure, Architecture of the Software Infrastructure & Design of Library of Algorithms, Seventh Framework Programme Theme 3, November 30, 2008, http://www.wisebed. eu/images/stories/deliverables/d1.1-d3.1.pdf

16.       L. Wood, W. Eddy, P. Holliday, “A Bundle of Problems,” IEEE Aerospace conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 2009.

17.       X. Xu, R. Jain, Routing Architecture for the Next Generation Internet (RANGI), Internet draft, March, 2009, http://tools.ietf.org/html/ draft-xu-rangi-00

18.       H. Yan, D. A. Maltz, T. S. Eugene Ng, et al, “Tesseract: A 4D Network Control Plane,” Proceedings of USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI ’07), April 2007.

19.       R. Yates, D. Raychaudhuri, S. Paul, et al, “Postcards from the Edge: A Cache-and-Forward Architecture for the Future Internet,” NSF NeTS FIND Initiative, http://www.nets-find.net/Funded/Postcards.php

20.       X. Yang, “An Internet Architecture for User- Controlled Routes,” NSF NeTS FIND Initiative, http://www.nets-find.net/Funded/ InternetArchitecture.php

21.       Z. Zhang, “Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and Delay tolerant Networks: Overview and Challenges,” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2006.

22.       J. Zien, “The Technology Behind Napster,” About, 2000,http://Internet.about.com/library/weekly/2000/aa05200b.htm


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29.

Authors:

Rimpy Jain, Manju Mandot, Reena Gupta

Paper Title:

Speckle Noise Removal of Ultrasonic Image using Calculated Work Region and Filters

Abstract: Reduction of noise from medical ultra sound images is a great challenge for research scientist in digital image processing. There one several approaches for noise reduction in image processing. Generally spackle noise is the major issue in ultrasonic images. This paper proposes different image processing filtering techniques to remove speckle noise from medical images that are captured via USG. Quantitative measurement of noise is done by using PSNR ratio and Mean Standard Error (MSE) value.

Keywords:
speckle noise, PSNR, sampling, enhancement, ultrasonic images


References:

1.       T. Joel, R. Sivakumar, “Despeckling of Ultrasound Medical Images: A survey”, “Journal of Image and Graphics”, Vol. 1, No. 3, September 2013
2.       SarodeM.V., Deshmukh P. R., “Reduction of Speckle Noise and Image Enhancement of Images Using Filtering Technique”, “International Journal of Advancements in Technology”, ISSN 0976-4860, Vol 2, No 1, pp 30-38, January 2011.

3.       S.Kalaivani Narayanan,R.S.D.Wahidabanu, “A View on Despeckling in Ultrasound Imaging”, “International Journal of Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition”, Vol. 2, No.3, September 2009

4.       Thangavel K., Manavalan R., Aroquiaraj L., “Removal of Speckle Noise from Ultrasound Medical Image based on Special Filters: Comarative study”, “ICGST-GVIP Journal”, Vol. 9, Issue:3, pp. 25-32, June 2009

5.       R. Gonzalez, R.Woods, S. Eddins, “Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB ®, ISBN 978-81-7758-898-9, Pearson Education, South Asia, 2009.

6.       Sharma S, Book on “Digital Image Processing”, ISBN: 978-93-5014-505-0, published by S.K. Kataria& Sons, New Delhi, Ch- 8, pp-139, Sep- 2013.

7.       https://www.mathworks.com/help/images/examples/deblurring-images- using-a-wiener-filter.html (accessed on 08 Dec 2016).

8.       http://angeljohnsy.blogspot.com/2014/08/lee-filter.html (accessed on 08 Dec 2016).

9.       https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_signal-to-noise_ratio, (accessed on 10 Dec 2016).

10.    http://www.fda.gov/Radiation-EmittingProducts/RadiationEmittingProductsandProcedures/MedicalImaging/ ucm115357.htm (accessed on 12 Dec 2016).


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30.

Authors:

Kailash Bishnoi, P P Gautam, Vinay Sharma

Paper Title:

Assessment of Flow to a Collector Pipe Placed below the Riverbed

Abstract:  Collector pipe is installed below riverbed to take advantage of riverbed filtration and to obtain safe and adequate drinking water. The location of collector pipe affects the quantity and quality of filtered water.  If the distance from riverbed is more, the quantity will be less but the quality will be better and vice versa. In this study, in order to estimate the yield, conformal mapping technique can be used to solve the flow problem under steady state condition.  For a given drawdown at the well caisson, the flow per unit length of collector pipe has been estimated for various depths of installation and diameters of the collector pipe. A collector pipe of 25 m length and 0.5m diameter placed at a height of 5m above the impervious base in a riverbed of 10m thick yields 40m3/day filtered water corresponding to 1m drawdown in well caisson, and 1.0 m/day hydraulic conductivity of riverbed material. For sandy silt soil riverbed material that has   hydraulic conductivity of 0.1 m/day, the yield would be 40m3/day. Therefore, in such medium, several parallel collector pipes are to be laid and to be connected to a well caisson to provide good quality and quantity of water. If hydraulic conductivity is 1m/day, a single pipe of 25m length can supply 160 m3 / day filtered water for a drawdown of 4m in well caisson.

Keywords:
collector pipe; stream bed; safe yield; aquifer; complex potential


References:

1.       Aravin, V.I., and Numerov, S.N. (1965). “Theory of fluid flow in undeformable porous media”, Israel Programme for Scientific Translation.
2.       Banerjee (2011).”Groundwater abstraction through river-bed collector well: a case study based on geophysical and hydrological investigation.”Springer-Verlag.  

3.       Byrd, P. F., and M.D. Friedman. (1954) “Handbook of Elliptic Integrals for Engineering’s and Physicists”, Springer-Verag, Berlin.

4.       Driscoll, F. G. (1987). (Edited) “Groundwater and wells.” Second Edition, Johnson Division, St. Paul, Minnesot.

5.       Hantush, M.S. and Papadopulos, I.S. (1962). “Flow of ground water to collector wells.” Journal of Hydraulics Engineering, ASCE, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 221-244.

6.       Hantush, M. S. (1964). “Well Hydraulics. Advance in Hydro science.” V. T. Chow, ed., Academic Press, New York, Vol. 1, 282-430.

7.       Harr, M. E. (1962).”groundwater and seepage”, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York

8.       Huisman L (1972) Groundwater recovery. The Macmillan Press Ltd., London Lee Sang II, L.

9.       Hunt, H. (1983). “Mathematical Analysis of Groundwater Resources.” Butterworth’s, Boston, 184-191.

10.    Hunt, H. (1985). “Design and Construction of Radial Collector Well.” Presented in Water Wells Design & Construction Course, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

11.    Kailash Bishnoi, Mitthan Lal Kansal & G. C. Mishra (2015): Flow to a collector pipe laid under a stream bed, ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering

12.    Lacey, G. (1929) “Stable Channels in alluvium. min. proc. inst.Ci.Eng. London, paper No 4736, Vol. 229.

13.    Mishra, G. C. and Kansal, M. L. (2005). “Radial collector well as an alternate source of water supply – a case study.” Journal of Indian Building Congress, vol. XII, no. 1.

14.    Muthukrishnavellaisamy. K. (2007) “A study on pollutant transport in a stream”. PhD thesis, Dept. of water resources and development, IIT Roorkee.

15.    Patel HM, Eldho TI, Rastogi AK (2010) “Simulation of radial collector well in shallow alluvial riverbed aquifer using analytic element method.”Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Eng 136(2):107.

16.    Rao, Gurunadha. (1999).”Modelling contamination of a drinking water supply well in the Sabarmati river bed aquifer”. IAHS publ. no. 259.

17.    Ray,C., Melin, G. and Linsky, R. B. (2002). “Riverbank Filtration: Improving Source Water Quality.” Kluwer Academic Publishers.

18.    Spirdonoff, S. V. (1964). “Design and Use of radial Collector Wells.” Journal of AWWA, Jun, pp. 689-698.

19.    Todd, D. K. (1959). “Ground water hydrology.” Wiley, New York, USA.

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31.

Authors:

Varun Shekhar, Kuldeep Kumar

Paper Title:

Design and Process Planning of Micro Gear Manufacturing

Abstract: Today a large no of microstructures are already employed as separate components or as constituents of large modules in a broad spectrum of production in medical technology, optics, biotech, mechatronics, fluidics, micro forming and tool constitution. Current research activities are directed towards the downscaling of manufacturing procedures or the formation of complex process chains for the manufacturing of the micro workpieces in this paper we are going to design a micro gears and a suitable manufacturing process for making of micro gears. We are also going to study in detail various processing parameters and control technology of manufacturing micro gear by LIGA process. We are also going to design the micro gears or gear train using CATIA software.

Keywords:
 LIGA, Microgear


References:

1.    Albers, N. Burkardt, J. Marz. Restriction in design of gear wheel components and drives of micro technology. Microsystem technologies 9(2003) 192-196 Springer-Verlag 2003.
2.    HEGADEKATTE, J. HILGERT, O. KRAFT, N. HUBER. MULTI TIME SCALE SIMULATIONS FOR WEAR PREDICTION IN MICROGEAR. JOURNAL HOMEPAGE:WWW.ELSEVIER.COM/LOCATE/WEAR.

3.    Mohammad Gad-El-Haq. (2001). The MEMS Handbook volume 2, Scaling laws (pp.274-305).CRC Press.

4.    Dale L. Hetherington, Jeffry J. Sniegowski. Surface-micromachined micromirror devices using chemical-mechanical polishing. Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1084 Albuquerque, NM 8715.

5.    James Allen. (2005). The MEMS Handbook. CRC Press.

6.    DR. P Bley. The Liga process for the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures. Microsystem technology programmed, Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre (KFK) Germany.

7.    Seong Ho Son Sung Cheol, Park, Wonsil Lee, Hong-Kee Lee. Manufacturing of microgear by electroforming of Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-W alloys. Journal homepage: www.science.direct.com.  

8.    Tai Ran Hsu (2002). MEMS and Microsystems: Design and manufacture. McGraw-Hill.     


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32.

Authors:

Bharat Ankur Dogra, T. K. Jindal

Paper Title:

Configuration Design of Pulse Detonation Combustor

Abstract:  Pulse Detonation technology which is a supersonic combustion technology, will take years to develop fully as pulse detonation engines. Pulse detonation engines (PDE) are the new area of interest of aero engine researchers, due to the high specific impulse, these engines have found a candidature for future aerospace applications. In this technology, rather than burning fuel at constant pressure, it is burnt at constant volume which causes generation of a shock wave with the help of some obstacles and maintain this shockwave to the exhaust. PDE is simple in construction and low in cost. It consists of combustor, Shchelkin spiral, ignition system, nozzle & cooling arrangements, which are discussed in the paper. Due to these features, these engines are a potential candidate for various applications. This research aims with the design of a new configuration of PDE for attaining the maximum thrust. Configuration design of PDE is dependent upon PDE performance parameters, understanding various integration challenges related to PDE system. Configuring PDE system includes optimization of performance parameters and PDE combustion chamber for maximum thrust. Configuring PDE tube also includes understanding the physics and chemistry of pulse tube, DDT (Deflagration to Detonation Transition) devices plus its phenomenon, fuel injection system, ignition system and PDE control system

Keywords: Deflagration, DDT, fuel-oxidizer, flash back arrestors, Ignition System, load sensors, PDE (Pulse Detonation Engine), pressure sensors, Shockwave, Shchelkin Spiral, solenoid valves.


References:

1.       PK Panicker, DR Wilson, FK Lu - AIAA Paper, 2006 - arc.aiaa.org, Operational issues affecting the practical implementation of pulsed detonation engines
2.       "Panicker, Philip Koshy, The development and testing of pulsed Detonation engine ground Demonstrators PhD Dissertations.

3.       Rafaela Bellini “Ideal cycle analysis of a regenerative Pulse Detonation Engine for power production” The University of Texas at Arlington

4.       Mechanics and thermodynamics of propulsion by Philip G. hill, Carl R. Peterson.

5.       Kailasanath, K. “Recent Developments in the Research on Pulse Detonation Engines,” AIAA Paper 2002-0470, AIAA 40th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, 14–17 Jan. 2002.

6.       E. D. Lynch and R. B. Edelmant, Analysis of The Pulse Detonation Wave Engine Developments in High-Speed Vehicle Propulsion Systems, 1996: 473-51.

7.       Wei Huang; Lin Ma; Mohamed Pourkashanian; Derek B. Ingham; Shi-bin Luo; Jun Liu; and Zhen-guo Wang, Flow-Field Analysis of a Typical Hydrogen-Fueled Dual-Mode Scramjet Combustor.

8.       T. R. A. Bussing, T. E. Bratkovich, J. B. Hinkey Jr., Practical Implementation Of Pulse Detonations Engines.

9.       Dr. T. K. Jindal, Pulse detonation engine – A next gen propulsion, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4083-4085 ISSN: 2249-6645.

10.    Dr. T. K. Jindal, Stress Analysis of Pulse Detonation Engine Tube, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4080-4082 ISSN: 2249-6645

11.    D. Mahaboob Valli, T.K. Jindal, Application of Taguchi Method for Optimization of Physical Parameters Affecting the Performance of Pulse Detonation Engine; Journal of Basic and Applied Engineering Research, Print ISSN: 2350-0077; Online ISSN: 2350-0255; Volume 1, Number 1; September, 2014 pp. 18-23 © Krishi Sanskriti Publications.

12.    D. Mahaboob Valli, Dr. T.K. Jindal, Thrust Measurement of Single Tube Valve less Pulse Detonation Engine, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 4, Issue3, March-2013 ISSN 2229-5518.

13.    Subhash Chander, Dr. TK Jindal, Integration Challenges in Design and Development of Pulse Detonation Test Rig, ISSN: 2278 – 8875, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Vol. 1, Issue 4, October 2012.

14.    Subhash Chander, Dr. TK Jindal, A study of possible technical aspects needed to be addressed in respect of system engineering of surface to air missile by application of pulse detonation engine, IJME, Volume 1, Spl. Issue 1 (2014) e-ISSN: 1694-2302 | p-ISSN: 1694-2418.

15.    R. Vutthivithayarak, E.M. Braun, and F.K. Lu., On thermodynamic cycles for detonation engines

16.    http://www.murexwelding.co.uk/gb/en/products/upload/Flash-Back-Arrestors.pdf

17.    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flashback_arrestor
18.    http://www.yshsp.com/upload/upload/20101108120720.jpg
19.    https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&u
act=8&ved=0ahUKEwjjjsnWroDOAhWMp48KHVohClcQjRwIBw&url=htt
p%3A%2F%2Fyuyao90.en.madeinchina.com%2Fproduct%2FzMCnHiYOlvWy%2FChina-Wet-Ignition-Coil-for-LucasType.html&psig=AFQjCNE31NX1lSbVrGVx5fSB3jTSwdPAoA&ust=1469046459838731

20.    http://assets.hemmings.com/story_image/42678-500-0.jpg?rev=1


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33.

Authors:

Jatinder Kapoor, Tajinder Singh

Paper Title:

To Study the Effect of Silica Based Yttrium Cerium Hybrid Sol-gel Coating on Hot Corrosion of Boiler Steel (MS 210)

Abstract: Hot corrosion is major problem in industrial machinery. It results in major losses in power generation sector. One of the prominent sector is Boiler tubes in fire tube boilers. Various salts like Sodium Sulphate, Sodium chloride and Vanadium Pentoxide contribute to hot corrosion in boiler tubes. To eradicate these problems various types of coatings are being studied and being introduced. Sol-gel technique is relatively new method of coating preparation and with time has proved to be a lot cheaper and reliable when compared to other coating techniques. Instead of using single element of coating, now combination of two or more is being introduced to overcome the limitations of a single element coating. Rare earth elements had also shown good corrosion resistance and they can also be incorporated in combination with other elements. In present research, hybrid sol-gel coating of silica based yttrium cerium was prepared and tested on mild steel MS 210 as mild steel is widely used as boiler tubes material. Bare and coated samples were subjected to cyclic oxidation with molten salt environment. SEM-EDS and X-Ray mapping were done on these specimens. These tests revealed that sol-gel coating is efficient in providing protective coat on specimen under hot corrosion conditions.

Keywords:
 Sol-gel, boiler tubes, SEM-EDS, X- ray mapping

References:

1.    Guglielmi, M.  and Carturan, G. (1988), “Precursors for sol-gel preparations”,Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol.100, pp: 16-30.
2.    Li. , Haibin,   Kaimingliang, Lefu mei, Shouren gu and Shuangxi wang (2001), “Corrosion protection of mild steel by zirconium sol-gel coatings”, journal of materials science letters, Vol-20, pp: 1081-1083.

3.    Yu, M., Liang, M., Liu, J.,  Li, S.,  B. Xueand, Zhao, H. (2015),“Effect of chelating agent acetyl acetone on corrosion protection properties of Silane-zirconium sol-gel coatings”, Applied Surface Science, Vol-15, pp: 276-282.

4.    Kaur, N.,  Kumar, M.,  K. Sanjeev,  , Deuk Young Kima, S. Kumar, M. Chavanc, Joshic, S.V.,  Singh, N, and Singh,   (2015),“Study of mechanical properties and high temperature oxidationbehavior of a novel cold-spray Ni-20Cr coating on boiler steel”, Applied Surface Science, Vol-328, pp:13-25.

5.    Chatha, S.,  Singh , Hajoor.,  Sidhu, T.,  and Singh, B., (2012),” High temperature hot corrosion behavior of Ni Cr and Cr3C2–NiCr coatings on T91 boiler steel in an aggressive environment at 750 °C”, Surface & Coatings Technology, Vol-206, pp: 3839–3850.

6.    Sebahattin Kirtay (2014),“Preparation of hybrid silica sol–gel coatings on mild steel surfaces and evaluation of their corrosion resistance”, Progress in Organic Coatings, Vol-40,pp: 335-343.

7.    T. P. Chou, C. Chandrasekaran, S. Limmer, C. Nguyen and G. Z. Cao (2002), “Organic-inorganic sol-gel coating for corrosion protection of stainless steel”, journal of materials science letters, Vol-21, pp: 251-255.  


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34.

Authors:

Kanwal Jeet Singh, Inderpreet Singh Ajuha, Jatinder Kapoor, Danish Kapoor

Paper Title:

A Study on the Tool Geometry and Stresses Induced in Tool in Ultrasonic Machining Process Applied for the Tough and Brittle Materials 

Abstract:  The objective of the present study is to investigate the tool geometry and stresses induced in tool in ultrasonic machining process applied for the tough and brittle materials.  Generally, the sonotrodes are made of metals that have high fatigue strengths and low acoustic losses. The most important aspect of sonotrode design is a sonotrode resonant frequency and the determination of the correct sonotrode resonant wavelength. Ultrasonic vibrations have been harnessed with considerable benefits for a variety of production applications, for example, ultrasonic cleaning, plastic welding, etc. and has proved to offer advantages in a number of other applications. These applications include the automotive, food preparation, medical, textile and material joining and mainly applications in manufacturing industries. Significant increasing in performance and qualitative improvements are achieved by using ultrasonic vibrations in machining technological processes.

Keywords:
Ultrasonic, Sonotrode, Wavelength, Brittle, Acoustic, Resonant


References:

1.       S.G. Amin, M.H.M. Ahmed, H.A.Youssef, “Computer-aided design of acoustic horns for ultrasonic using finite-element analysis,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 55. 1995, pp. 254–260.
2.       S. Amini, H. Soleimanimehr, M.J. Nategh, A. Abudollah, M.H. Sadeghi, “FEM analysis of ultrasonic-vibration-assisted turning and the vibratory tool,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 201, 2008, pp.43–47.

3.       V.I. Babitsky, A. Kalashnikov, N. Meadows, A. Wijesundara, “Ultrasonically assisted turning of aviation materials,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 132, 2003, pp. 157–167.

4.       R. Singh, J.S. Khamba, “Ultrasonic machining of titanium and its alloys: A review,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 173, 2006, pp. 125–135.

5.       K.H.W. Seah, Y.S. Wong, L.C. Lee, “Design of tool holders for ultrasonic machining using FEM,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 37, 1993, pp. 801
816.

6.       F. Wang, Z. Zhao, D. Zhang, Y. Wu, “Development of novel ultrasonic transducers for microelectronics packaging,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 209, 2009, pp.1291–1301.

7.       D. Kremer, S.M. Ghabrial, A. Moisan, “The state of the art of ultrasonic machining,”  Ann CIRP, vol. 30, 1981, pp.107–110.

8.       R. Gilmore, “Ultrasonic machining: a case study,” Journal of Material Processing & Technology, vol. 28, 1991, pp.139–148

9.       Z.J. Pei, P.M. Ferreira, “An experimental investigation of rotary ultrasonic face milling,” International Journal of Machine Tool & Manufacturing, vol. 39, 1999, pp.1327–1344

10.    Yadava, V.K. Jain, P.M. Dixit, “Thermal stresses due to electric discharge machining,” International Journal of Machine Tools Manufacturing, vol. 42(8), 2002, pp. 877–888.

11.    D. Prabhakar, P. M. Ferreira, M. Haselkorn, “An experimental investigation of material removal rates in rotary ultrasonic machining,” Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research of SME, vol.10,  1992, pp. 211–218.

12.    Y. Wu, T. Kondo, M. Kato, “A new center-less Grinding Technique Using a Surface Grinder,” Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 162-163, 2005, pp. 709-717.

13.    S. G. Amin, M. H. M. Ahmed, H. A. Youssef, “Computer-aided design of acoustic horns for ultrasonic machining using finite-element analysis,” Journal of Material Processing Technology,vol.254, 1995, pp.254-

14.    Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, “Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate interfaces (Translation Journals style),” IEEE Transl. J. Magn.Jpn., vol. 2, Aug. 1987, pp. 740–741 [Dig. 9th Annu. Conf. Magnetics Japan, 1982, p. 301].


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35.

Authors:

Monika H. Patel, Atul H. Patel

Paper Title:

Investigation on the Application of Solid Lubricants in Turning Operation

Abstract:  Machining of materials has received wide attention because increased use of various machining processes in industrial application. So it is required to improve the quality of machining by various means. Turning is one of the most fundamental processes of metal removal. The heat generated in the cutting zone during turning is critical in deciding the workpiece quality and tool life. To avoid the effects of heat generated during machining, cutting fluids are applied to provide proper lubrication and cooling. In this work experiments the effort is made to assess the applicability of solid lubricants in machining process. Experiments are performed on EN 31 high carbon alloy steel material with tungsten carbide insert tool in dry and wet and solid lubricants environment. The process performance is studied in terms of cutting temperature, cutting forces, tool wear, surface roughness and power consumption. Experiments are also performed with selecting various process parameters and solid lubricants mixed with SAE 40 base oil with different proportion. The experimental results revealed that to solid lubricants performs better as compare to dry and wet machining. The improvement in output parameters of process is observed in solid lubricant assisted machining.

Keywords:
 Turning, surface roughness, EN 31 high carbon alloy steel


References:

1.       A.E.Diniz and A.J. Oliveira, Optimizing the use of dry cutting in rough turning steel operations, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 44 (2004) 1061–1067
2.       A.G.F. Alabi, T.K. Ajiboye, and H.D. Olusegun “Investigating the cutting forces in heat treated medium carbon steel when turning on a lathe machine” Design and Technology, 2009, Vol.8

3.       A .S. Varadarajan, P.K.Philip, B.Ramamoorthy,“Investigations on hard turning with minimal cutting fluid application (HTMF) & its comparison with dry & wet turning.” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 42 (2002) 193–200.

4.       Gaurav Bartarya, S.K. Choudhary, “Effect of cutting parameters on cutting force & surface roughness during finish hard turning AISI 52100 grade steel.” Procedia CIRP 1 (2012) 651-656.

5.       J.M. Zhou, V. Bushlya, J.E. Stahl, “An investigation of surface damage in the high speed turning of Inconel 718 with use of whisker reinforced ceramic tools.” Journal of Materials Processing Technology 212 (2012) 372– 384.

6.       Kashiway,Investigation of chip-back temperature during machining depending on cutting parameters, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(10), 2013, 5733-5736

7.       K. Subramanyam International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(10), 2010, 5732-5735

8.       L B Abhang and M. Hameedullah,Experimental Investigation of Minimum Quantity Lubricants In Alloy Steel Turning, L. B. Abhang et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7), 2010, 3045-3053

9.       L. B. Abhang and M. Hameedullah “The Measurement of chip-tool interface Temperature in the Turning of steel”,International Journal of Computer Communication and Information System (IJCCIS)– Vol2. No1. ISSN: 0976–1349 July – Dec 2010

10.    L. B. Abhang and M. Hameedullah,” Power Prediction Model for Turning EN-31 Steel Using Response Surface Methodology”, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review 3 (1) (2010) 116-122

11.    Milton C. Shaw, Metal Cutting Principles, Oxford university -Second Edition

12.    L B Abhang and M. Hameedullah, Experimental Investigation of Minimum Quantity Lubricants In Alloy Steel Turning, L. B. Abhang et. al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(7), 2010, 3045-3053


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36.

Authors:

Neeraj Saini

Paper Title:

Stochastic Modeling of Steam Generating System of a Power Plant

Abstract: In today’s world of the automation, it is impossible to survive without reliable systems. Thus, all the working engineering systems are expected to remain operative with the maximum efficiency for the maximum duration i.e. reliable operation. In process plants to achieve the high availability and productivity, it is necessary that all systems/subsystems remain in upstate for a longer duration of time. However, these systems/subsystems are subjected to random failures due to destitute design, lack of operative skills and erroneous manufacturing techniques etc. causing heavy production losses. Each failure can be brought back to their operating states after repair or replacement in minimum possible down time. The plant working conditions and the repair strategies play an important role in maintaining the operating systems, operative for maximum duration i.e. optimal system availability. This can be accomplished only through performance evaluation and analysis of all the operating systems of the plant. The system performance can be quantified in terms of the availability if the operating system is modeled mathematically and analyzed in real working conditions. The availability analysis gives the probability for how long time the system being in operating condition. The basic aim of the present research work is to develop the availability models (under steady state conditions) and maintainability analysis to improve the performance of steam generating system of a Power plant concerned. The Markovian approach is used to find the optimum availability level, which is near to 90%.

Keywords:
Performance modeling, Markovian approach, performance evaluation, performance analysis, steam generating system.


References:

1.    Cafaro, G., Corsi, F. and Vacca, F. (1986), “Multi state Markov models and structural properties of the transition rate matrix”, IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vol. 35, pp.192-200.
2.    Cherry, D.H. (1978), “Availability analysis for chemical plants”, Chemical. Engineering Progress, Vol. 74, pp. 55-60.

3.    Khalil, J., Saad, S.M. and Gindy, N. (2009), “An integrated cost optimization maintenance model for industrial equipment”, Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 106-118.

4.    Liudong, X., Meshkat, A. and Wang, W. (2009), “Incorporating common-cause failures into the modular hierarchical systems analysis”, IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 10-19.

5.    Norman B. Fuqua (2003) “The applicability of Markov Analysis Methods to Reliability, Maintainability, and Safety”, START (a publication of the reliability analysis center), Vol. 10, NO. 2.

6.    Xu, H. and Hu, W. (2008), “Availability optimization of repairable system with preventive maintenance policy”, International Journal of System Science, Vol. 39 No. 6, pp. 655-664.

7.    Tsai, Y.T., Wang, K.S. and Tsai, L.C. (2003), “A study of availability-centered preventive maintenance for multi-component systems”, Journal of Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol. 84 No. 3, pp. 261-270.

8.    Jakiul Hassan , Premkumar Thodi , Faisal Khan , (2016) "Availability analysis of a LNG processing plant using the Markov process", Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, Vol. 22 Iss: 3, pp.302 – 320.

9.    Kumar, Girish, Vipul Jain, and O. P. Gandhi. "Steady-state availability analysis of repairable mechanical systems with opportunistic maintenance by using Semi-Markov process." International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management 5.4 (2014): 664-678.


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37.

Authors:

Pankaj Patidar, Nishant Vyas, Chetan Jaiswal

Paper Title:

Influence of Process Parameter of wire EDM on AL 6061T6

Abstract: The Present progressive manufacturing industries wire electrical discharge machine (WEDM) has become an important non- traditional machining process, based on spark eroding between the work piece and wire. The performance of the wire-cut EDM process, to a large extent, depends on the tool material, work piece material manufacturing method of the tool. It is very important to enhance the electrical process parameters to improve the process efficiency. In this research paper experimental investigation about controlling the electrical input process parameters, and empirical relationships between process parameters and optimization of process parameters in WEDM process. The analysis is using Taguchi L9 Method modeling of process parameters, and optimization of process parameters such as parameters pulse ON time, pulse OFF time and wire feed rate on wire EDM of aluminum part performance measures such as, cutting speed. Thus, we have optimized the cutting speed in minimal time balancing the required precision.

Keywords:
 Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM), Taguchi Method, Analysis of variance


References:

1.       Moultons D. B. (2011). Wire EDM “The Fundamentals”, EDM network, Sugar Grove, IL.
2.       Tilekar S., (2014). “Process Parameter Optimization of Wire EDM on Aluminum and Mild Steel by Using Taguchi Method”, International Conference on Advances in Manufacturing and Material Engineering, AMME, Pages 2577-2584.

3.       Manikandan.D, Gokul Raja S , Joel J  , Karthick S , Karthikeyan A S “Optimisation Machining Process Parameters in Wire Cut EDM ” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, ISSN (Print) : 2347-6710.

4.       Sivaraman B, Eswaramoorthy C, Shanmugham E.P “Optimal control parameters of machining in CNC Wire-Cut EDM for Titanium“ In Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, Issue 1, 2015

5.       CVS Parameswara Rao, M M M sarcar “evaluation of  optimal parameters for machining brass with wire cut EDM” journal of scientific & Industrial Research Vol.68 2009, pp32-35.

6.       Jameson E.C. (2001). EDM book, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Technology & Engineering.

7.       BiingHwa Yan, Hsien Chung Tsai, Fuang, “Examination Of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Of Al2O3p/6061Al Composites”. International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 45, 251–259.

8.       The Aluminum Association, Inc. from Aluminum Standards and Data 2000 and/or International Alloy Designations and Chemical Composition Limits for Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys (Revised 2001) .

9.       Danial Ghodsiyeh, Abolfazl Golshan, Jamal Azimi Shirvanehdeh “Review on Current Research Trends in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM)”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology Vol: 6 Issue: 2 February 2013 ISSN:0974-6846 .

10.    Neeraj Sharma, Rajesh Khanna, Rahul Dev Gupta, Renu Sharma.(2012). Modeling and multiresponse optimization on WEDM for HSLA by RSM. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. Published online:28 November 2012.


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38.

Authors:

Prem Prakash Gautam, Manish Verma

Paper Title:

Experimental Study of Compressive and Tensile Strength on Green Concrete with Partial Replacement of the Cement using Marble Slurry

Abstract:  Advance concrete technology can reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy sources thereby lessen the burden of pollutants on environment. Leaving the waste materials to the environment directly can cause environmental problem. Hence the reuse of waste material has been emphasized. Waste can be used to produce new products or can be used as admixtures so that natural resources are used more efficiently and the environment is protected from waste deposits. Marble stone industry generates both solid waste and stone slurry. Whereas solid waste results from the rejects at the mine sites or at the processing units, stone slurry is a semi liquid substance consisting of particles originating from the sawing and the polishing processes and water used to cool and lubricate the sawing and polishing machines. Stone slurry generated during processing corresponds to around 38-40% of the final product from stone industry. This is relevant because the stone industry presents an annual output of 68 -70 million tones of processed products. As per analysis of various review articles and research we have studied that the study the behavior of concrete, having partial replacement of cement with waste marble powder M25 grade for which the marble powder is replaced by an experimental study was carried out and the effect on compressive strength and split tensile strength characteristics (0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, 16%, 20%) was studied. The result of this present investigation indicates that the replacement of 12% of cement with waste marble powder attains maximum compressive and tensile strength. The optimum percentage for replacement of marble powder with cement and it is almost 12% cement for both cubes and cylinders and it also minimize the costs for construction with usage of marble powder which is freely or cheaply available more importantly. Therefore the scientific and industrial community must commit towards more sustainable practices. There are several reuse and recycling solutions for this industrial by-product, both at an experimental phase and in practical applications. These industrial wastes are dumped in the nearby land and the natural fertility of the soil is spoiled. In this research paper describes the feasibility of using the marble slurry in green concrete production as partial replacement of cement.

Keywords:
Strength and split tensile strength Marble, Cement, Compressive Strength, Optimization. Marble powder, slump, compressive.


References:

1.       Almeida N., Branco F. and Santos J. 2007. Recycling of stone slurry in industrial activities: Application to concrete mixtures. Building and Environment. (42): 810-819.
2.       Abrar Awol, Using Marble Waste Powder in Cement and Concrete Production, 2011.

3.       Abukersh S. and Fairfield C.Recycled aggregate concrete produced with red granite dust as a partial cement replacement. Construction and Building Materials, 2011.

4.       Ahmed N. Bdour et.al,Utilization of Waste Marble Powder in Cement Industry he feasibility of using Waste Marble Powder (WMP) in cement industry as a substitute limestone,2011.

5.       Ali A. et al. 2014. Re-use of waste marble dust in the production of cement and concrete. Construction and Building Materials. (50): 28-41.

6.       Almeida N., Branco F. and Santos J.,Recycling of stone slurry in industrial activities: Application to concrete mixtures. Building and Environment. (42): 810-819, 2007.

7.       Alzboon K. and Mahasneh K. ,Effect of Using Stone Cutting Waste on the Compression Strength and Slump Characteristics of Concrete. International Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering. 1(4). 2009.

8.       Alzboon K. and Mahasneh K. 2009. Effect of Using Stone Cutting Waste on the Compression Strength and Slump Characteristics of Concrete. International Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering. 1(4).

9.       Baboo Rai, et.al Influence of Marble powder/granules in Concrete mix. ISSN 0976 – 4399,PP 827-834, 2011.

10.    Binici et al. 2007. Influence of marble and limestone dusts as additives on some mechanical properties of concrete. Scientific Research and Essay. 2(9): 372-379.

11.    Binici et al.,Influence of marble and limestone dusts as additives on some mechanical properties of concrete. Scientific Research and Essay. 2(9): 372-379, 2007.

12.    Ciccu R, Cosentino R, Montani C C, El Kotb A and Hamdy H. 2005. Strategic Study on the Egyptian Marble and Granite Sector (Industrial Modernisation Centre Ref- PS_1).

13.    Concrete           technology               –              m.s.shetty

14.    Demirel B. 2010. The effect of the using waste marble dust as fine sand on the mechanical properties of the concrete. International Journal of the Physical
Sciences. 5(9): 1372-1380.

15.    Design of concrete mixes- n.krishna raju

16.    Dr.G.Prince Arulraj, “GRANITE POWDER CONCRETE”, IRACST – Engineering Science and Technology: An International Journal (ESTIJ), Vol.3, No.1, pp 193-198,
February 2013.

17.    Dr.T. Felix Kala, “Effect of Granite Powder on Strength Properties of Concrete” International Journal of Engineering and Science, Vol.2, Issue 12, Pp 36-50 8, May 2013,

18.    G.Sreenivasa, General Manager (Business Development), UltraTech Cement Limited Bangalore, “Use of Manufactured Sand in Concrete and Construction-An Alternate to River Sand”. NBM Media, India‟s No1 Construction Portal

19.    Hameed M. and Sekar A. 2009. Properties of Green Concrete Containing Quarry Rock Dust and Marble Sludge Powder as Fine Aggregate. ARPN Journal
ofEngineering and Applied Sciences. 4(4): 83-89.

20.    Hamza, K.K Aizboon, “Effect of using granite slurry in concrete”, Construction and building materials, pp 1014-1020, 10-2013.

21.    Hudson, B. P., “Manufactured Sand for concrete,” The Indian concrete Journal, pp. 237-240, May 1997.

22.    Nagabhushana, H. Sharada Bai,Use of Crushed Rock Powder as Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Mortar and Concrete.ISSN: 0974-6846,PP-917-922, 2011.

23.    Omar M. Omar et.al,Influence of lime stone waste as partial replacement material for sand and marble powder in concrete properties. HBRC Journal, PP 193-203, 2012.

24.    P.P.Gautam and Manish verma 2016. Green Concrete for partial replacement of cement with marble and Granite Slurry: A Case Review International Journal For Innovative Research In Multidisciplinary Field ISSN – 2455-0620 Volume - 2, Issue – 6.

25.    Safiuddin, M.; Raman, S. N., and Zain, M. F. N., “Utilization of Quarry Waste Fine Aggregate in Concrete Mixtures,” Journal of Applied Sciences Research, V.3, pp. 202- 208, 2007.

26.    T. Felix Kala and P. Partheeban, “Granite powder concrete”. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 3 No. 3, pp 311-317, Mar 2010.


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39.

Authors:

Avdhesh Dixit, Gagan Goyal

Paper Title:

Production of Bio-Diesel and Experimental Investigation on Performance Analysis of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Bio-diesel

Abstract: Vegetable oil is one of the renewable fuels. Vegetable oils have become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Vegetable oils include edible and non-edible oils. More than 95% of biodiesel production feed stocks come from edible oils since they are mainly produced in many regions and the properties of biodiesel produced from these oils are much suitable to be used as diesel fuel substitute . But the direct use of vegetable oils in fuel engines is problematic due to their high viscosity (about 11–17 times higher than diesel fuel) and low volatility; they do not burn completely and form deposits in the fuel injector of diesel engines. So we use some method to produce Bio-Diesel and get the performance investigation of engine and also observe the effect of different blend on exhaust emission.

Keywords:
Straight vegetable oil, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Jatropha Methyl Ester, Specific heat of superheated vapour, Calorific Value


References:

1.       Jincheng Huang a, Yaodong Wanga,b,*, Shuangding Li a, Anthony P. Roskilly b, Hongdong Yu a, Huifen Li ,Experimental investigation on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with ethanol–diesel blends:
2.       Ayhan Demirbas , Biodiesel production from vegetable oils via catalytic and non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification methods

3.       K. Pramanik, Properties and use of jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine

4.       F.K. Forson _, E.K. Oduro, E. Hammond-Donkoh, Performance of jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine 

5.       Rehman a,*, Deepak R. Phalke b, Rajesh Pandey, Alternative fuel for gas turbine: Esterified jatropha oilediesel blend

6.       Deepak Agarwal a, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine.


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40.

Authors:

Rashmikant G Shah, Kailash Bishnoi

Paper Title:

Riverbank Filtration: An Efficient and Economical Drinking Water Technology

Abstract:  Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a water treatment technology that consists of extracting water from rivers by pumping wells located in the adjacent alluvial aquifer. During the underground passage, a series of physical, chemical, and biological processes take place, improving the quality of the surface water, substituting or reducing conventional drinking water treatment. Despite its extensive use in Europe and its emerging use in the United States, there are no scientific publications related to RBF use in Colombia, although apparently propitious settings exist. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief overview of the theoretical foundations of the technique, its benefits, and limitations.

Keywords:
 riverbank filtration, aquifer­river interaction, groundwater, water treatment, water quality, water supply, surface and subsurface hydrology


References:

1.       Doussan, C., Ledoux, E. and Detay, M., River­groundwater exchanges, bank filtration, and groundwater quality: Ammonium Behavior. Journal of Environmental Quality, 27(6), pp. 1418­1427, 1998.
2.       Tufenkji, N., Ryan, J. N. and Elimelech, M., The promise of bank filtration. Environmental Science and Technology, 36 (21), pp. 422A­428A, 2002.

3.       Ray, C., Grischek, T., Schubert, J., Wang, J. Z. and Speth, T. F., A perspective of riverbank filtration. Journal of American Water Works Association (AWWA), 94 (4), pp. 149­160, 2002.

4.       Kuehn, W. and Mueller, U., Riverbank filtration: an overview. Journal of American Water Works Association (AWWA), 92 (12), pp. 60­69, 2000.

5.       Hiscock, K. M. and Grischek, T., Attenuation of groundwater pollution by bank filtration. Journal of Hydrology, 266 (3­4), pp. 139­144, 2002.

6.       Schubert, J., Hydraulic aspects of riverbank filtration ­ field studies. Journal of Hydrology, 266, pp. 145 ­ 161, 2002a.

7.       Sandhu, C., Grischek, T., Kumar, P. and Ray, C. Potential for riverbank filtration in India. Clean Techn Environ Policy, pp. 1­22 (DOI 10.1007/s10098­010­0298­0). 2010.

8.       Ray, C., Worldwide potential of riverbank filtration. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 10, pp. 223­225, 2008.

9.       Grischek, T., Schoenheinz, D. and Ray, C., Siting and design issues for riverbank filtration schemes. In: Ray C, Melin G, Linsky RB (eds) Riverbank Filtration
Improving Source­Water Quality. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 291­302, 2002.

10.    Gollnitz, W. D., Clancy, J. L., Mcwen, J. B. and Garner, S. C. Riverbank Filtration for IESWTR compliance. Journal of American Works Association (AWWA), 97 (12), 64­76. 2005.

11.    Jüttner, F. Elimination of terpenoid odorous compounds by slow sand and river bank filtration of the Ruhr River, Germany. Water Science and Technology, 31 (11), pp. 211­217, 1995.

12.    Jüttner, F. Efficacy of bank filtration for the removal of fragrance compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons. Water Science and Technology, 40 (6), pp. 123­128, 1999.

13.    Heberer, T., Massmann, G., Fanck, B., Taute, T. and Dünnbier, U., Behavior and redox sensitivity of antimicrobial residues during bank filtration. Chemosphere, 73, pp. 451­460, 2008.

14.    Schijven, J. F., Berger, P. and Miettinen, I., Removal of pathogens, surrogates, indicators, and toxins using Riverbank Filtration. In: Ray C, Melin G, Linsky RB (eds) Riverbank Filtration Improving Source­Water Quality. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 73­116, 2002.

15.    Yates, M. V., Gerba, C. P. and Kelley, L. M., Virus persistence in Groundwater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 49 (4), pp. 778­781, 1985.      

16.    Gerba, C. P., Applied and theoretical aspects of virus adsorption to surfaces. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 30 pp. 133­168, 1984.

17.    De Roda Husman, A. M., Lodder, W. J., Rutjes, S. A., Schijven, J. F. and Teunis, P. F. M., Long­term inactivation study of three enteroviruses in artificial surface and groundwaters using PCR and cell culture. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 75, (4), pp. 1050­1057, 2009.

18.    Aronino, R., Dlugy, C., Arkhangelsky, E., Shandalov, S., Oron, G., Brenner, A. and Gitis, V., Removal of viruses from surface water and secondary effluents by sand filtration. Water Research. 43, pp. 87­96, 2009.

19.    Schijven, J. F. and Hassanizadeh, S. M., Removal of viruses by soil passage: overview of modelling, processes, and parameters. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 30 (1), pp. 49­127, 2000.

20.    Reed, B. E., Matsumoto, M. R., Viadero, R. Jr. and Segar, R. L. Jr., Physicochemical processes. Water Environment Research, 71 (5), pp. 584­618, 1999.

21.    McDowell­Boyer, L. M., Hunt, J. R. and Sitar, N., Particle transport through porous media. Water Resources Research. 22, pp. 1901­1921. 1986.

22.    Wang, J., Riverbank filtration case study at Louisville, Kentucky. In: Ray C, Melin G, Linsky RB (eds) Riverbank Filtration Improving Source­Water Quality. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 117­145, 2002.

23.    Weiss, W. J., Bouwer, E. J., Ball, W. P., O'Melia, C. R., Arora, H. and Speth, T. F., Reduction in disinfection byproduct precursors and pathogens during riverbank filtration at three Midwestern United States drinking­water utilities. In: Ray C, Melin G, Linsky RB (eds) Riverbank Filtration Improving Source­Water Quality. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 147­173, 2002a.

24.    Gollnitz, W. D., Clancy, J. L., Whitteberry, B. L. and Vogt, J. A. RBF as a microbial treatment process. Journal of American Water Works Association (AWWA), 95 (12), pp. 56­66, 2003.

25.    Schubert, J., Water­quality improvements with riverbank filtration at Düsseldorf waterworks in Germany. In: Ray C, Melin G, Linsky RB (eds) Riverbank Filtration Improving Source­Water Quality. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 267 ­ 277, 2002b.

26.    Schubert, J., German experience with riverbank filtration systems. In: Ray C, Melin G, Linsky R. (eds) Riverbank Filtration Improving Source­Water Quality. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 35 ­ 48, 2002c.

27.    Gibert, J., Fournier, F. and Mathieu, J., The groundwater/surface water ecotone perspective: state of the art. In: Gibert J, Mathieu J, Fournier F (eds) Groundwater/Surface Water Ecotones: Biological and Hydrological Interactions and Management Options. Cambridge University Press: New York, pp. 3­6, 1997.

28.    Bourg, A. C. and Bertin, C., Biogeochemical processes during the infiltration of river water into an alluvial aquifer. Environmental Science and Technology, 27, pp. 661­666, 1993.

29.    Ndabigengesere, A. and Narasiah, K. S., Quality of water treated by coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds. Water Resources, 32 (3), pp. 781­791, 1998.3

30.    Mucha, I., Banský, L., Hlavatý, Z. and Rodák, D., Impact of riverbed clogging ­ colmatation ­ on ground water. In: Hubbs SA (ed) Riverbank Filtration Hydrology ­ Impacts on System Capacity and Water Quality. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 43­72, 2006.

31.    Kim, S. B. and Corapcioglu, M. Y., Contaminant transport in riverbank filtration in the presence of dissolved organic matter and bacteria: a kinetic approach. Journal of Hydrology, pp. 266, 269­283, 2002.

32.    Kim, S. B., Corapcioglu, M. Y. and Kim, D. J., Effect of dissolved organic matter and bacteria on contaminant transport in riverbank filtration. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 66, pp. 1­23, 2003.

33.    Richardson, S. D. Disinfection by­products and other emerging contaminants in drinking water. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 22 (10), pp. 666­684, 2003.

34.    Weiss, W. J., Bouwer, E. J., Ball, W. P., O'Melia, C. R., Lechevallier, M. W., Arora, H. and Speth, T. F., Riverbank filtration ­ fate of DBP precursors and selected microorganisms. Journal of American Water Works Association (AWWA), 95 (10), pp. 68­81. 2003b.

35.    Vanek, V., Heterogeneity of groundwater­surface water ecotones. In: Gibert J, Mathieu J, Fournier F (eds) Groundwater/Surface Water Ecotones: Biological and Hydrological Interactions and Management Options. Cambridge University Press: New York; pp 151­161, 1997.

36.    Schubert, J., How does it work? Field studies on riverbank filtration. In: Julich W, Schubert J (eds) Proceedings of the International Riverbank Filtration Conference. IAWR, Dusseldorf, Germany, pp. 41 ­ 55. 2000.

37.    Gollnitz, W. D., Whitteberry, B. L. and Vogt, J. A., Riverbank filtration: induced infiltration and groundwater quality. Journal of American Works Association (AWWA), 96 (12), pp. 98­110. 2004.

38.    Zhou, N., Matsumoto, T., Hosokawa, T. and Suekane, T., Pore­scale visualization of gas trapping in porous media by X­Ray CT Scanning. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 21 (3), pp. 262­267, 2010.

39.    Baveye, P., Vandevivere, P., Hoyle, B. L., Deleo, P. C. and De Lozada, D. S., Environmental impact and mechanisms of the biological clogging of saturated soils and aquifer materials. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 28 (2), pp. 123­191. 1998.

40.    Schubert, J., Sifgnificane of hydrologic aspects on RBF performance. In: Hubbs SA (ed) Riverbank Filtration Hydrology ­ Impacts on System Capacity and Water Quality. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 1 ­ 20, 2006a.

41.    Schubert, J., Experience with riverbed clogging along the Rhine River. In: Hubbs SA (ed) Riverbank Filtration Hydrology ­ Impacts on System Capacity and Water Quality. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 221 ­ 242, 2006b.

42.    Hubbs, S. A., Evaluating streambed forces impacting the capacity of riverbed filtration systems. In: Hubbs SA (ed) Riverbank Filtration Hydrology ­ Impacts on System Capacity and Water Quality. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 21­42, 2006a.

43.    Schafer, F., Use of aquifer testing and groundwater modeling to evaluate aquifer/river hydraulics at Louisville Water Company, Luisville, Kentucky, USA. In: Hubbs SA (ed) Riverbank Filtration Hydrology ­ Impacts on System Capacity and Water Quality. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 179­198, 2006.

44.    Hubbs, S. A., Changes in riverbed hydraulic conductivity and specific capacity at Louisville. In: Hubbs SA (ed) Riverbank Filtration Hydrology ­ Impacts on System Capacity and Water Quality. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 199­220, 2006b.

45.    Engesgaard, P., Seifert, D. and Herrera, P., Bioclogging in porous media: tracer studies. In: Hubbs SA (eds) Riverbank Filtration Hydrology ­ Impacts on System Capacity and Water Quality. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 93­118, 2006.

46.    Seifert, D. and Engesgaard, P., Use of tracer tests to investigate changes in flow and transport properties due to bioclogging in porous media. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 93, pp. 58 ­ 71, 2007.

47.    Sutherland, I. W. Biofilms exopolysaccharides: a strong and sticky framework. Microbioloty, 147, pp. 3 ­ 9. 2001.

48.    Caldwell, T. G., Presentation of data for factors significant to yield from several riverbank filtration systems in the U.S. and Europe. In: Hubbs SA (ed) Riverbank Filtration Hydrology ­ Impacts on System Capacity and Water Quality. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 299­344, 2006.

49.    Stuyfzand, P. J., Juhasz­Holterman, M. H. A. and De Lange, W. J., Riverbad filtration in the Netherlands: well fields, clogging and geochemical reactions. In: Hubbs SA (ed) Riverbank Filtration Hydrology ­ Impacts on System Capacity and Water Quality. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 119 ­ 153, 2006.


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41.

Authors:

Rakesh Malviya, Jitendra Raj Choudhary, Vikash Mann

Paper Title:

A Review of Kinetic Energy Recovery System

Abstract:  The term KERS refers to a technology that is used to recover the kinetic energy of any object that is lost while retardation or deceleration. Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) is a system for recovering the moving vehicle's kinetic energy under braking and also to convert the usual loss in kinetic energy into gain in kinetic energy. Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) is a type of regenerative braking system which has different approaches to store and reuse the lost energy. In case of automobiles, energy conservation can be done by using regenerative braking systems (RBS). When driving an automobile, a great amount of kinetic energy is wasted when brakes are applied, which then makes the start up fairly energy consuming. In case of automobiles, energy conservation can be done by using regenerative braking systems (RBS) by kinetic energy recovery system. So the target of recovering the energy lost in braking is completed under the various types of Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS). The vehicle may be built using various KERS designs, based on type of KERS used. This paper shows a detailed description about KERS.

Keywords:
 KERS, RBS, Kinetic Energy


References:

1.       Wikipedia
2.       Autosport.com

3.       Saeindia.org

4.       Cross, Douglas. ”Optimization of Hybrid Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) for Different Racing Circuits.” SAE Digital Library. SAE International. Web. 25 Sept. 2009.

5.       James Allen. (2005). The MEMS Handbook. CRC Press.

6.       Sorniotti, Aldo, and Massiniliano Curto. “Racing Simulation of a Formula 1 Vehicle with Kinetic Energy Recovery System.” SAE Digital Library. SAE International. Web. 25 Sept. 2009.


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42.

Authors:

Kandarp Saparia, Kailash Bishnoi

Paper Title:

Critically Assess the Implementation of Road Network by Development Plan in Gujarat

Abstract: Indian Urban Development Planning is based on Master Plans, Development Plans, Zonal Plans, Zoning Regulation, Bye Laws and related guidelines approved by the State Government. The impact of development plans is positively felt only when there is an implementation of Road Network Design and government’s willingness to be part of the effort. This study seeks to critically assess the implementation process of Development Plan especially transportation network in Gujarat State and its role in city infrastructure development and constrains of planning authorities.

Keywords:
 Urban Development, Town Planning, Development Plan, Infrastructure implementation, Transportation, Road network


References:

1.       Wikipedia
2.       Autosport.com

3.       Saeindia.org

4.    Cross, Douglas. ”Optimization of Hybrid Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) for Different Racing Circuits.” SAE Digital Library. SAE International. Web. 25 Sept. 2009.

5.    James Allen. (2005). The MEMS Handbook. CRC Press.

6.    Sorniotti, Aldo, and Massiniliano Curto. “Racing Simulation of a Formula 1 Vehicle with Kinetic Energy Recovery System.” SAE Digital Library. SAE International. Web. 25 Sept. 2009.


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43.

Authors:

Pankaj Bohra, Manish Bhandari, Kamlesh Purohit

Paper Title:

A review on Computational Study of Heat Transfer Losses in Film Cooling of Gas Turbine Blades

Abstract:  The ability and efficiency of today’s gas turbine engines are highly dependent on development of cooling technologies, among which film cooling is one of the most important. The flow around the turbine aerofoil is very complex and the protection provided by these film cooling flows is altered by a variety of physical and geometric effects. Some physical effects are: hole angle orientation, hole shape, longitudinal vortices, bulk flow pulsations, bulk flow pulsations on the vortices and film cooling on aerodynamic mixing losses. These different effects affect film cooling performance. In this paper CFD approaches are studied and reviewed discovering different aspects of film cooling. Investigation of heat transfer losses using CFD analysis is less expensive in general, as parameters can be simplified and analyzed each   individually.

Keywords:
  CFD, Film cooling, heat transfer coefficient, Turbulence modelling.


References:

1.       Vijay. K. Garg “Heat Transfer on a Film- Cooled Rotating Blade”, NASA Glenn Research Center, USA 1999.
2.       D.Lakehal, G.S. Theodoridis, W.Rodi “Three dimensional flow and Heat transfer calculations of Film Cooling at the leading edge of a Symmetrical turbine blade model” International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 22 pp .113-122, 2001.

3.       N. Asok Kumar, S.R. Kale “Numerical simulation of steady state heat transfer in a Ceramic-coated gas turbine blade” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45 pp. 4831- 4845, 2002.R. Nicole, “Title of paper with only first word capitalized,” J. Name Stand. Abbrev., in press.

4.       Vijay K. Garg “Heat transfer research on gas turbine airfoils at NASA GRC” NASA Glenn Research Center, USA International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 23 pp.109–136, 2002.

5.       J .B. Young and R.C.Wilcock “Modeling the Air-Cooled Gas Turbine: Part 1-General Thermodynamics” Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 124 Paper No. 2001-GT-385 pp. 207-213 APRIL 2002.

6.       J. B. Young and R. C. Wilcock“Modeling the Air-Cooled Gas Turbine: Part 2-Coolant Flows and Losses” Journal of Turbo machinery Vol. 124, Paper No. 2001-GT-392 pp.214-221 APRIL 2002.

7.       Heidmann, Kassab, Rodriguez, and Steinthorsson “Conjugate Heat Transfer Effects on a Realistic Film-Cooled Turbine Vane” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo, 2003

8.       Robert J. Boyle, Paul W. Giel, Forrest E. Ames “Predictions for the Effects of Free Stream Turbulence on Turbine Blade Heat Transfer” Turbo Expo 2004.

9.       R.C.Wilcock J. B. Young J. H. Horlock “The Effect of Turbine Blade Cooling on the Cycle Efficiency of Gas Turbine Power Cycles”, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power Vol 127 pp. 109-120 January 2005.

10.    D. G. Knost & K. A. Thole “Adiabatic Effectiveness Measurements of Endwall Film- Cooling for a First-Stage Vane”, Journal of Turbomachinery, Vol. 127 pp.297-305 2005.

11.    B V N Rama Kumar & B V S S S Prasad “A Combined network approach for a simulated turbine blade cooling system” Indian Journal of Engineering & Material Science Vol 13, pp 195- 201 June 2006.

12.    Huitao Yang, Hamn-Ching Chen , Je-Chin Han, Hee-Koo Moon “Numerical study of film cooled rotor leading edge with tip clearance in 1- 1/2 turbine stage” International Journal of Heat and Mass transfer 51 pp.3066-3081, 2007.

13.    James L. Rutledge Paul I. King Richard Rivir “CFD predictions of pulsed film cooling heat flux on a turbine blade leading edge” Proceedings of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2008.

14.    Cun-Liang Liu, Hui-Ren Zhu, Jiang-Tao Bai “Effect of turbulent Prandtl number on the computation of film-cooling effectiveness” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 51 pp. 6208–6218, 2008.

15.    Wang Zhenfeng, Yan Peigang, Guo Zhaoyuan, Han Wanjin “BEM/FDM Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of a Two-dimensional Aircooled Turbine Blade Boundary Layer” Journal of Thermal Science Vol.17, No.3, pp. 199-206, 2008.

16.    Dong Ping, Wang Qiang, Guo Zhaoyuan, Huang Hongyan, Feng Guotai “Conjugate Calculation of Gas Turbine Vanes Cooled with Leading Edge Films” Chinese Journal of Aeronautics 22 pp.145-152, 2009.

17.    Zhi Tao, Zhenming Zhao, Shuiting Ding, Guoqiang Xu, Hongwei Wu “Suitability of three different two-equation turbulence models in predicting film cooling performance over a rotating blade” , International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 52 pp.1268–1275, 2009.

18.    Frank Muldoon, Sumanta Acharya “DNS study of pulsed film cooling for enhanced cooling effectiveness” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 52 pp. 3118–3127 2009.

19.    F. Duchaine ,A Corpron , L. Pons, V. Moureau, F. Nicoud, T. Poinsot “Development and assessment of a coupled strategy for conjugate heat transfer with Large Eddy Simulation: Application to a cooled turbine blade”, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 30 pp. 1129–1141, 2009.

20.    C. X.-Z. Zhang I. Hassan “Computational Study of the Effects of Shock Waves on Film Cooling Effectiveness”, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power ASME Vol.131,  2009.

21.    Mohamed G. Ghorab “Film cooling effectiveness and net heat flux reduction of advanced cooling schemes using thermo chromic liquid crystal”, Applied Thermal Engineering 31 pp. 77-92, 2011.

22.    Stephen P. Lynch, Karen A. Thole, Atul Kohli, Christopher Lehane “Computational Predictions of Heat Transfer and Film-Cooling for a Turbine Blade With Nonaxisymmetric Endwall Contouring”, Journal of Turbo machinery ASME Vol. 133 2011.

23.    L. Gräf, L. Kleiser “Large-Eddy Simulation of double-row compound-angle film cooling: Setup and validation”, Computers & Fluids 43, pp. 58–67, 2011.

24.    Mohamed G. Ghorab “Adiabatic and conjugate cooling effectiveness analysis of a new hybrid scheme”, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 50, pp.965-983, 2011.

25.    Cun-liang Liu, Hui-ren Zhu, jiang-tao Bai “New development of the turbulent Prandtl number models for the computation of film cooling effectiveness”, International journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 pp. 874-889, 2011.

26.    Ron Ho Ni, William Humber, George Fan, P. Dean Johnson, J. P. Clark “Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of a Film-Cooled Turbine Vane”, Proceedings of Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2011.

27.    F.H. Asghar, M.J. Hyder “Computational study of film cooling from single and two staggered rows of semi-circular cooling holes including coolant plenum”, Energy Conversion and Management 52 pp. 329-334, 2011.
28.    A.Hasanpour, M. Farhadi and H.R. Ashorynejad “Hole Configuration Effect on Turbine Blade Cooling”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 73 2011.
29.    Chia Hui Lim, Graham Pullan, John Northall “Estimating the Loss Associated With Film Cooling for a Turbine Stage” Journal of Turbo machinery Vol. 134, 2012.

30.    L.He“Block-Spectral Approach to Film- Cooling Modelling”, Journal of Turbo machinery Vol. 134, 2012.

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44.

Authors:

Arjun Ram, Piyush Sharma

Paper Title:

A study on Life Cycle Assessment

Abstract: Over the last decades, stringent regulations forced the manufacturing industry to take concrete steps towards greener production. Despite reduction in total emissions through implementation of best available techniques (BATs), industrial waste generators still need guidance to minimize environmental impacts of manufacturing processes. Environmental impact assessment will soon become a compulsory phase. An impact assessment tool is therefore used for the environmental evaluation. The evaluation method used is the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The quick and easy assessment of energetic and environmental performances contributes to determine the weak points of various products technologies and services or production processes or the best suited treatment in a specific context.

Keywords:
 Life cycle assessment (LCA); Environmental impact; Energy consumption; Potable water supply


References:

1.       John Reap, Felipe Roman, Scott Duncan and Bert Bras, “A survey of unresolved problems in life cycle assessment” Int J Life Cycle Assess (2008) 13:374–388, Springer-Verlag 2008.
2.       Olivier Jolliet*, Manuele Margni, Raphael Charles, Sebastien Humbert, Gerald Rebitzer and Ralph Rosenbaum, “IMPACT 2002+: A New Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methodology” Industrial Ecology & Life Cycle Systems Group, GECOS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015
Lausanne,Switzerland.

3.       Jørgensen A, Le Bocq A, Nazarkina L, Hauschild M (2008): Methodologies for Social Life Cycle Assessment. Int J LCA 13 (2) 96–103.

4.       Elisabeth Hochschorner 1. and G6ran Finnveden1,2 , Evaluation of Two Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Methods, Int J LCA 2003 8 (3) 119 - 128 (2003), ecomed publishers, D-86899 Landsberg, Germany and Ft. Worth/TX.

5.       Concepcion Jim6nez-Gonz~ilez., Alan D. Curzons , David J.C. Constable  and Virginia L. Cunningham, “Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Inventory and Assessment of Pharmaceutical Compounds” Int J LCA 9 (2) 114- 121 (2004)

6.       Goran Finnveden *, Michael Z. Hauschild, Tomas Ekvall, Jeroen Guine´e, Reinout Heijungs, Stefanie Hellweg, Annette Koehler, David Pennington, Sangwon Suh, ” Recent developments in Life Cycle Assessment” Journal of Environmental Management 91 (2009) 1–21, ecomed publishers, D-86899 Landsberg, Germany and Ft. Worth/TX . Elsevier Ltd.

7.       Erwin T.H. Vink*,Karl R. Rabago,David A. Glassner,Patrick R. Gruber,” Applications of life cycle assessment to NatureWorksTM polylactide (PLA) production” Polymer Degradation and Stability 80 (2003) 403–419. Cargill Dow B.V. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

8.       Jeroen B. Guinee, Reinout Heijungs,Gyalt Huppes, Alessandra Zamagni, Paolo Masoni, Roberto Buonamici, Tomas Ekvale and Tomas Rydbery” Life Cycle Assessment: Past,Present, and Future” Environmental Science & Technoloy / Vol. 45, NO. 1, 2011,90-96.

9.       Niels Jungbluth, Christian Bauer, Roberto Dones and Rolf Frischknecht, “Life Cycle Assessment for Emerging Technologies:Case Studies for Photovoltaic and Wind Power” Int J LCA 10 (1) 24 – 34 (2005).

10.    Constantine Samaras and Kyle Meisterling, “Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles: Implications for Policy” Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 3170–3176.

11.    Gregory A. Norris,” Social Impacts in Product Life Cycles Towards Life Cycle Attribute Assessment” Int J LCA 11 • Special Issue 1 (2006) • 97 – 104.

12.    ISO (International Organization for Standardization), 1997. ISO 14040 Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Principles and Framework.

13.    ISO (International Organization for Standardization), 2006. ISO 14040:2006(E) Environmental Management – Life Cycle Assessment – Principles and Framework.

14.    ISO 14044:2006. Environmentalm anagement – life cycle  assessment –

15.    Requirements and guidelines.  CEN(European Committee for Standardisation), Brussels
16.    Sarah A. Kruse & Anna Flysjö & Nadja Kasperczyk  and Astrid J. Scholz, “Socioeconomic indicators as a complement to life cycle assessment—an application to salmon production systems” Int J Life Cycle Assess (2009) 14:8–18.

17.    Dan M. Frangopol, Fellow, ASCE, Jung S. Kong, and Emhaidy S. Gharaibeh,” Reliabilty-Based Life-Cycle Management Of Highway Bridges” Journal Of  Computing  In Civil Engineering / January 2001 / 27-34

18.    Kyle Sander, Ganti S. Murthy. “Life cycle analysis of algae biodiesel” Int J Life Cycle Assess (2010) 15:704–714.

19.    Thu Lan T. Nguyen & Shabbir H. Gheewala, “Life cycle assessment of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand” Int J Life Cycle Assess (2008) 13:301–311.

20.    Martin Pehnt, “Dynamic life cycle assessment (LCA) of renewable energy technologies” www.elsevier.com/locate/renene,Renewable Energy 31 (2006) 55–71.

21.    Poritosh Roy *, Daisuke Nei, Takahiro Orikasa, Qingyi Xu, Hiroshi Okadome, Nobutaka Nakamura, Takeo Shiina *,”A review of life cycle assessment (LCA) on some food products”, www.elsevier.com/locate/jfoodeng, Journal of Food Engineering 90 (2009) 1–10.

22.    Adisa Azapagic, “Life cycle assessment and its application to process selection, design and optimisation” Chemical Engineering Journal 73 (1999) 1-21.

23.    Kelli G. Roberts, Brent A. Gloy, Stephen Josheph, Norman R. Scott And Johannes Lehman, “Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar Systems: Estimating the Energetic, Economic, and Climate Change Potential” , Environ. Sci. Technol. 2010, 44, 827–833.

24.    Yves R. Filion; Heather L. MacLean, A.M.ASCE; and Bryan W. Karney, M.ASCE,” Life-Cycle Energy Analysis of a Water Distribution System” , J. Infrastruct. Syst. 2004.10:120-130.

25.    Melissa Bilec, S.M.ASCE; Robert Ries; H. Scott Matthews, A.M.ASCE ; and Aurora L. Sharrard, S.M.ASCE,” Example of a Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessmentof Construction Processes”, J. Infrastruct. Syst. 2006.12:207-215.

26.    Nathan L. PelletierNathan W. Ayer, Peter H. Tyedmers, Sarah A. Kruse, Anna Flysjo, Greg Robillard,Friederike Ziegler, Astrid J. Scholz and Ulf Sonesson,” Impact Categories for Life Cycle Assessment Research of Seafood Production Systems: Review and Prospectus”, Int J LCA 12 (6) 2007  414 – 421.

27.    Francesco Cherubini , Anders Hammer Strømman,” Life cycle assessment of bioenergy systems: State of the art and future challenges” , www.elsevier.com/locate/biortech , Bioresource Technology 102 (2011) 437–451.

28.    Anna Kounina, Manuele Margni, Jean-Baptiste Bayart, Anne-Marie Boulay, Markus Berger, Cecile Bulle, Rolf Frischknecht, Annette Koehler, Llorenç Milài Canals, Masaharu Motoshita, Montserrat Núñez ,Gregory Peters, Stephan Pfister, Brad Ridoutt, Rosalie van Zelm, Francesca Verones and Sebastien Humbert,” Review of methods addressing freshwater use in life cycle inventory and impact assessment” , Int J Life Cycle Assess (2013) 18:707–721.

29.    Sharma A, SaxenaA, SethiM, ShreeV, Varun. Life cycle assessment of buildings review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 2011;1:871–5.

30.    Ramesh T, PrakashR, ShuklaKK .Life cycle energy analysis of buildings:   an overview. EnergyandBuildings2010;10:1592–600.

31.    Dakwale V A, Ralegaonkar RV, Mandavgane S. Improving environmental performance of building through increased energy efficiency: a review. Sustainable Cities and Society2011;4:211–8.

32.    Singh A, Berghorn G, Joshi S, SyalM. Review of life-cycle assessment applications in building construction. Journal of Architectural Engineering 2011;1:15–23.


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45.

Authors:

Aindala Dinesh, P. Srinivasa Rao, Kunchapu suresh, Kailash Bishnoi

Paper Title:

Pushover Analysis of High Rise Building Irregular in Plan

Abstract:  The paper investigates a systematic procedure to assess the behavior of a structure irregular in plan during the seismic excitation using both Linear Dynamic (Response Spectrum Method) and Non¬linear Static Analysis (Pushover) have been performed on the same structure. The literature pertaining to pushover analysis is reviewed .The pushover analysis procedure adopted in the present study is on similar lines with the procedure presented by Ashraf Habibullah and Stephen Pyle using SAP2000 V16 structural analysis software. The effect of earthquake force in an idealized G+20 storey building located in Mumbai under different drift values and different zones, with the help of pushover analysis has been investigated and the results were compared in terms of base shear, storey drift, spectral acceleration, spectral displacement and effective damping and effective time period. The present structure is studied using the evaluation procedures provided in ATC-40 and FEMA-356 documents and IS 1893:2002.

Keywords:
Storey drift; Irregular structure; Pushover analysis; Performance assessment


References:

1.       Anil K. Chopra" estimating seismic demands for performance-based engineering of buildings" 13th   World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver,
B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 5007.

2.       Ashraf Habibullah, S.E., and Stephen Pyle, S.E." PRACTICAL THREE DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR STATIC PUSHOVER ANALYSIS “Published in Structure Magazine, winter, 1998.

3.       Computers and Structures Inc. (CSI), 1998, SAP2000 Three Dimensional Static and Dynamic Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures V 11.0.0, Berkeley, California.

4.       E. Kalkan and S. K. Kunnath "LATERAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION IN NONLINEAR STATIC PROCEDURES FOR SEISMIC DESIGN” ASCE 2004.
5.       Kadid A and Boumrkik A, (2008), “PUSHOVER ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME STRUCTURES”, at Department of Civil Engineering, University of Banta, Algeria, Asian journal of civil engineering (building and housing) vol. 9, No. 1 pp 75-83
6.       Chintanapakdee C. and Chopra A.K., (2003), “EVALUATION OF MODAL PUSHOVER ANALYSIS USING GENERIC FRAMES”, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 32, 417- 442.

7.       Eberhard M.O. and Sozen M.A., Behavior-Based Method to Determine Design Shear in Earthquake Resistant Walls, Journal of the Structural Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, Vol.119, No.2, (619-640), 1993.

8.       F. Khoshnoudian, S. Mestri, F. Abedinik "PROPOSAL OF LATERAL LOAD PATTERN FOR PUSHOVER ANALYSIS OF RC BUILDINGS" Computational Methods in Civil Engineering Vol. 2, 2 (2011) 169-183.

9.       Fajfar, P. and Fischinger M.,"N2 A METHOD FOR NONLINEAR SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF REGULAR BUILDINGS" Proceedings of Ninth World Conference on Earth Quake Engineering, Tokyo Japan Vol. V August 2-9, 1988.

10.    Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 2000, Pre standard and Commentary for the Rehabilitation of Buildings, FEMA-356.

11.    Houssam Mohammad Agha, Li Yingmin , Oday Asal Salih and A’ssim Al-Jbori "NONLINEAR PERFORMANCE OF A TEN-STORY REINFORCED CONCRETE SPECIAL
MOMENT RESISTING FRAME (SMRF) " The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China .

12.    Indian Standard "CRITERIA FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF STRUCTURES" IS 1893 (Part-1) -2002

13.    Indian Standard "CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN LOADS (OTHER THAN EARTHQUAKE) FOR BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES" IS 875 PART 1 DEAD LOADS — UNIT WEIGHTS OF BUILDING MATERIALS AND STORED MATERIALS.

14.    Indian Standard " CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN LOADS (OTHER THAN EARTHQUAKE) FOR BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES "IS 875 PART 2 IMPOSED LOADS.

15.    Mehdi Poursha Faramarz Khoshnoudian and A.S. Moghadam "A BREAKTHROUGH IN ESTIMATING THE SEISMIC DEMANDS OF TALL BUILDINGS” The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China.

16.    R.K. Goel1 "EVALUATION OF CURRENT NONLINEAR STATIC PROCEDURES FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS" The 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China.


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46.

Authors:

Kunchapu Suresh, K. Divya Bharathi, Aindala Dinesh, Kailash Bishnoi

Paper Title:

Study on Comparison of Self Curing of Concrete by using Normal Coarse Aggregate and Recycled Coarse Aggregate

Abstract: A self-curing concrete is provided to absorb water from atmosphere to achieve better hydration of cement in concrete which solves the problem of lowered cement hydration because of improper curing and thus unsatisfactory properties of concrete. The present investigation involves the use of self-curing agent viz., polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 6000 (PEG 6000) for dosages ranging between 0.5 to 2% by weight of cement added to mixing water. The experimental program was planned as the following. Total 120 cubes, 120 cylinders , 120 prisms were cast which involves different dosages (0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%) of self-curing agent PEG-6000 for four different mixes (Mix 35 and Mix 45), under different curing conditions (indoor, conventional) with different aggregates (normal coarse aggregate and recycled coarse aggregate).Comparative studies were carried out for self-curing of recycled coarse aggregate and self-curing of normal coarse aggregate Comparative studies were carried out for water retentively, compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength after 28 days for conventional cured and self-cured concrete. Self-curing concrete is better in all aspects compared to conventional cured concrete.

Keywords:
 Storey drift; Irregular structure; Pushover analysis; Performance assessment


References:

1.       Wen-Chen Jau“Self-curing Concrete”, United States Patent Application Publication, Pub. No: U.S. 2008/0072799 A1, Pub.date: Mar. 27,2008.
2.       Roland Tak Yong Liang, Robert Keith Sun, “Compositions and Methods for CuringConcrete”, Patent No.: US 6,468,344 B1, Date of Patent Oct. 22, 2002.

3.       A.S.El-Dieb, “Self-curing Concrete: Water Retention, hydration and moisture transport”, Construction and Building Materials Vol.21 (2007) 1282-1287.

4.       A.S. El-Dieb, T.A. El-Maaddawy and A.A.M. Mahmoud, “Water-Soluble Polymers as Self-Curing Agent in Silica Fume Portland Cement Mixes”, ACI Material Journal Vol.278 (2011) 1-18.

5.       M. Collepardi, A. Borsoi, S. Collepardi, R. Troli and M. Valente , “Self-Curing, Shrinkage-Free Concrete ”, ACI Material Journal SP 234-47 (2006) 755-764.

6.       R.K. Dhir, P.C. Hewlett and T.D. Dyer,” Durability of ‘Self-Cure’ Concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25. No. 6, 1153-1158,1995.

7.       Materials and Structures Vol.27(1994),  606-615.

8.       Raghavendra Y.B and Aswath M.U,” Experimental investigation on concrete cured with various curing Methods-A Comparative Study”, International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research and Technology, Issue: 2, Vol.3 (2012) 577-584.

9.       Jagannadha Kumar M.V, Srikanth M, Rao K.Jagannadha,”Strength Characteristics of Self-curing Concrete”, International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology,Issue:1,Vol.1(2012) 51-57.

10.    Ambily,P.S and Rajamane N.P, “Self-curing Concrete an Introduction”, Structural Engineering Research Centre, CSIR, Chennai.

11.    Text book on “ Concrete Technology- “Theory and Practice” by M.S.SHETTY

12.    ACI Committee 308R-01, 2008, “Guide to Curing Concrete”, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.


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47.

Authors:

Krunal Patel, Kailash Bishnoi

Paper Title:

A Review Paper on Warm Mix Asphalt Chemical Technology

Abstract:  The objective of the study is to find out the various advantages of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology (WMA) as compared with the Hot Mix Asphalt Technology (HMA) with the help of different research Papers Published in National and International Journals. Road development part is considered as one of the significant hotspots for monetary development and improvement of a nation. Right now dominant part of the Indian roads flexible pavements, which are surfaced with Hot Mix Asphalt.  The fundamental concern with the generation of HMA is that it obliges extensive measure of vitality alongside arrival of discharge of emissions gases into the environment. Stringent environmental regulations and present need to lessen emissions, makes a need in the black-top industry to search for a substitute material or an innovation that diminishes the measure of vitality needed to create the HMA, with a specific end goal to combine energy savings and environmental advantages. WMA is the key solution. WMA innovation is useful for the earth in light of the fact that it delivers asphalt at temperatures 20 to 40°C lower in correlation to Hot Mix Asphalt. WMA offers numerous critical points of interest, for example, (a) energy savings, (b) diminished emissions and fumes, (c) diminished aging of binder, and (d) developed paving season into the chilly winter months and at spots situated on high elevations

Keywords:
Warm Mix Asphalt, Field Performance, Chemical Additives


References:

1.       Jorda, E., Gillet, J.P., Gonzalez, J.A. and Barreto, G. (2008). Sustainable Development and Resources Savings in the Road Industry using Workability Additives and Surfactants from Renewable Sources. International Symposium on Asphalt Emulsion Technology.
2.       Hurley, G.C. and Prowell, B.D. Evalation of Sasobit for use in Warm Mix Asphalt. Auburn, Alabama: National Center for Asphalt Technology, 2005. NCAT Report 0506.     

3.       Hurley, G.C. and Prowell, B.D. Evaliation of Evotherm for use in Warm Mix Asphalt. Auburn, Alabama: National Center for Asphalt Technology, 2005. NCAT Report 0602.   

4.       Hurley, G.C. and Prowell, B.D. Evaluation of Asphamin for use in Warm Mix Asphalt. Auburn, Alabama: National Center for Asphalt Technology, 2005. NCAT Report 05-04.  

5.       Hurley, G.C. and Prowell, B.D. Evaluation of Potential Process for use in Warm mix Asphalt. s.l.: Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technology, 2006. Vol. 75, pp 41-90.  

6.       Kunnawee, K., Samak, S., Kitae, K., Wilfung, M., & Hussain, B. Laboratory Study on Warm Asphalt Additives. Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2007. 07-1364.

7.       Lee, D.Y. “Treating Iowa's Marginal Aggregates by Foamix Process”. Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames, 1980

8.       Lee, S.J, Amirkhanian, S.N. and Shatanawi, Khaldoun. Effects of Reaction Time on Physical and Chemical Properties of Rubber-modified Binders. Lyon, France: International Rubber Conference, 2006

9.       MoRTH “Specifications for Roads and Bridge Works”- 2004, Fifth revision, Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi.

10.    Nizamuddin, M., Selvaratnam, S., Mushrraf, M., & Marie, L. Comparative Laboratory Study of Sasobit and Aspha-Min Additives in Warm Mix Asphalt. Pp - 8288, Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2007. ISBN 9780309104241.  

11.    Prowell, B.D., Hurley, G.C. and Crews, E. Field Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt at the NCAT Test Track. Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2007.

12.    Gandhi, T. (2008). Effects of Warm Mix Asphalt additives on Asphalt Binder and Mixture Properties. Clemson University: Phd Thesis.

13.    Sampath, A. (2010). Comprehensive Evaluation of Four Warm Mix Asphalt Mixture Regarding Viscosity, Tensile Strength, Moisture Sensitivity, Dynamic Modulus and Flow Number. University of Iowa: Master Thesis.

14.    Sheth, N.M. (2010). Evaluation of selected warm mix asphalt additive. University of Iowa: Master Thesis.

15.    Vaitkus, A., Cygas, D., Laurinavicius, A, and Perveneckas, Z. 2009. Analysis and Evaluation of Possibilities for the Use of Warm Mix Asphalt in Lithuana. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 4(2) : 80 – 86.

16.    Button, J.W, Estakhri, C. and Wimsat, A. (2007). A Synthesis of Warm Mix Asphalt. Technical Report of Project Texas Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration.

17.    Zaumanis, M. (2010). Warm Mix Asphalt Investigation. Riga Technical University: Master Thesis.

18.    Hurley, G, and Prowell, B. "Evaluation of potential process for use in warm mix asphalt."Journal of the Association of Asphalt Pavement Technologists”, Vol.75, p.41-85, 2005


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48.

Authors:

Rajender Soni, S. Barathi, Parveen Kumar

Paper Title:

To Study the Effect of Process Variable on the Property of 2.25 Cr-1 Mo Steel In Gas Metal ARC Welding

Abstract:   In large steel fabrication industries such as shipbuilding, power plants and petro-chemicals, Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is the one of the most common technique for joining metals. Its various characteristics like high productivity, improved mechanical properties, easy of automation and overall lower cost of production makes it first choice for many fabrication processes. This paper focuses on the GMAW of 2.25 Cr-1Mo high temperature creep resistance steel, which is used in power plants, petrochemicals and in nuclear industries. In this work, we able to find the effect of welding parameters such as heat input and shielding gas on the properties of weld metal. The main objectives are to evaluate the hardness and tensile strength of weld metal.    In this experimental study, two welding parameters are used and they are: Heat input (high heat input & low heat input) ,  Shielding gas (Argon - Carbon-dioxide - Oxygen and Argon - Carbon-dioxide).The experimental results and their analysis clearly indicate that there is a possibility of sound welding with good combination of heat input and shielding gas. By controlling weaving, lower heat input can be achieve which causes increase in impact value of weld joint by three times and further reduces the chances of temper-embrittlement. Therefore, the work carried out clearly indicates that there is a considerable improvement in the quality of weld of 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel components when they are welded with low heat input using Ar-CO2as shielding gas as comparison with high heat input and Ar-CO2-O2 blend of shielding gas.

Keywords:
 Gas metal arc welding, heat input, shielding gas, temper-embrittlement, microstructure, inclusion and gas absorption


References:

1.    W. Provost “Effects of  a stress relief heat treatment on the toughness of pressure vessel quality steels-Influence of he plate thickness”  International Journal of  Pressure Vessels and Piping, Volume 10, Issue 2, March 1982, Pages 125-154.
2.    T.A. Lechtenberg and J.R. Foulds “The effect of preheat on  the microstructure, hardness and toughness of  HT-9 weldments” Journal pf Nuclear Materials , Volume 122, Issues 1-3, May 1984, Pages 134-139.

3.    J.N. Clark “Weld repair of low  alloy creep resistant steel castings without preheat and post-weld heat treatment” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Volume 22, Issue 3, march 1986, Pages 161-176.

4.    D.G. Crawford and  T.N. Baker “Microstructure and toughness of low carbon and weld metal” Materials Science  and  Engineering, Volume 131, Issue 2, January 1991, Pages 255-263.

5.    O.M. Akselen and O. Grong  “Prediction of weld metal Charpy v notch toughness” Materials Science and Engineering, Volume  159, Issue 2, December 1992, Pages 187-192.


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49.

Authors:

Kshitij Pawar, Akash Singh, Jyothi Singh, Umakant Gohatre

Paper Title:

Development of Hydrobot for Underwater Events Monitoring and Controlling Using Wireless Networks

Abstract:    Under water surveillance hydrobot is a moving monitoring device whose motion can be controlled using a control panel created in PC/laptop. It can be used to monitor far distances and wide areas for under water objects. It has an audio and live streaming video system which develops an underwater observatory system. High frequency wireless camera is used to capture the underwater images. This proposed system can sense various parameters like temperature, turbidity, inflammable gas and display its reading and graphs on the screen of the control room. It is also implemented with electromagnetic multiple coil gun at the top of the hydrobot for enhancing its performance in security.

Keywords:
Unmanned underwater vehical (UUV), hydrobot, underwater surveilliance,


References:

1.       K. M. R. Kimberly Varghese K, Ajay Mohanan, “Underwater Surveillance Hydrobot”,vol 2,issue 2 IJREAT, 2014.
2.       Tamer M. Abdo, Ahmed L. Elrefai, Amr A. Adly, Osama A. Mahgoub, “ Performance Analysis of Coil-Gun Electromagnetic Launcher Using a Finite Element Coupled Model” Cairo University Giza 12613, Egypt,2016 IEEE

3.       Vasilescu I., “Autonomous modular optical robot(AMOUR),prototype and feasibility study”, Computer Science and Artifical Intelligence Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, in Robotic and automation,2005 IEEE, pp. 1603-1609 [in Industrial Technology(ICIT), 2013 IEEE, pp. 58-63

4.       Aaada A., Kuramoto K. Kawashima. Y, “Advances surveillance for underwater security SONAR system”, IEEE, 2007.

5.       Hougue A.,Dept of Compt. Sci&Eng.,York Univ., Toronto, Ont., Jenkin M.,” Development of an underwater vision sensor for 3D reef mapping” in Intelligent Robot & system,2006 IEEE, pp. 5351-5358

6.       ZnacyiLlu.,Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Japan, SnuxiangGuo., Hui Li., Xichuan Lin, “An improved 3D modelling of water-jet propellers for Spherical underwater robot”,in Mechatronics and automation(ICMA),2011 IEEE, pp. 319-324 

7.       Agarwal A., Dept of Electr&ComputEng.Nat University of Singapore, “Dynamic modelling of variable ballast tank for Spherical underwater robot”

8.       J. A. Andrews, “Coilgun structures,” IEEE Trans Mag, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 637-642, Jan. 1993.

9.       De-Man Wang, Ping Liu, Hai-Qiang Liu, Jian-Jun Cheng, " The design and structural analysis of a coilgun for low acceleration of heavy loads," IEEE Trans Mag, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 160-165, Jan. 1999.

10.    M. Liao, Z. Zabar, E. Levi, L. Birenbaum, “Analysis of generatordriven linear induction launchers,” IEEE Trans Mag, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 184-189, Jan. 1997.

11.    Balikci; Z. Zabar; L. Birenbaum; D. Czarkowski, “Improved performance of linear induction launchers,” IEEE Trans Mag, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 171-175, Jan. 2005.

12.    Balikci; Z. Zabar; L. Birenbaum; D. Czarkowski, “On the Design of Coilguns for Super-Velocity Launchers,” IEEE Trans Mag, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 107-110, Jan. 2007.

13.    Seog-Whan Kim, Hyun-Kyo Jung, Song-Yop Hahn, “Optimal design of multistage coilgun,” IEEE Trans Mag, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 505-508, Mar. 2007.

14.    Jeff holzgrafe, Nathan lintz, Nick Eyre, Franklin, “effect of coil gun design on projectile performance”  W. Olin college of engineering,2012

15.    Miner, Douglas F. and John B. Seastone. Handbook of Engineering Materials (1st Edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1955.

16.    R. D. M. Mohammad Ali Mazidi, Janice G. Mazidi, The 8051 microcontroller and embedded C.


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50.

Authors:

Kailash Bishnoi, Vikram Kumar Suthar, Dinesh Singh Panwar

Paper Title:

Estimation of Flow Characteristics to Collector Pipe Assuming As a Line Slit Laid Under Riverbed

Abstract: With the increase in population growth, there is tremendous pressure on the decision-makers to look for sustainable sources of safe and adequate water supply for different purposes. Therefore, during recent times, engineers are looking toward cost-effective process of water treatment. Collector wells constructed on the banks of a river are cost-effective means of supplying adequate and safe water supply to people living on the banks of a river. Collector pipes act as a carrier of water to the collector well. Collector pipes placed under a riverbed are the most effective in terms of quantity of water. Assuming the collector pipe as a line slit. In this study, an analytical method using conformal mapping has been suggested to estimate the yield, the entrance velocity, and the travel time of a parcel of water from the riverbed to the collector pipe along the shortest path. Using the travel time, the log cycle reduction in bacteria concentration has been found using logistic function. The entrance velocity is much less than the allowable entrance velocityAssuming that a drawdown of 5m is maintained, length of the collector pipe is 50m, and hydraulic conductivity k=0.35 m/day, the yield of the collector pipe is estimated as 236.0 m3/day. The bacteria concentration in the river water is reduced nearly by 1 (1.22) log cycle during lean flow period. Thus the position of the collector pipe (4.3 m from the riverbed) is not sufficient to reduce the bacterial concentration.

Keywords:
 aquifer, riverbed, vertical slit, collector pipe, Entrance velocity, scour depth, yield


References:

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11.    Doussan, C., Poitevin, G., Ledoux, E., & Detay, M. (1997). River bank filtration: modelling of the changes in water chemistry with emphasis on nitrogen species. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 25(1), 129-156.

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72.    Sende, S. Sachin, (2008). A study on Riverbank Filtration. Masters thesis, Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee, India

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76.    Steward, D. R., & Jin, W. (2001). Gaining and losing sections of horizontal wells. Water Resources Research, 37(11), 2677-2685.

77.    Sun, D., & Zhan, H. (2006). Flow to a horizontal well in an aquitard–aquifer system. Journal of hydrology, 321(1), 364-376.

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80.    Verstraeten, I.M., Thurman, E.M., Lindsey, M.E., Lee, E.C., Smith, R.D., (2002) Changes in concentrations of Triazine and Acetamide Herbicides by Bank filtration, ozonation, and chlorination in a public water supply. J. Hydrol. 266 (3/4), 190–208.

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82.    Weiss, W. J., Bouwer, E. J., Ball, W. P., O’Melia, C. R., Arora, H., & Speth, T. F. (2003a). Reduction in disinfection byproduct precursors and pathogens during riverbank filtration at three Midwestern United States drinking-water utilities. In Riverbank Filtration (pp. 147-173). Springer Netherlands.

83.    Weiss, W., Bouwer, E., Ball, W., O'Melia, C., Aboytes, R., & Speth, T. (2004). Riverbank filtration: Effect of ground passage on NOM character. Aqua, 53, 61-83.

84.    Weiss, W.J., Bouwer, E.J., Ball, W.P., O’Melia, C.R., Arora, H., Speth, T.F., (2003b). Comparing RBF with bench-scale conventional treatment for precursor reduction. J. Am.Water Works Assoc. 95 (12), 67–80.

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51.

Authors:

Madhvi Bagga, Komal Bansal

Paper Title:

OLED: Most Promising and Modern Display Technology

Abstract:  As the time passes many changes have occurred in the field of display technology. Earlier light Emitting Diode (LEDS) and Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDS) are used for display but they have certain problems. LED (Light Emitting Diode) display which shows the numeric contain then after jumbo CRT (cathode ray tubes) which is used today also but due to the bulkiness of LED displays they required large area and it’s hard to carry these displays from one place to another place. To overcome this problem LCD (Liquid crystal display) has been developed which is lighter and easy to carry, but the main problem with LCD is that clear picture cannot be seen from different angles. These all problem will be overcome by the revolutionary discovery of OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode). The concept in organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices with hole or electron limited electroluminescence show that it is possible to improve the light output and efficiency by significantly reducing the operating voltage. Owing to the advantages of solid-state, self emission, full color capability and flexibility, LED have been recognized as one of the most promising flat panel display technology and has stepped into commercialization. OLED have several advantages over flat panel displays made with LCD technology, which includes its lightweight and flexible plastic substrates, wider viewing angles, improved brightness, better power efficiency and quicker response time. One of the things that set OLED technology apart from the LCD and other technologies is its intrinsic ability to be flattened and rolled. Some of the drawbacks of OLED include shorter life span, poor color balance, poor outdoor performance, susceptibility to water damage etc. The application of OLEDs in electronics is on the increasing day by day from cameras to mobile to OLED televisions, etc. OLEDs are not yet widely used because of its higher manufacturing cost.

Keywords:
OLED, Display, Application, Devices


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52.

Authors:

Deepak Paliwal, Wasim Akram

Paper Title:

A Review on Emission Studies of CI Engine Fuelled With Vegetable Oil and Bio-Diesel

Abstract:   Over consumption of earth natural resources has lead to a threat of extinct depletion. One more thing that has drawn public concern worldwide is deteriorating environmental conditions. Currently, major source of energy are fissile fuels and they are dominantly responsible for the emission of CO2.Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as “biodiesel,” are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Straight vegetable oil (SVO), an alternative fuel of petroleum diesel, is mainly used to reduce the environmental impact of emission without modifying engines. Specific fuel consumption increases for both SVO and bio-diesel compared with diesel fuel. The methyl asters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine and they would not require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Besides being a renewable and domestic resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. SVO of rice bran oil (RBO), jatropha, karanja etc. are derived through oil extraction process from respective plant seeds. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine properties, performance and emission of different blends of SVO (RBO and jetropha) and biodiesel (karanja) in comparison to diesel. Results indicate that blends of 25% RBO show results closure to diesel, CO2, CO and HC were higher for Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel. These emissions were found to be close to diesel for preheated Jatropha oil. The comparison of MOEE (mahua oil ethyl ester) with diesel in terms of engine emission shows better results. The MOEE is found to burn more efficiently than diesel. The emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen and smoke were decreased by 58, 63, 12 and 70%, respectively, in comparison with diesel. This study tacitly suggests that MOEE can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engine. The engine emissions with biodiesel of Karanja and its blends were comparable to diesel fuel. The oxides of nitrogen from Karanja biodiesel and its blends were higher than diesel fuel at all loads and emissions such as CO, smoke density and HC were reduced as compared to diesel.

Keywords:
 Biodiesel, diesel engine emissions, Trans-esterification, Vegetable oil.


References:

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3.       Deepak Agarwal et al “Performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha oil (preheated and blends) in a direct injection compression ignition engine”; D. Agarwal, A.K. Agarwal / Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2314–2323.

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53.

Authors:

Govind Singh Chauhan

Paper Title:

Current Status of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies

Abstract: Global warming and climate change concerns have create global efforts to reduce the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide capture and storage is considered a essential approach for meeting co2 emission reduction targets. In this paper various characteristic of carbon capture technologies are discussed including the state of the art technologies for carbon dioxide capture, separation, transport and life cycle analysis. The selection of specific carbon dioxide capture technology depends on the type of carbon dioxide generating plant and fuel used. Among those carbon dioxide processes absorption is the most mature and commonly adopted due to its higher efficiency and lower cost. Transportation of co2 is done by the method of pipeline. Saline aquifer is used for storage of carbon dioxide due to their enormous potential storage capacity. There are numerous problems to carbon capture storage consumption including the lack of carbon capture storage investment.

Keywords:
 Aquifer, adsorption, investment.


References:

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