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National Conference on Smart Computation and Technology (NCSCT-2017) | April 07-08, 2017 | Jaipur, INDIA
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National Conference on Smart Computation and Technology (NCSCT-2017) | April 07-08, 2017 | Jaipur, INDIA

National Conference on Smart Computation and Technology (NCSCT), April 2017
Date of Conference: April 07-08, 2017 | Organised by: Poornima Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jaipur (Rajasthan) India.  

S. No

ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-6, Issue- NCSCT2017, April 2017
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Prakash Somani, Aditya Singh, Aarzoo Bhasin, Laxta Kumawat

Paper Title:

A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and Non-Conventional Stabilizers

Abstract:  The main objectives of the soil stabilization are to increase the bearing capacity of the soil, weathering resistance and to enhance different properties of soil so as to make it more efficient. Unstable soils can create many problems such as in foundation and weak superstructure. Therefore it is necessary to stabilize the soil techniques to ensure the good stability and bearing capacity of soil and it can sustain more loads. According to times of India in our country 32000 million ton industrial waste is generated annually in which the ratio of fly ash and rice husk is 0.82%(265 million tons) and 0.41%(132 million tons) and out of that only 50 to 60% of these are utilized. Waste materials such Fly Ash, rice husk ash, pond ash may use to make the soil to be stable.  Addition of such materials will increase the physical as well as chemical properties of the soil and also that is how we can more practically utilize these industrial wastes. Some properties which are expected to be improved are shear strength, unconfined compressive strength and bearing capacity etc. California bearing ratio (CBR) and other strength property tests were conducted on soil. By using waste material it reduces the cost of construction or we can say economical. The main problem with waste is their disposal so by using this we try to decrease their hazardous effect on environment. These materials show great results and can be useful in this sector as well also the results shows that they are not only the substitute of the conventional stabilizers but also they can be superior to them in some aspects.

Keywords:
 Rice husk ash, Fly Ash, Stabilization, Lime, cement


References:

1.       Abu siddique and Bipradas rajbongshi, ““Mechanical properties of a cement stabilized coastal soil for use in road construction”, Journal of civil engineering the institution of Engineers” Vol. CE 30, NO. 1, 2002
2.       Anil Misra, Debabrata Biswas and Sushant Upadhyaya (13 December 2004), “Physic- mechanical behavior of self-cementing class C Flyash-clay mixtures,” www.sciencedirect.com 

3.       Azm S. Al-Homoud, Taisir Khedaywi and Abdullah M. Al. Ajlouni (1999), “Comparison of effectiveness and economic feasibility of bitumen, lime and cement as stabilizing agents for reduction of swell potential of a clayey soil,” Indian Highways, January 1999, pp.51–58.

4.       Costas A.Anagnostopoulos (2004), “Physical and Engineering Properties of a cement stabilized soft soil treated with Acrylic Resin additive,” www.ejge.com 

5.       Koteswara Rao, D., “Stabilization of Expansive Soil with Rice Husk Ash, Lime and gypsum”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol. 3, No. 11 November 2011.

6.       Yadu, L.K., Tripathi, R.K., and Singh, D.V. (2011c). “Comparison of Fly Ash and Rice Husk Ash Stabilized Black Cotton Soil,” International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Volume 04, No. 06 SPL, pp 42-45.

7.       Muntohar, S., and Hantoro, G., (2000), “Influence Rice Husk Ash and Lime on Engineering Properties of a Clayey Sub-grade”, Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 5.

8.       S. Bhuvaneshwari, R. G. Robinson and S. R. Gandhi, (2005), Stabilization of expansive soil using fly ash, Fly Ash Utilization Programme, (FAUP), TIAFC, DST, New Delhi

9.       Erdal Cokca (2001) “Use Of Class C Fly Ashes for the Stabilization – of an Expansive Soil” Journal of Geotechnical and Geo environmental Engineering Vol. 127, July, pp. 568-5

10.    R M Brooks (2009), Soil stabilization with fly ash and rice husk ash, International Journal of Research and Reviews on Applied Science, 1, Issue 3, pp. 209-217.

11.    A Hossain and M Khandaker (2011), Stabilized soils in incorporating combinations of rice husk ash and cement kiln dust, Journal Of Materials In Civil Engineering, 10.1061 (ASCE) MT. 1943-5533.0000310.

12.    J N Jhaand and K S Gill (2006), Effect of rice husk ash on lime stabilization, Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India), 87, Issue 28, pp. 33-39. [8] IS 2720 (Part1 – 5, 7, 10, 16), Indian Standard Methods of Tests for soil.


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2.

Authors:

Ayush Goyal, Sheetal Agarwal, Deepak Mathur

Paper Title:

A Laboratory Investigation and Performance Evaluation of Soil Samples in Earthen Roads 

Abstract:  Starting from the base, soil is one of nature’s most abundant construction materials. Almost all type of construction is built with or upon the soil. The most essential piece of street asphalt is subgrade soil and its quality. On the off chance that quality of soil is poor, then adjustment is typically required. Subgrade is at times balanced out or supplanted with more grounded soil material in order to enhance the quality. Such adjustment is likewise reasonable when the accessible subgrade is comprised of frail soil. Increment in sub level quality may prompt economy in the basic thicknesses of asphalt. Cement, fly ash, lime, fibers etc. are very commonly used for soil stabilization. The main objective of this experimental study is to improve the properties of the earth soil by adding bitumen emulsion. So the improvement of soil can be used to construction of earth roads. The underlying quality of the dirt is controlled by directing soil tests such as sieve analysis, plastic limit, liquid limit, shrinkage limit, modified proctor compaction test. 

Keywords: Bitumen Emulsion, Soil Stabilization, Earth Soil, Liquid Limit, Plastic limit, Sieve analysis.


References:

1.        Linsha R.Deby, Dharanya Y.Preethy, V. Vinodhini and C. Pavithra (2016),156-165, Improvement of Shear Strength of Soil Using Bitumen Emulsion,Vel Tech, Avadhi, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
2.        Verma K. Satyendra, (2015), A laboratory Study on Use of bitumen Emulsion In Black Soil, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.

3.        Alayaki, F. M., Bajomo, O. S. (2011), Effect of Moisture Variation on the Strength Characteristics of Laterite soil. Proceedings of the Environmental Management Conference, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

4.        Justyna Mrugala (2004)- Soil Stabilization With Foamed Bitumen, Kielce university of Technology,Poland.

5.        Bismal G. Maheswari and Badiger K.Ravi (2015), Study on Stabilisation of Soil Using Sea Shell And Bitumen Emulsion, Chikodi, Belgaum (KA), India.

6.        Huan Y. Siripun K., Jitsangiam P. and H.Nikraz, A Preliminary Study on foamed Bitumen Stabilisation for Western Australian Pavements. Scientific Research and Essays 5(23).2010 3687-3700.

7.        Aiban S.A, A Study of Sand Stabilization in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Engineering Geology, 38 (1994), 65-79.

8.        Tridib Goswami (2014), A laboratory Study on Use of Bitumen Emulsion in Gravel Road, Nit, Rourlkela , Odisha, India.

9.        Ogundipe M. Olumide (2014) Strength and Compaction Characteristics of Bitumen Stabilized Granular Soil, Ekiti State University Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

10.     Punmia B.C., Jain A.K.,Jain A.K (2005), Soil Mechanics And Foundation, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi 16th edition.


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3.

Authors:

Suresh Soni, Rahul Anjana, Vishal Sharma, Raghuveer Singh Sankhla, Vipul Singh Mann

Paper Title:

A Review on the Use of Plastic in Road Construction Material: Towards Solid Waste Minimization

Abstract: Plastic is user friendly but not eco- friendly as they are non-biodegradable. Plastic plays a very important role if we take as a positive source but also harmful for us if we can’t use it properly. The plastic use increasing as wrapping, packing, carry bags etc... As a result amount of waste plastic also increasing day by day. Plastic is a non-biodegradable substance in nature. This leads to various adverse effects on humans, animals and environment. In Jaipur the generation of waste is 1340 MT/day per capita. To reduce the amount of waste and its hazardous impact on nature we are using 10% plastic in construction of flexible road pavement. Plastic polythene, packing wrapper, toys and other processed plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated aggregate can be used for pavement construction.  The amount of plastic to be added is around 10 per cent .Cost of construction material considerably reduced. Various properties of this plastic coated aggregate improve such as abrasion resistance, impact value, water absorption, stability etc. The main objective of this research is to find out concentration of waste plastic in flexible pavement

Keywords:
 warpping, biodegradable, absorption. polythene.


References:

1.       Sandeep R Unde, Prof.Dr.S.Cpotnis “Effective Utilization of Plastic Waste in Flexible Pavement and Analysis Experiment”, “International Journal of Engineering Science & Research Technology”, ISSN: 2277-9655
2.       Mr. Mahesh M BARAD “USE OF PLASTICS IN BITUMINOUS ROAD CONSTRUCTION “Journal of introduction, knowledge and research in civil engineering.

3.       Miss Apurva J Chavan, “Use of Plastic Waste in Flexible Pavements”, Int.Journal of Appl. Or Innovation in Engg. And Management, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp.540-552, April
2013

4.       Naveen Kumar, Mudit Kishor Shukla, “Use Of Plastic Waste In Road Construction”, International Journal Of Advanced Research In Engineering Technology & Sciences, Vol.2, No.4, pp.45-47, April- 2015.

5.       Anselm E. O. Eneh, “Application Of Recycled Plastics And Its Composites In The Built Environment”, Best International Journal Of Management, Information Technology And Engineering, Vol.3, No.3, pp.9-16, 2015.

6.       Guidelines for the Use of Plastic Waste in Rural Roads Construction by Dr. V. Vasudevan, TEC, Madurai, and CRRI, New Delhi. National Rural Roads Development, Agency Ministry of Rural Development.

7.       Kulkarni S. j., “A Review on Studies and Research on Use of Plastic Waste”, Int. J Res Rev., Vol.2, No.11, pp.692-696, 2015.

8.       Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, And Mohammed Molla, “Waste Plastic Conversion into Chemical Product like Naphtha”, Journal of Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications, Vol.1, pp.1-6, 2011

9.       Vikash maharaniya “Strengthen of Flexible Pavement by Using Waste Plastic and Rubber.

10.    http://www.britannica.com/science/plastic-pollution

11.    http://www.iflscience.com/environment/rocks-formed-plastic-found-beach

12.    YashMenariya, RupalSankhla,” Use Of Waste Plastic In Flexible Pavements Green Road[13]Kumar, S and Gaikwad, SA ”Municipal


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4.

Authors:

Haseeb Muhammad, Mohit Jaiman, Kapil Sharma, Kuldeep Sharma, Manish Chandel, Mahendra Verma

Paper Title:

Accident Black Spot Identification on National Highway 12 in Jaipur

Abstract:  Transportation is responsible for the development of any country from very old times. In the developing country like India transportation plays major roles to fulfill the requirement of people like travel, goods etc. In India population of transportation are increasing as the increasing of population. For the growth of the country an excellent transportation system is required. In the growing transportation network accident rate is also increasing as the increasing of transportation population. So the increasing rate of accident obstructs the growth as it causes high economic loss and loss of life. For any roadway stretch it is necessary to identify such points where accident occurs frequently and gives the remedial measures to it. This paper is based on black spot identification on National Highway 12. These black spots are identified by studying the accidental data collected from the Police Station by using methods Accidental Density Method and Weighted Severity Method.

Keywords:
Accident, Density Method, Weighted Severity Index, accident, Jaipur, tonk road, traffic black spot, accident severity.


References:

1.       Accident Black Spots in Rural Highways by Aruna.D.Thubhe and Dattatraya.T.Thubhe
2.       Identification of Accidental Black spots on National Highways and Expressways by Snehal U Bobade, Jalindar R Patil, Raviraj R Sorate(2015)

3.       Accident Study On NH - 5 Between Anakapalli to VisakhapatanamB.Shinivas Rao, E.Madhu(2005)

4.       Injury Severity Based Black Spot Identification by Søren Kromann Pedersen, Michael Sørensen (2007)

5.       Identification of Black Spots and Improvements to Junctions in Bangalore City by Nikhil.T.R, Harish.J.K, Sarvadha.H(2013)

6.       Identification of Black Spot in Urban Area by Rajan. J. Lad, Bhavesh.Patel, Prof. Nikil. G. Raval(2013)

7.       Road Safety Audit- An Identification Of Black Spots On Busy Corridor Between Narol- Naroda Of Ahmedabad City by Parikh Vaidehi Ashokbhai, Dr. A.M. Jain(2014)

8.       Identifying Accident Prone Spot on Rural Highways - A Case Study of National Highway No 58 by Vishrut Landge &A.K.Sharma

9.       Identification of Accident Prone Locations Using Accident Severity Value on a Selected Stretch of NH-1 by Gourav Goel, S.N. Sachdeva(2014)

10.    Black Spot Identification Methods in Thailand by Dr. Wichuda Kowtanapanich.

11.    Report of the Committee on Road Safety and Traffic Management.

12.    Report submitted by JP Research India Pvt Ltd for the study of accidents on Mumbai-Pune Expressway (2014)

13.    B. B. and Joseph, K. (2011). “Causes and Consequences of Road Accidents in Kerala”, International Journal of Research in IT & Management, Vol. 1, 


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5.

Authors:

Satyajit Nath, Purushottam Ujjwal, R.S. Rathore, R.S. Udawat

Paper Title:

Accidental Analysis of 200ft Bypass, Jaipur

Abstract: The increment in road accident at 200Ft By pass, Sirsi Road, Panchyawala, Karni Palace (Jaipur) etc. and the resulting demises and major injuries made the authors for regular evaluation. A total of 16 demises and 32 major injuries along with 7 minor injuries were recorded within the period of 15 months from 01/01/2016 to 28/03/2017. The recorded data is in reference to population of 30730000 to 35000000 persons of Jaipur. Data collection was done form accident Thana, Banipark (Jaipur). Using analysis of data we found an unusual variation in the number of accidents. It was analysed that there is considerable differences among the different causes of accidents and accident cases (deaths, major, minor) with respect to type of vehicle participated in accident. Two motorcycle, motorcycle-vehicle, motorcycle-pedestrian, vehicle-vehicle, vehicle-pedestrian accidents are major types and have resulted in 8.10%, 35.13%, 18.91%, 10.81%, 21.62% of total crashes and total 16 demises were recorded within the period of study. Additionally, it was also found that commercial vehicle an motorcycle resulted in 94.6% of total accidents. 

Keywords:  RTI, RTC, MVC,PIC


References:

1.    Ezenwa, A.O., 1986. Trends and characteristics of road traffic accidents in Nigeria. J. R. Soc. Health, 106: 27-29.
2.    PubMed 

3.    J. Ohakwe, I.S. Iwueze and D.C. Chikezie, 2011. Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents in Nigeria: A Case Study of Obinze/Nekede/Iheagwa Road in Imo State, Southeastern, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 4: 166-175.

4.    Thomas B. Stout, Reginald R. Souleyrette. Analyzing Crash Risk Using Automatic Traffic Recorder Speed Data

5.    LUCHT, U. A prospective study of accidental falls and resulting injuries in the home among elderly people. Acta socio-med. Scand. 1971 Vol.3 No.2 pp.105-20

6.    Dr. Patel Dhaval J., Asst. Professor Agnihotram Gopinath. Study of RTA deaths in and around Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh. Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine,2010.


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6.

Authors:

Meenakshi Dixit, Adarsh Kotiyal, Aayush Badjatya, Chandra Shekher Jangid, Ajay Meena

Paper Title:

Acidity Effects on Redstone (Sandstone)

Abstract:  Deterioration of stone specimen like sandstone caused by simulated acid rain was investigated by the laboratory tests. Before and after red stone specimens were exposed to simulated acid rain. The difference between the mass of the stone samples kept under the influence of the acid of different pH are observed and calculated. The changes in the surface characteristics of the stone after they are dipped in the acid for certain amount of time. The impact of acid deposition on stone monuments made of marble and limestone [1] and on building materials containing large amounts of carbonate has been recognized for over a century and an acid precipitation with a pH level ranging between 3.0 and 5.0 will affect carbonate stones like sandstone. It has been found that acid rain causes chemical deterioration on red stone. The surface of stones contributes to salt enrichment on carbonate stones [2] and plays a major role in the deposition of acid substances on buildings. [3]Acids chosen for the test are the two most effective acids i.e. H2SO4, HCl. Acid dilutions were made by first creating the acid of .01N. The major observation is taken between the numbers of days to the reduction in the mass. The results are then compared to the virgin sample of the stone.

Keywords:
sandstone,  pH, acid rain


References:

1.    Philip A Baedecker, Michael M Reddy, Karl J Reimam and Cesar A Sciammarella, “Studies on the effects of air pollution on lime stone degradation in Great Britain”.
2.    The US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), “  Effects of Acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone – Experimental results”.

3.    E. Nierode, B.B Williams, “Characteristics of Acid Reaction in Limestone Formations”.

4.    atmospheric damage to calcareous Stones: comparison and reconciliation of recent experimental findings. Atmospheric Environment 23, 415-429.

5.    Gee E. S. (1989) The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (1987) Interim assessment, the causes and effects of acidic deposition: Washington DC. Pierson W. R., Brachaczek W. W., Gorse R. A. Jr., Japar S. M. and Norbeck J. M. (1986) On the acidity of dew. J. geophys. Res. 91, 4083X) 96. Plummer L. N., Parkhurst D. L. and Wrigley T. M. L. (1979)


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7.

Authors:

Haseeb Muhammad

Paper Title:

Affinity of Bitumen with Recycled Aggregate Extracted from RAP

Abstract: The researches have targeted to get an approach for effective recycling of Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) materials. Some researchers have considered that the loss of binding property of asphalt is responsible for the poor performance of rehabilitated pavements whereas some suggested the loss of surface property of aggregate is also responsible for poor performance of the pavement constructed by RAP. The affinity of bitumen and aggregates is one of the most important property influencing the recyclability of RAP collected from the demolished. The affinity of bitumen and aggregate gives indirect idea of stripping resistance property and durability of the recycled RAP into the pavement. The test EN 12697-11 (rolling bottles) is used to evaluate the affinity of bitumen and aggregates. This research has targeted to study the binding behavior of aggregate surface with the fresh bitumen binder by comparing fresh and reused aggregates performances.

Keywords:
 Recycling, RAP, aggregate coating, bottle rolling test, adhesion, affinity.


References:

1.       Effect of aggregate properties on asphalt mixtures stripping and creep behavior. Construction and Building Materials, Abu-Qudais S., Al-Shweily H. Volume 21, Issue 9, Pages 1886–1898, September 2007.
2.       The influence of aggregate, filler and bitumen on asphalt mixture moisture damage. Construction and Building Materials, Airey G.D. Collop A.C., Zoorob S.E., Elliott R.C. Volume 22, Issue 9, Pages 2015–2024, September 2008.

3.       Wyniki programu badawczego dotyczącego przyczepności asfaltu do kruszywa (The results of a research programme on bitumen-aggregate affinity) Błażejowski K., Olszacki J., Peciakowski H.. The eSeMA’2013 Rettenmaier Conference, Zakopane, February 2013

4.       Durability of asphalt mixtures: Effect of aggregate type and adhesion promoters. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, Cui S., Bamber R.K. Blackman, Anthony J. Kinloch, Ambrose C. Taylor, Volume 54, Pages 100– 111, October 2014.

5.       A Synthesis of Theories and Mechanisms of Bitumen-Aggregate Adhesion Including Recent Advances in Quantifying the Effects of Water, Hefer A.W., Little D.N., Lytton R.L.

6.       Odporność mma na działanie wody – porównanie procedur i zastosowanie praktyczne (The resistance of asphalt mixtures for water – a comparison of procedures and practical applications), Krajewski M., Błażejowski K.. The eSeMA’2012 Rettenmaier Conference, Zakopane, February 2012.

7.       Test results of adhesion testing, Krajewski M., The eSeMA’2013 Rettenmaier Conference, Zakopane, February n2013.

8.       Weryfikacja i uaktualnienie metody badawczej wodoodporności z cyklem zamrażania mieszanek mineralno-asfaltowych (The verification of ITSR test method with one freezing cycle). Sybilski D., Zofka A., Bańkowski W., Horodecka R., Maliszewska D., Maliszewski M., Wróbel A., Mirski K. Road and Bridge Research Institute Report for General Directorate of Public Roads, Warsaw 2013

9.       The Shell Bitumen Handbook. Fifth Edition. Read J., Whiteoak D, Thomas Telford, 2003.

10.    Bhasin, Amit. Development of methods to  quantifybitumen-aggregate adhesion and loss of adhesion due to water. Diss. Texas A&M  University, 2007.

11.    EN 12697-11 Bituminous mixtures. Test methods for hot mix asphalt. Determination of the affinity between aggregate and bitumen.


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8.

Authors:

Saurabh Singh, Kunal Singh Sindal, Amit Sharma

Paper Title:

An Integrated Approach to Analyse the Change in Land Pattern of Sitapura and Sanganer, Jaipur

Abstract:  Changes in land use/land cover (LULC) is a dynamic process taking place on the surface, and the spatial distribution of the changes that have taken place over a period of time and space is of immense importance in many natural resources studies. LULC mapping serve as a basic inventory of land resources throughout the world. This study has demonstrated that the recent progression in remote sensing and GIS technologies allows powerful tool for mapping and detecting changes in LULC. Sitapura and sanganer are served as the industrial area and large production of Jaipur comes out from these two places. These two are backbone of Jaipur and referred as the industrial hub. The main objective of this research is to find out land use change based factors responsible for deterioration of land of sitapura and sanganer. In this study, available temporal satellite data of Jaipur is used to produce LULC map of the sitapura industrial area and sanganer for year 2000 to 2009. Settlement expansion and illegal logging are also the major factors behind the LULC changes observed in the area. Land use change indicates that built area is increased drastically while agriculture and vegetation land decreased from year 2000-2009.  Build up and open field increased from 18.64% to 33.57%, 39.80% to 43.14%, respectively. On the other hand agricultural and vegetation land decreased from 21.77% to 12.05%, 19.29% to 10.11%, respectively. The findings of this study highlight the need for a comprehensive assessment of human activities in these industrial area.

Keywords:
  Remote Sensing, GIS, Land use, settlement.


References:

1.    P. N. Dadhich, and S. Hanaoka, “Spatiotemporal urban growth modeling of Jaipur, India”, Journal of Urban Technology, 2011, Vol. 18, No.3, pp. 45-65.
2.    P. N. Dadhich,. and S.  Hanaoka, “Remote sensing, GIS and Markov’s method for land use change detection and prediction of Jaipur District”, Journal of Geomatics,, 2010 Vol.4, No.1, pp. 9-15.

3.    E.Z.B. Kent, and A.I.K Gullari,.  “Spatial and temporal dynamics of land use pattern in Turkey: A case of study in Inegol”, Landscape and Urban Planning, 81, 2007,   pp. 316-327.

4.    D. A.  Mengistu, and A. T. Salami, (2007) “Application of remote sensing and GIS inland use/land cover mapping and change detection in a part of south western Nigeria”, African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology vol. 1 (5), pp. 99-109.  


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9.

Authors:

Suresh Soni, Rajesh Kalal, Vikas Kumar Meena, Vikas Jain

Paper Title:

An Integrated Study on Feasibility of Permeable Concrete Pavement

Abstract:   being a prime constituent of any construction material, concrete is widely used. So, development of concrete has a gravitate curiosity of many people. One of the special type of concrete and our prime area of interest is "Permeable Concrete". It is a concrete having high void content of about 30%. In the world, full of concrete with lots of environmental & other problems Permeable Concrete can act as a savior. Permeable Concrete is considered as an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as it provides suitable development, pollution control and storm water management etc. In different platforms, such as parking areas and footpath, Permeable Concrete transfers the water to underground surface very easily & helps in maintenance of ground water table. With the help of TiO2 this concrete can also work as pollution absorbent for air pollution caused due to vehicles and help in pollution control of air, water and noise. Thus, exploration in permeable concrete leads to conquering many hurdles & lead us to sustainable development which is a future need.

Keywords:
Permeability, TiO2, Sustainability, Geotextile

References:

1.       http://www.tradingeconomics.com/india/population/forecast (1 April 2017)
2.       G. Demarsily, “Importance of the Maintenance of Temporary Ponds in Arid Climates for the Recharge of Groundwater,” Computes Rendus Geosciences, Vol. 335, No. 13, 2003, pp. 933-934. doi:10.1016/j.crte.2003.10.001

3.       V.R. Patil, Prof. A.K. Gupta, Prof. D.B. Desai “Use of pervious concrete in construction of pavement for improving their performance” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil engineering, ISSN: 2278-1684 PP 54-56

4.       https://www.go-gba.org/resources/green-building-methods/permeable-pavements

5.       Wanielista, M., Chopra, M. (2007): “Performance assessment of Portland cement pervious concrete”, Rep. Prepared for Storm Water Management Academy, Univ.of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla, pp. l-125.

6.       http://www.pollutionissues.com/Ve-Z/Vehicular-Pollution.html

7.       http://www.ucsusa.org/clean-vehicles/vehicles-air-pollution-and-human-health#.WN8wTVWGO00

8.       ZHAO Jian-qiang; LIU Shan; QIU Li-ping; CHEN Ying. The characteristics of expressway runoff quality and pollutants discharge rule. China Environmental Science. Vol21, No5:p445-448, 2001.

9.       Lee, Sugie, and Steven P. French. "Regional Impervious Surface Estimation: An Urban Heat Island Application." Journal of Environmental Planning & Management 52.4 (2009): 477-496. Environment Complete. Web. 20 Nov. 2013.

10.    Scholz M. Practical sustainable urban drainage system decision support tools. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers–Engineering Sustainability 2006; 159(3):117–25.

11.    Montes F, Haselbach L. Measuring hydraulic conductivity in pervious concrete. Environ Eng Sci 2006; 23(6):960–9.

12.    ASTM C1688 –“Standard Test Method for Density and Void Content of Freshly Mixed Pervious Concrete.

13.    Evaluation of permeable pavement systems for improved storm water management. American Planning Association Journal 1999; 65(3):314–25.

14.    Pitt, R. E., Clark, S., Parmer, K., and Field, R. 1996. Groundwater Contamination from Stormwater. Ann Arbour Press, Chelsea, MI.

15.    R.Selvaraj, M. Amirthavarshmi “Some Aspect on Pervious Concrete” International Journal of Engineering & Applied Science (IJEAS), ISSN: 2394-3661, Volume 3, Issue 1, January 2016

16.    IS (Indian Standard) Code.516.1959

17.    De Lima, O.A.L and Sri Niwas., 2000. Estimation of hydraulic parameters of shaly sandstone aquifer from geoelectrical measurements, Journals of Hydrology, 235, pp: 12-26.

18.    Garboczi, E.J., 1990. Permeability diffusivity and micro structural parameters. In: A critical review, Cement Concrete Research 20. pp: 591-601.

19.    Park S. and Tia M. 2004. An Experimental study on the water purification properties of pervious concrete, Cement Concrete Research 34. pp: 177-184.

20.    ASTM, 2014, “ASTM D-4491-14, Standard Test Methods for Water Permeability of Geotextiles by Permittivity,” American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

21.    Miklas Scholz. Water Quality Improvement Performance of Geotextiles within Permeable Pavement Systems. Water 2013, 5, 462-479; doi: 10.3390/w5020462

22.    Omoto S, Yoshida T, Hata S. Full-scale durability evaluation testing Of interlocking block pavement with geotextile. Seventh international conference on concrete block paving (PAVE AFRICA), Sun City, South Africa, 12–15 October 2003

23.    Heerten, G., and Kohlhase, S., 2000. Geotextiles in Coastal and Harbor Engineering. In Bruun, P. (Ed). Port Engineering. Houston: Gulf Publishing, pp. 512–530.

24.    Chen J, and Fayerweather W. (1988). Epidemiologic study of workers exposed to titanium dioxide. J. Occup. Med. 30(12):937-42.

25.    Shihui Shen, Maria Burton, Bertram Jobson and Liv Haselbach, Pervious concrete with titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst compound for a greener urban road environment, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 35, 2012, 874-883.

26.    A.K. Ghosh, F.G. Wakim and R.R. Addiss: Photoelectronic processes in rutile. Phys. Rev. 184, 979 (1969).

27.    Chusid, M. Photocatalysts keep concrete clean and depollute the air we breathe. Precast 23 Solutions.

28.    http://www.solutions.precast.org/precast-concrete-depollution-and-24 photo catalysis-case-study. Accessed Jan. 2, 2011.

29.    http://www.perviouspavement.org/downloads/pervious_maintenance_operations_guide.pdf

30.    American Concrete Institute (ACI) 2010 pervious concrete (522R-10), Farmington Hills, MI.

31.    Watershed Management Institute (WMI). 1997, operation, Maintenance, and Management of storm water Management system. Prepared by US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of water, Washington, DC.

32.    http://www.vtt.fi/files/sites/class/D3_1_CLASS_WP3_LCA_and_LCCA_pervious_walkways.pdf /life cycle assessment (LCA) and costing analysis (LCCA) for permeable concrete (author-Sirje Vares & Sakari Pulakka).accessed Jan 1, 2015.

33.    Dr. V. Ramasammy “Studies on the effects of vehicular pollutants on road side plants of Puducherry”

34.    D’Arcy BJ, Usman F, Griffiths D, Chatfield P. Initiatives to tackle diffuse pollution in the UK. Water Science and Technology 1998; 38(10): pp.131–8, 2006.

35.    NCDENR. Updated draft manual of storm water best management  Practices. Public consultation document DOC–7-1. Division of Water Quality, NC, USA: North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR); 2005.

36.    Chen, M., and Y. Liu. NOx removal from vehicle emissions by functionality surface of permeable pavement”. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 174, 2010, pp. 375-379

37.    Mikkelsen P.S., Weyer G., Berry C., Walden Y., Colandini V., Poulsen  S., Grotehusmann  D.,Rohlfing  R.,  1994.  Pollution from urban Storm water infiltration. Water, Science and Technology 29, pp. 293-302

38.    Alkorta I, Hernández-Allica J, Becerril JM, Amezaga I, Albizu I, Garbisu C (2004) recent findings on the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with environmentally toxic heavy metals and metalloids such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnology 3:71–90

39.    Alkorta I, Hernández-Allica J, Becerril JM, Amezaga I, Albizu I, Garbisu C (2004) recent findings on the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with environmentally toxic heavy metals and metalloids such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 3:71–90

40.    ZoBell, C. E., 1969. Microbial modification of crude oil in the sea. In API/FWPCA Joint Conference on Prevention and Control of Oil Spills, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., pp. 317-26.

41.    Friede, J., Guire, P., and Gholson, R. K., 1972. Assessment of biodegradation potential for controlling oil spills on the high seas. U.S. Coast Guard Report, No. 4110.1/3.1

42.    Crow, S. A., Meyers, S. P., and Ahearn, D. G., 1974. Microbiological aspects of petroleum degradation in the aquatic environment. La Mer, 12, 37-54.

43.    Shukla Abha and Cameotra Swaranjit Singh “Hydrocarbon Pollution: Effects on Living Organisms, Remediation of Contaminated Environments, and Effects of Heavy Metals Co-Contamination on Bioremediation”

44.    Costello J., Morbidity and Mortality Study of Shale Oil Workers in the United States, Environmental Health Perspectives,Vol. 30, pp. 205-208, 1979

45.    Malhotra V. M. (1994). “Fly ash, slag, silica fume and rice husk ash in concrete — A review.” Concrete International, pp. 23–28.

46.    Amarasinghe, U. A., Shah, T., Turral, H. and Anand, B.K. 2007. India’s water future to 2025-2050: Business as usual scenario and deviations. Research Report 123, IWMI. 52pp.

47.    Amol P. Kedar, Vikrant S. Vairagade, Dr. S. A. Dhale “Quality, Testing and Engineering Applications of Pervious Concrete- A State of Art” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 13, Issue 4 Ver. III (Jul. - Aug. 2016), PP 84-90

48.    Chusid, M. Photo catalysts keep concrete clean and depollute the air we breathe. Precast 24 Solutions.

49.    http://www.solutions.precast.org/precast-concrete-depollution-and- 25 photo catalysis-case-study. Accessed Jan. 2, 2011.

50.    “Permeable Pavements Recommended Design Guidelines by” American Society of Civil Engineers.


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10.

Authors:

Laxmi Kant Saini, Satyam Mehta, Rahul Ahuja, Rakesh Kumar, Ravi Ranjan Kumar

Paper Title:

Analysis of Concrete Properties by Recycled Plastic Bounded Concretes (RPBCs)

Abstract: In this paper Polypropylene (PP) granules used as replacement for fine as well as coarse aggregates for producing concrete cubes and cylinders has been investigated and reported. PP based concrete cubes and cylinders were cast manually and the strength of the test concrete in terms of compression and split tension were experimentally evaluated. It is found that the strength of plastic replaced concrete in terms of compression and split tension can be comparable with the conventional concrete. The present study is aimed at concrete mix with partial replacement of coarse aggregate (1%, 2%, 3%) and fine aggregates (10%, 15%, 20%) by PP granules that will provide an advantage in reducing the dead weight of structure. This mix in the form of cubes and cylinders were subjected to compression and split tension to ascertain the strength parameter. Hence the use of plastic granules in concrete making is not only beneficial but also helpful in disposal of plastic wastes.

Keywords:
 polypropylene, granules, compressive test, split tensile test, partial replacement, and plastic waste.


References:

1.       M.a. Dalhat and h.i. Al-abdul wahhab, “cement-less and asphalt-less bounded by recycled plastic”,
2.       Elsevier ltd, construction and building materials 119 (2016) 206-214
3.       Zainab z. Ismail and enas a. Al hashmi, “use of plastic waste in concrete mixture as aggregate replacement”, elsevier ltd, waste management 28 (2008) 2041 – 2047
4.       T subramani and v.k. Pugal, “experimental study on plastic waste as a coarse aggregate for structural concrete”, international journal of application or innovation in engineering and management, vol 4, issue 5, may 2015
5.       Valeria corinaldesi and jacopo donnini, “lightweight plasters containing plastic waste for sustainable and energy efficient building”,elsevier ltd, construction and building materials 94 (2015) 337-345
6.       Rafat siddique and jamal khatib, “use of recycled plastic in concrete: a review”, elsevier ltd, waste management 28 (2008) 1835-1852
7.       Praveen mathew and shibi varghese, “recycled plastics as coarse aggregates for structural concrete”, international journal of innovative research in science, engineering and technology, vol 2, issue 3, march 2013
8.       Shutong yang and xiaoqiang yue, “properties of self compacting lightweight concrete containing recycled plastic particles”, elsevier ltd, construction and building materials 84 (2015) 444-453
9.       Brahim safi and mohammed saidi, “use of plastic waste as fine aggregate in the self compacting mortars: effect on physical and mechanical properties”, elsevier ltd, construction and building materials 43 (2013) 436-442
10.    Lei gu and togay ozbakkaloglu, “use of recycled plastic in concrete: a critical review”, elsevier ltd, waste management 51 (2016) 19-42  

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11.

Authors:

Kamlesh Saini, Avinash Agrawal, Ankur Goyal

Paper Title:

Assessment of Travel Behaviour for Jaipur Metro using Revealed Preference Survey

Abstract:  Infrastructure, specifically Transportation considered as the major factor for the continuous development of any country and its economy. The cities around the world are facing major problems due to improper planning and non -implementation of modern transportation techniques. Metro being Low Carbon Transport, it is considered as an Economic solution to reduce pollution in the city. Jaipur metro is designed keeping in mind the comfort of the passengers and the traffic on   the road. In this paper survey was conducted on 9 metro stations starting from mansarovar to chandpol. This survey includes various factors like purpose of trip, mode of travel, Reason for Preference and waiting time of other mode of Travel than metro, etc. The results provide us the response of citizens of Jaipur on the present scenario of the metro and the problems facing by them to travel to the metro. The results shows that comfort and reduction in travel time are the main considerations in preferring metro rail but due to the networking and fare problems they do not likely to travel in the Jaipur metro. It is seen from the analysis that this survey requires immediate attention for the implementation of the metro rail system before it becomes too late

Keywords:   Infrastructure, Low carbon transport, Scenario, Implementation


References:

1.       Wark K, Warner CF. Air pollution, its origin and control.New York: IEP A Dun Donnelly Publishers; 1976.
2.       Pandey AC, Murty BP, Das RR. Some aspects of air pollution climatology of Raipur and Korba (India). Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2008; 1(5):1–8.

3.       MGI. India’s urban awakening: Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic growth. McKinsey Global Institute (MGI). Available from: https://www.mckinsey.com

4.       Sekar SP, Karthikeyan D. Chennai metro-will it be boon for development of Chennai City. Urban Transport Journal, Institute of Urban Transport (India). 2010; 6(4):41–60.

5.       Goel R, Tiwari G. Promoting low carbon transport in India - Case study of metro rails in Indian Cities. 2014 Jun.p. 1–88.

6.       Ramteke AM Gajghate V. Feasibility study of metro rail project in Nagpur City. International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering. 2015 Apr; 4(4):139– 46.

7.       Sreedharan E. Need for urban mass rapid transport system for our cities. Available from: http://pib.nic.in/feature/ feyr2003/fapr2003/f170420031.html

8.       Xie MQ, Li XM, Zhou WL, Fu YB. Forecasting the shortterm passenger flow on high-speed railway with neural networks. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience.2014; (2014):8. Article ID 375487.

9.       Tsai TH, Lee CK, Wei CH. Neural network based temporal feature models for short-term railway passenger demand forecasting. Expert Systems with Applications. 2009; 36(2):3728–36.

10.    Dougherty M. A review of neural networks applied to transport. Transportation Research Part C. 1995; 3(4):247–60.

11.    Karuppannan S. Contributions of metro rail projects in the urban dynamics of Indian metro cities: Case Study of Chennai and Bangalore. 48th ISOCARP Congress; 2012. p. 1–10.


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12.

Authors:

Kamlesh Saini, Kunal Pareek, Arpit Gupta, Milind Tiwari, Anil Sharma

Paper Title:

Analysis of Accidental Studies Gopalpura Jaipur

Abstract: India is a developing country, with the rise in development & technology there has been significant increase in the population. With these increments there has been tremendous increase in the vehicle population, thus leading to denser traffic flow and hours of traffic jams. In order to make those traffics jams free it is essential to survey the traffic flow, hence traffic flow study is an essential part  to determine the smooth traffic flow. By doing such traffic flow study one can not only determine the density of  the flow & can also determine & analyze the current road network & can develop new methods  for the better amendments of the road thus making it better  in terms of  lives & time saving. This also reduces the no. of accidents as the environment of roads is healthy for running. Generally accidents occur at intersection where low traffic volume mixes with high speed traffic & also due to asymmetry of roads & uneven intersections. In this paper the traffic survey is done in the area of Gopalpura (Jaipur). Since the traffic is heterogeneous so the survey has been done by converting different types of vehicles into equivalent passenger car & expressing the volume in terms of Passenger Car Unit (PCU) per hour. The vehicles of highly heterogeneous traffic with widely varying physical and operational characteristics such as the one prevailing on Indian roads, based on occupancy, any convenient lateral position on the road without any lane discipline. The PCU estimates, made through microscopic simulation, for a wide range of traffic volume and roadway conditions indicate that the PCU value of a vehicle significantly changes with change in traffic volume and width of roadway.

Keywords:
Black spots, traffic density, PCU


References:

1.       S K Khanna C E G Justo. Highway Engineering. Nem Chand and Bros, Roorkee, 2001.
2.       Justo, C.E.G. and S.B.S. Tuladhar (1984), “Passenger Car Unit Values for Urban Roads.” Journal of Indian Roads Congress, pp.188-238

3.       Ahmed Al.Kaishy, Younghan Jung and Hesham Rakha. (2005), “Developing Passenger Car Equivalency Factors for Heavy Vehicles during Congestion”. journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 131, No. 7, pp. 514- 523.

4.       Arasan, V.T. andy Koshy, R. (2004), “Simulation of Heterogeneous Traffic to Derive Capacity and Service Volume Standards for Urban Roads.” Journal of Indian Roads Congress, Vol. 65-2, pp. 219-242.

5.       Arasan, V.T. and Koshy, R. (2005), “Methodology for Modeling Highly Heterogeneous Traffic Flow”. Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 131, No. 7, pp. 544- 551.

6.       Dimension and weight of road design vehicles IRC:3-1983.

7.       P. P., Chandra, S., Gangopadhaya, S. (2005). Lateral Distribution of Mixed on Two-Lane Roads. Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 597-600.

8.       P. P., Chandra, S., Gangopadhaya, S. (2006). Lateral Distribution Lateral Distribution of Mixed Traffic on Two-Lane Roads. Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 597-600.

9.       Sharma, S. C. 1994. Seasonal Traffic Counts for a Precise Estimation of AADT. ITE Journal, Vol. 64, No. 9, pp. 34–41.

10.    Balaji, K., Bharadwaj, M. R. K., Dey, P. P. (2013). A Study on Lateral Placement and Speed of Vehicles on Two-Lane Roads. Indian Highways, A review on road and road transport development, IRC, 41, 9. 0376-7256. Dey, P. P., Chandra, S., Gangopadhaya, S. (2005).

11.    Lateral Distribution of Mixed on Two-Lane Roads. Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 597-600.

12.    Tamiya, N., Mandai, H., & Fukae, T. (1996). Optical Spread Spectrum Radar for Lateral Detection in Vehicles. Proceedings of Spread Spectrum Techniques and
Applications, IEEE 4th International Symposium, Mainz, IEEE, 1, 195- 198.

13.    IRC:9-1972 Traffic census of non urban roads.

14.    IRC-171977 Guidelines on re-populations and control of mixed traffic in urban areas.

15.    IRC-106-1990 Guidelines for capacity of urban roads in plain areas.

16.    IRC-102-1988 Traffic studies for planning by-pass around town. R Parvathy. 2013, Development of new PCU values and Effect of Length Of Passenger Cars on PCU, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Volume 2, Special Issue 1.Khanna S.K., and Justo C.E.G., 1976, Highway engineering, New Chand & Bros, Roorkee.


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13.

Authors:

Suresh Soni, Robin Jain, Snehil Raj, Radhey Gopal

Paper Title:

Automatic Toll Collection System (ATC)

Abstract:  In the current scenario, the problem arises at toll booth comprises of mismanagement of time, long queue for the payment and the payment in cash at toll booths. This paper implements the  automatic toll collection (ATC) system, aims to annihilate the lag on toll roads by collecting tolls electronically without making vehicle stop at toll booth, In order to make toll deduction by enhancing toll more efficient and perfect. This paper focuses on automatic toll collection (ATC) system using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, Wi-Fi technology, microcontroller technology and Android app. In this system each user holds RFID unique identification tag or card for recognizing the vehicle using radio frequency, android phone app at which details of the user stored in the database of toll system, Visual basic 6.0 craves for feeding details of users and the data will be maintained in Microsoft access, transmitter on car transmits data to receivers mounted at the toll plaza and get sensed by the IR. These functions will be assigned by RTO or traffic governing authority. The toll tax will be deducted from his account balance. As vehicle doesn’t have to stop in the queue, it assures time saving, fuel conservation and also contributing in saving of money.

Keywords:
ATC system, RFID Reader, RFID Tag, Toll booth, Wi-Fi, Android Mobile, Toll Tax, IR Sensors, RF Sensors, Congestion, Mismanagement.


References:

1.    Bahubali  Akiwate, Manjunath Suryavanshi, Mallappa Gurav“ Automated Toll Collection” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Volume 5, Issue 10, October-2015
2.    Sahil Bhosale, Rohit Chavan, Sunil Bhadvan, Prajakta Mohite “AUTOMATIC VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION AND TOLL COLLECTION USING RFID”   International
Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) Volume: 03 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016

3.    Adesh Mhatre, shilpesh Agre, Anil avhad, Nikesh Patel  “Electronic Toll Collection(ETC)”  International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and
Communication Volume: 3 Issue: 4

4.    Shilpa Mahajan “Microcontroller Based Automatic Toll Collection System”  International Journal of Information and Computation Technology ISSN0974-2239Volume 3, Number 8 (2013), pp. 793-800

5.    IBI group, “group, “Toll Technology Considerations, Opportunities, and  Risks”, Final Report – Volume 2, September 20, 2006

6.    http://www.nhtis.org/nhtis/  April4, 2017
7.    http://nhai.org.in/spw/TollInformationmj.aspx April3, 2017
8.    http://www.indiantollways.com/category/toll-plaza/ April3, 2017

9.    Raadhikaa, ”Electronic Toll Collection System”, UNIASCIT, Vol (1), 2011, 05-081


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14.

Authors:

Pran Nath Dadhich, Aditya Prakash Srivastava, Lavish Middha, Ayush Sharma

Paper Title:

Assessment of Street Encroachment through Vehicle Parking in Residential Area of Jaipur

Abstract: This paper evaluates the parking encroachment by local resident along the roads in front of their houses. These encroachments create the congestion on the road and also affect the free flow of vehicles in the street. .To find the encroachment a survey has been conducted A, D and E block of Nirman Nagar Jaipur. These blocks are densely populated and also comprising of some shopping centers. Main objective is to find the reasons behind parking on streets instead of parking available in their residence. Result shows that due to only one parking in their houses, local residents are parking in front of their house. Another finding shows that due to unavailability of paid parking in their block, residents have to park in front of their house.

Keywords:
 Parking encroachment, Survey, Residents


References:

1.    Patel, M. and Dave, S. (2016). “Modeling the Response to Paid on Street Parking Policy for Two Wheelers and Four Wheelers on Busy Urban Streets of CBD Area – A Case Study of Surat City.” Transportation Research Procedia Volume 17, pp. 576-585
2.    Hardik Sukhadia, H., Dave, S. Shah, J. and Rathva, D. (2016), “The Effect of Events on Pedestrian Behavior and its Comparison with Normal Walking Behavior in CBD Area in Indian Context. “ Transportation Research Procedia Volume 17, pp. 653-663.

3.    Chowdhury, I.R. (2015). “Traffic Congestion and Environmental Quality: A Case Study of Kolkata City.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, Volume 4 (7), pp.20-28.

4.    Chakrabartty, A. and Gupta, S. (2014). “Traffic Congestion in the Metropolitan City of Kolkata.”  Journal of Infrastructure Development, Volime 6 (1).
5.    Chand, S. and Chandra, S. (2014). “Impact Of Bus Stop on Urban Traffic Characteristics – A Review of Recent Findings.” Journal of Society for Transportation and Traffic Studies, Volume 5 (2), pp 57-72.
6.    Reddy R., Rao S.N., Rao C.R. (2008), “ Modelling and evaluation patterns on the impact of on-street parking in reference to traffic mobility”, Journal of Indian Roads Congress, Volume 69 (1), 101 – 109.


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15.

Authors:

Bharti Joshi, Nishant Agarwal, Gaurav Gupta, Sharad Kumawat

Paper Title:

Cleaner Transportation

Abstract:  Development in the technologies and new trends in transportation has developed out the overall transportation system and the Gross Domestic Value (GDP) of the country. But with faster development of such trends the environment had a devastating effect on its quality and parameters cleaner transportation is a new of approaching out the development of the transportation system. Cleaner transportation deals out with the factor that may lead to a country development in a manner that will have a less impact on the environment conditions prevailing out in a country. Cleaner transportation basically deals in three phase (3- phase) way of approaching out the transportation system i.e. improving out the characteristics of vehicle and transportation management. Cleaner transportation also includes out various different ways of approaching out the transportation system. In this paper we have shown out the various methods that have been prevailing out in the country basically the recent development trends in country which have proven out to reduce the impact of vehicle on environment to some extent. Odd- Even in Delhi is the best example of such development which maintain out the air quality in the Delhi city. Car Pooling and E-rickshaw are also the different methods of such development. In cleaner transportation we have also shown the basic methods and technologies which can be implemented down in the system of transportation for improving down the quality of transportation and making down it cleaner and sustainable vehicle can be easily adoptable to the society catalytic converters and carbon resonators are the same technologies which can be further adopted down in the society and make it extent for larger use. These technologies may reduce the quality of resultant generated and make the quality of air better and make better environment.

Keywords:
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Gross domestic product (GDP), Low level emission fuel, Intelligent transportation system (ITS).


References:

1.       Air pollution by MN Rao. And H.V. Rao, Tata Mcgraw hill Publication Company limited, New Delhi, 1989.
2.       Air pollution engineering By S.K Garg, Khanna Publication. March 1979.

3.       Air quality management in china:Issues ,challenges ,and options, journal of environmental sciences vol.24(1): 2-13,2012.

4.       About catalaysis science & technology “ royal society of chemistry

5.       B. Chen and H. Cheng, "A review of the applications of agent technology in traffic and transportation systems", IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 485-497, 2010

6.       E. I. Vlahogianni, G. Yannis and J. C. Golias, "Detecting powered-two-wheeler incidents from high resolution naturalistic data", Transp. Res. F, Traffic Psychol. Behav., vol. 22, pp. 86-95, 2014

7.       Goodyear releases electricity generating tyres concept, (BH-03), Alternative energy news (AE NEWS), internet.

8.       H. A. S. Lubis, "Motorcycles growth and its impacts to urban transportation", Proc. Eastern Asia Soc. Transp. Stud., vol. 7, pp. 329, 2009
9.       ITS handbook, 2000 PIARC Committee on Intelligent Transport, Artech House, Bosten London, 1999.[10] International Energy Agency, Clean energy ministerial, and electric vehicles initative (april 2013),”globel EV Outlook
10.    2013 – under standing tha Electrical vehicle landscape.

11.    “IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine,”in  IEEE

12.    Vehicular Technology magazine, vol. 1, no.1,pp.0_1-0_1, March 2006.

13.    “IEEE Enterprise [advertisement],”in IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, vol.1, no.1, pp.0_2-0_2, March 2016.

14.    Progress in carbon di oxide sepration and capture, journal of environmental sciences, vol.20(1): 14-27,2008.

15.    Moyar R.A, motor vehicle operating cost and related characteristics on mutreated gravel and Portland cement concrete road surface proceeding of highway
research board, WashingtonD.C.,1939.

16.    Moyar R.A, and R. Winfrey, cost of operating rural- mail carriers motor vehicles on pavement, gravel and earth, Iowa state college engineering experiment station Bulletin No. 143, 1939.[16] M. J. Cobo, F. Chiclana, A. Collop, J. de Ona and E. Herrera-Viedma, "A bibliometric analysis of the intelligent

17.    Transportation systems research based on science mapping", IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 901-908, 2014

18.    N.-E. El Faouzi, H. Leung and A. Kurian, "Data fusion in intelligent transportation systems: Progress and challenges— A survey", Inf. Fusion, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 4-10, 2011.

19.    Odd-Even ( www.delhi.gov.in), 2016.

20.    Renault press releasec(2012-12-17) “Renault delivers first zoe ev”. Gren car congress.

21.    Stoneman B,the effect of dynamic route guidance in London, TRL report, 348 Crowthorne, 1992

22.    Traffic engineering by L.R. Khadiyali ,Khanna publication, 2015.

23.    T. Oketch, "New modeling approach for mixed-traffic streams with nonmotorized vehicles", Transp. Res. Rec., vol. 1705, pp. 61-69, 2000


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16.

Authors:

Haseeb Muhammad, Sarbasri Nath, Satyajit Nath

Paper Title:

Effect of Blending Epoxy Resin with High Asphaltene Concentrated Bitumen

Abstract: This paper focuses to manufacture a high quality bitumen binder of aggregate as the pavement material. High asphaltene concentrated bitumen is prepared by mixing asphaltene powder into the bitumen of penetration grade 80/100 and variations in viscosity as function asphaltene content and resin additive concentration were determined. The effects of the epoxy additive were examined by Brookfield Viscometer, penetrometer, Ball Ring softening point, RTFOT (rolling thin film oven test). The optimum requirement of the epoxy resin for modification of the bitumen is found to be varying from 2% to 5% (w/w) on the basis of yield viscosity, penetration, and softening point. The potential result of blending of additives are minimizing rutting, solving problem of stripping and enhancing properties of fatigue life.   

Keywords:
 modification, epoxy asphalt, thermoset polymer,  PMB, asphaltene.


References:

1.       Read, John, and David Whiteoak. The shell bitumen handbook. Thomas Telford, 2003.
2.       Brown, E. Ray, Prithvi S. Kandhal, and Jingna Zhang. "Performance testing for hot mix asphalt." National Center for Asphalt Technology Report 01-05 (2001).

3.       Wu, Hongchao, and Michael R. Kessler" Asphaltene: structural characterization, molecular functionalization, and application as a low-cost filler in epoxy composites." RSC Advances 5.31 (2015): 24264-24273.

4.       Lu X, Isacsson U. Chemical and rheological evaluation of ageing properties of SBS polymer modified bitumens. Fuel 1998;77: 961–72.

5.       Airey GD. Rheological properties of styrene butadiene styrene polymer modified road bitumens. Fuel 2003;82(14):1709–19.

6.       Gonzales O, Munoz ME, Santamaria A, Garcia-Morales M, Navarro FJ, Partal P. Rheology and stability of bitumen/EVA blends. European Polymer Journal 2004;40 (10):2365–72.

7.       Fawcett AH, McNally T. Blends of bitumen with various polyolefins. Polymer 2000;41(14):5315–26.

8.       Tayfur S, Özen H, Aksoy A. Investigation of rutting performance of asphalt mixtures containing polymer modifiers. Construction and Building Materials
2007;21(2):328–37.

9.       Valtorta D, Poulikakos LD, Partl MN, Mazza E. Rheological properties of polymer modified bitumen from long-term field tests. Fuel 2006;86(7– 8):938–48.

10.    Perez-Lepe AP, Martinez-Boza FJ, Gallegos C, Gonzales O, Munoz ME, Santamaria A. Influence of the processing conditions on the rheological behaviour of polymer-modified bitumen. Fuel 2003;82 (11):1339–48.

11.    Garcia-Morales M, Partal P, Navarro FJ, Martinez-Boza F, Gallegos C, Gonzales N, et al. Viscous properties and microstructure of recycled eva modified bitumen.
Fuel 2004;83 (1):31–8.

12.    Stastna J, Zanzotto L, Vacin OJ. Viscosity function in polymer-modified asphalts. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003;259:200–7.


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17.

Authors:

Akheram Choudhary, Vishal Kumawat, Vikash Dulariya, Sumit Kumar Meena

Paper Title:

Effect of Glass Fiber on Ordinary Reinforcement Cement Concrete

Abstract:  Concrete is a tension fragile construction material, which is often crack obsessed connected to plastic and tougher states, drying shrinkage, and the like. Moreover, concrete suffers from very low tensile strength, very less ductility and little resistance to cracking. to improve these value of these properties, many attempt has been made to study the effects of addition of glass fibers in Reinforced cement concrete. In the current practical research glass fibers in different percentage 0 to 0.1% has been studied for the effects on mechanical properties of concrete by carrying compressive strength test, splitting tensile strength test and flexural strength test. As concrete is frail in tension and has snapped characteristics. The theory of using fibers in concrete to improve the characteristics of construction materials is not new. Continuous use of  reinforcement in concrete also increases the ductility and strength, but requires careful placement and labor skills. Alternative introduction to fibers in discrete form in reinforced concrete may provide better solution. When concrete fails randomly respective fibers start working, arrest cracks formation and propagation, and thus improve strength and ductility. As India is one of the largest producers of glass, hence its potential application in many branches of engineering should be developed. In the present work the tensile, compressive, mechanical properties of glass fiber without modification and after modification with 0.5% alkali and 0.5% latex polymer has been modified by taking quantity of glass as 1%  and 2% of cement. This modification of glass fiber improves tensile strength of glass fiber also water absorption has been reduced. These properties are compared by taking tests on plain, concrete.

Keywords:
  Concrete, building material, flexural strength, cement.


References:

1.    Chandramouli K., Srinivasa Rao P.,Seshadri Sekhar T., Pannirselvam N .and Sravana P; et al (March 2010) “Rapid Chloride Permeability Test for Durability Studies
On Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete”;;VOL. 5, NO.ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences: 67 –71.

2.    IS 516 (1999) ,Indian standard methods of tests for strength of concrete,(Reaffirmed 1999) , Bureau of Indian Standards , New Delhi.

3.    IS 456 (2000) Indian standard code of practice for Plain and Reinforced concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

4.    IS 5816 (1970) , Method of tests for splitting tensile strength of concrete cylinders, Bureau of Indian Standards , New Delhi.

5.    IS 8112 Indian standard specification for 43 grade ordinary Portland cement Bureau  of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

6.    IS 10262 (1982), Recommended guidelines for Concrete Mix Design , Bureau of Indian Standards , New Delhi

7.    Sheik, S. And Homam M.;(2004) “A Decade of Performance of FRP-Repaired Concrete Structures” Proceedings  of Talah Aissa, Kharchi F. and R. Chaid et al., (June2011) “Contribution of natural pozzolana to durability of high performance concrete in chloride environment”; The India Concrete Journal–35 -45.theISIS-SHM 2004 Workshop. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. –751-758.

    

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18.

Authors:

Kamlesh Saini, Ramkesh Prajapat

Paper Title:

Effective Utilization of Plastic Waste in Bitumen Pavement

Abstract: In the present scenario modernization is increasing with very large rate. This modernization leading toward development of country but in another side it also produces some harmful ingredient for environment. These ingredients are harmful for environment at time of production and also at the time of disposal. This harmful ingredient mainly including plastic waste. In current scenario, in this rapidly changing world use of plastic is increases at a higher rate. In our day to day life we are using  huge amount   of plastic in form of poly bags , packing bags , language carrying  bags , plastic bottles , plastic  glass and in any other form. These all type of plastic waste are leading to disposal in environment or water body, burnt and dispose to agricultural land. These all method of disposal that we are using harmful to environment .So that now it is demand of time to introduce a safer method than later one of disposal of these plastic waste. It is leading plastic waste toward an eco-friendly and economic use in bitumen pavement. In pavement bitumen is use as binding material and plastic also behave as a binding material with some limitation. By replacing some amount of bitumen up to a limit then it increase some engineering property of bitumen. So it will be both environment friendly and economic solution of using plastic waste. By replacing bitumen up to 10%-12% then it will make effective main engineering property. it decrease the penetration value , increase softening point ,increase flash and fire point and also increase stripping value , these are all in favour of good pavement . 

Keywords:
 plastic waste, bitumen pavement, environment, Disposal.


References:

1.       Justo C.E.G. and A. veeraragavan, (2013)
2.       utilization of waste plastic in asphalting of roads amit gawande*, g. s. zamre, v. c. renge, g. r. bharsakale and SAURABH TAYDE Reuse of Plastic Waste in Road Construction: A Review By Amol S. Bale

3.       Guidelines for the Use of Plastic Waste in Rural Roads Construction by Dr. V. Vasudevan, TEC, Madurai, and CRRI, New Delhi. National Rural Roads Development, Agency Ministry of Rural Development.

4.       National Plastic Waste Management Task Force (1997).

5.       Justo, C.E.G. and Veeraragavan, A. (2002) Utilization of Waste Plastic Bags in Bituminous Mix for Improved Per- formance of Roads. Banglore University, Bengaluru.

6.       Indicative Operational Guidelines on Construction Polymer – Bitumen road” – Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests. Probes/101/2005-2006

7.       Dr. Y. P. Gupta, Shailendra Tiwari and J. K. Pandey, “Utilisation of Plastic Waste in Construction of Bituminous Roads”, NBM & CW, March (2010) p. 92.

8.       Manual on Municipal Solid Waste Management, Table 3, 6 (2000).

9.       Plastics for Environment and Sustainable Development, ICPE, 8(1) (2007).

10.    I.Vegas, J.A. Iban˜ez, J.T. San Jose´, A. Urzelai.,(2008), “Construction demolition wastes, Waelz slag and MSWI bottom ash: A comparative technical analysis as material for road construction”, Waste Management, Vol. 28, pp 565–574.

11.    Jose Ramon Jimenez.,(2011), “Utilisation of unbound recycled aggregates from selected CDW in unpaved rural roads”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 58, Construction Engineering Area, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain, pp 88– 97.

12.    Khan Amjad, Gangadhar, Murali Mohan Murali and Raykar Vinay, (1999) "Effective Utilization of Waste Plastics in Asphalting of Roads", R.V. College Of Engineering, Bangalore.


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19.

Authors:

Pran Nath Dadhich, Kamlesh Saini, Jitendra Raman, Lokesh Meena, Manish

Paper Title:

Encroachment Evaluation in Ecozones of Jaipur using Geospatial Technology

Abstract:  In the last 30 years, India had witnessed a radical transformation of urban scene. In particular, during this period, the million plus cities began to grow rapidly. With the increase in urban population, encroachment is very common in developing city. Encroachment is taking place in the form of built up and agriculture in Jaipur city especially along the sewer. This sewer is a natural sewer, known as Amanishah Nallah which was earlier Dravyawati River. This paper evaluated encroachment on land use in the form of agriculture and settlement in the Eco zones of Jaipur City. Remote sensing, GPS and GIS have been used to extract the information related to land use change and its spatial and temporal variation. In the present study, change is assessed using satellite data 2008 and 2011 of Jaipur city. The GPS survey is conducted to find out the current scenario of development and changes in land use in the Eco zones of Jaipur city with special emphasis on sewer. This survey indicated that there is enormous change found in field survey and most of the encroachment took place around the sewer by cultivated as well as by settlement.

Keywords:
  Satellite data, Land use, Remote Sensing, GPS, GIS


References:

1.       Dadhich, P. N. and Hanaoka, S. (2011) “Spatiotemporal urban growth modeling of Jaipur, India”, Journal of Urban Technology, Vol. 18, No.3, pp.
2.       Dadhich, P. N. and Hanaoka, S. (2010) “Remote sensing, GIS and Markov’s method for land use change detection and prediction of Jaipur District”, Journal of Geomatics, Vol.4, No.1, pp.9-15.

3.       Ajay Singh Tomar, U. C. Singh (2012) “Land Resources Expansion Monitoring and Management: A RS-GIS Approach”, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2 (10).

4.       Khan, S., B. Bhuvneswari and M. Quereshi (1999) “Land Use/Land Cover Mapping and Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS: A Case Study of Jamuna and its Environs”, Socio-Economic Development Record, Vol. 6, pp. 32-33.

5.       S.M.J.S. Samarasinghea, H.K. Nandalalb, D.P.Weliwitiyac, J.S.M.Fowzed, M.K. Hazarikad, L. Samarakoond (2010) “Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for
Flood Risk Analysis: A Case Study at Kalu- Ganga River, Sri Lanka”, International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science, Volume 38 (8).

6.       C.N. Mundia, and M. Aniya, 2005. Analysis of land use/cover changes and urban expansion of Nairobi city using remote sensing and GIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 13 (10).

7.       F. Raihan and N. Kaiser (2012) “Land Use Changing Scenario at Kerniganj Thana of Dhaka District Using Remote Sensing and GIS” Journal of Environment, Vol. 01, Issue 03.


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20.

Authors:

Laxmkant Saini, Bhojraj Singh Shekhawat, Bhuvnesh Kumar Goyal, Ashok Kumar Saini, Himanshu Sharma

Paper Title:

Enhancement of Concrete Properties by using Silica Fume and Fly Ash as an Additive

Abstract: This paper investigates the potential of using design of experiments and neural networks to determine the effect of silica fume and fly ash replacements, from 0 to 10% on early and late compressive, shear and tensile strength from 7 to 28 days, of high-strength concrete, at water-cementations material ratios in the range of 0.0–0.5. The research reported in this paper shows the following conclusions. Using a simplex-centroid mixture experiment design, a much smaller number of experiments need to be performed to obtain meaningful data. Analyses of variance to test the effects of the variables and their interactions on concrete strength can be performed. The strength ratio, i.e., the percentage of strength of concrete containing fly ash and silica-fume to strength of concrete without fly ash and silica fume (pure-cement concrete) based on the same w/b and the same age, is significantly reduced as the fly ash and silica fume replacement increases, is somewhat reduced as the water-binder ratio decreases, and is highly significantly reduced as the age decreases. The higher fly ash content mixes yielded lower strength ratios throughout, the difference being greater at early age and low water-binder ratio. The higher silica fume content mixes higher strength ratio throughout.

Keywords:
Compressive Strength; split tensile strength, cube; cylinder; concrete; minerals.


References:

1.       Chalee, W., Jaturapitakkul, C and Chindaprasirt, P. (2009) Predicting the Chloride Penetration of Fly Ash Concrete in Seawater. Marine structures, 22, 341
353.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marstruc.2008.12.001

2.       Crouch, L.K., Hewitt, R. and Byard, B. (2007) High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. 2007 World of Coal Ash (WOCA), Northern Kentucky, 7-10 May 2007, 1-14.

3.       Dhir, R.K. and Jones, M.R. (1999) Development of Chloride-Resisting Concrete Using Fly Ash. Fuel, 78,137-142.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0016-2361(98)00149-5
4.       Tahir, M.A. and Sabir, M. (2005) A Study on Durability of Fly Ash Cement Mortar. 30th Conference of Our World in Concrete and Structures, Singapore, 23-24 August 2005, 1-7.
5.       Xu, G.Q., Liu, J.H., Qiao, L. and Sun, Y.M. (2010) Experimental Study on Carbonation and Steel Corrosion of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. Asia-PacificPower and Energy Engineering Conference, Chengdu, 28-31 March 2010, 1-4.

6.       Murali, G., Vasanth, R., Balasubramaniam, A.M. and Karikalan, E. (2012) Experimental Study on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. International Journal of Engineering and Development, 4, 317-320.

7.       Mann, S. (2006) Nanotechnology and Construction, Nano Forum Report on Nanotechnology and Construction. 1-55.  www.nanoforum.org

8.       Sanchez, F. and Sobolev, K. (2010) Nano Technology in Concrete—A Review. Construction and Building Materials, 24, 2060-2071. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.03.014

9.       Bjornstrom, J., Martinelli, A., Matic, A., Borjesson, L. and Panas, I. (2004) Accelerating Effects of Colloidal Nano- Silica for Beneficial Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate
System. Chemical Physics Letter, 392, 242-248.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2004.05.071

10.    Perumal, K. and Sundararajan, R. (2004) Effect of Partial Replacement of Cement with Silica Fume on the Strength and Durability Characteristics of High Performance Concrete. 29th Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES, Singapore, 25-26 August 2004, 397-404.


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21.

Authors:

Bharti Joshi, Shivansi, Monika Sen, Dinesh, Keya, Vinod, Ram Shankar

Paper Title:

Enhancement of the Properties of Black Cotton Soil by using Rice Husk and Lime

Abstract:  If the soil is homogeneous and the base of the foundation is flexible, the pressure distribution among the foundation will be uniform and the structure would be stable. If the stability of the soil is not adequate, it causes the structure failure. The black cotton soil covers a huge land mass on earth. In Rajasthan, the black cotton soil is found in the districts of Baran, Bundi, Jhalawar, and Kota. In India, it covers 51.8 million hect. of land. The black cotton soil has swelling and shrinking properties due to the presence of Montmorillonite mineral and therefore it is not used in engineering construction. The stabilization of expansive soil is done by the agricultural waste rice husk and one of the most important binding material limes. The various percentages of rice husk and lime is blended in the black cotton soil. The results enlighten the various geotechnical properties such as CBR, Plastic limit, liquid limit, specific gravity etc. of the mixture of black cotton soil, rice husk and hydrated lime so that it can be used in various engineering construction and also for the stability of various structures.

Keywords:
 Black Cotton Soil, Rice husk, Plastic Limit, Liquid Limit, CBR, Specific Gravity


References:

1.       Black Soil Mechanics and Foundation engineering (k.R. ARORA)
2.       IS 2720: Part 5 : methods of tests for soil: Determination of liquid limit and plastic limit : 1985.

3.       IS 2720 PART 7: Methods of tests for soils : Determination of water content and dry density : 1985

4.       Dr. Robert m. Brooks “Soil Stabilization with Fly ash and Rice husk  ash international journal of research and review in applied science 2009,ISNN-209-217.

5.       Vijay Kumar Sureban “Improving CBR Characteristics of Black Cotton Sub grade For Better Pavement Performance”, 2009.

6.       B.C. PUNMIA BOOK.

7.       International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. IISN 2278-0181

8.       IS -2720- PART -16-1979?

9.       IS 2720, Methods for test of soil.


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22.

Authors:

Rituraj Singh Rathore, Piyush Jhalani, Naveen K. Meena

Paper Title:

Enhancing the Strength of Concrete by Partially Replacing Coarse Aggregate with E-Waste

Abstract: Electronic Waste is the very big problem in today’s world in the category of solid waste. Each of the living entity is affected by its adverse affects even our environment is affected by E-Waste is very difficult which results in increase in amount of solid waste & then create pollution. As a solution to its disposal, E-Waste can be reuse in concrete as coarse aggregate. In the present scenario concrete is very important material for construction purpose. We need to reduce the use of coarse aggregate so as to left it for the upcoming future generation that’s what sustainable development is all about. The coarse aggregate is replaced partially by E-Waste ranging from 0% to 10% in M20 grade mix. Compressive strength, Flexural strength, Split tensile strength for M20 grade mix is checked after partial replacement & compared with conventional concrete mix. Results shows that on 10% replacement of coarse aggregate with E-waste, there is an 8% increment in compressive strength. Even the sulphate resisting properties get improved. By utilizing the E-waste in concrete, use of coarse aggregate decreases which simultaneously results in safekeeping natural resources for future.

Keywords:
 Coarse aggregate, Compressive strength, E-Waste, Flexural strength, Split tensile strength


References:

1.       Tomas U. GanironJr “Effect of Thermoplastic as Fine Aggregate to Concrete Mixture” International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 2014.
2.       S.P.Kale, H.I.Pathan “Recycling of Demolished Concrete and E-waste” International Journal of Science and Research, 2013.

3.       Salman Siddique, SikandarShakil, ShdabSddiqui “Scope of Utilisation of E-waste in Concrete” International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Emerging Vol. No 4, Special Issue(01), March 2015.

4.       R.Lakshmi, S. Nagan, “Utilization of Waste E –plastic Particles in Cementitious Mixtures ” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.38, No.1, April- May 2011,pp.26-35.

5.       R. Lakshmi, S. Nagan, “Investigation on Durability Characteristics of E-plastic Waste Incorporated Concrete” Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Builing and Housing) Vol.12, No.6, April 2011.

6.       Iftekar Gull, Mr. M. Balasubramanian “A New Paradigm on Experimental Investigation of Concrete for E-plastic Waste Management” International Journal of Engineering Trend and Technology, Vol.10, No.4, April 2014.


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23.

Authors:

Prakash Somani, Mohit Raisinghani, Himanshu Bansal, Gaurav Meena, Ariph Khan

Paper Title:

Evaluation of Pavement Construction Using Partial Replacement of RAP

Abstract:  Recycling of asphalt pavement is a new emerging technology in India for road construction. Till now the old deteriorated pavement is destroyed and goes for dumping in landfills thus wasting such potential material along with putting harmful impact on environment. This assumed to be waste can be recycled again for construction of new pavements and maintenance of the older ones. This technology has such huge potential that alone USA produces 100 million tons RAP annually and approximately 80% of it is used in pavement construction. Use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) will not even result in cutting its cost but will also decrease the environmental impact by decreasing the use of virgin material as well as saving energy. This technology of construction result in equal higher performance then the virgin mix and increases the prevention against failure due to rutting and fatigue thereby decreasing the pavement thickness. Thus examining hot asphalt mixes with different proportions ranging from 10% to 50% of RAP is carried out to check the feasibility and its performance so as to be used in construction of rural and urban roads.

Keywords:
Fatigue, hot mix asphalt, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), rutting.


References:

1.       SatishMahankane and Saurabh Patel “Use of RAP Material in Bituminous Pavement” International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering, Vol. No.5,
2.       Special Issue No. (2),March 2016, ISSN 2319 – 8354.

3.       R. Izaks and V. harotonovs “Hot Mix Asphalt With High RAP Content” 1st International Conference on Structural Integrity, Riga Technical University, Procedia Engineering 114 (2015) 676 – 684.

4.       Taleb Al Rusan, Ibrahim Asi and Omar Al-Hattamleh “Performance of Asphalt Mix Containing Rap” Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 2, No 3, 2008

5.       Prithvi S. Kandhal and Rajib B. Mallick “Pavement Recycling Guidelines For State and Local Governments” U.S Department of Transportation and FHA, December 1997, FHWA – SA – 98 – 042.

6.       Ahmed Matty and Abdulla Almohr “Characterization of RAP for Use in Flexible Pavement” American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 2015, 8 (2) :233.248.

7.       Jesse D. Doyle and Isaac L Howard “Prediction of Absorbed, Inert and Effective Bituminous Quantities in Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement” Journal of Material in Civil Engineering, ASCE, 2012.24:102-112.

8.       Elie Y. Hajj, Peter E. Sebaaly and PratheepanKandhiah “Evaluation of Use of RAP in Airfield  


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24.

Authors:

Saurabh Singh, Babita Pandey, Kalpana Jareda, Apoorva Jain

Paper Title:

Generation of Synthetic series of Rainfall using Markov Process at  Udaipur Region

Abstract: The importance of rainfall is inherited in the fact that it directly affects the agriculture sector, and indirectly affects industry, domestic life and even economy of country. This metrological parameter not only varies spatially and temporally but also seasonally and annually. Hence prediction of rainfall is a complex process. Present study adopts a stochastic process to generate the variation of annual rainfall at Udaipur region in state of Rajasthan, India. Stochastic process involves statistic approach i.e. Markov chains, which predicts rainfall for short terms. Secondary rainfall data of Udaipur region for 57 years(1957-2013) has been collected. The performed statistical tests indicate that the series of the annual rainfall data is trend free. So in order to reduce the complexity of data, frequency distribution table is formed. All the parameters of this model were predicted from the historical rainfall records. Then  yearly rainfall is predicted for the year2014,2015,2016,2017. Obtained results are compared with the observed rainfall.

Keywords:
markov chain, probability transition matrix, rainfall ,stochastic.


References:

1.       M.A.B, Barkotulla.  “Stochastic generation of the occurrence and amount of daily rainfall.” Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research, Vol .VI, 2010, pp 61-73.
2.       T.A Buishand. “Some remarks on the use of daily rainfall models.” Journal of hydrology, Vol. 36,  1978,  pp 295-308.

3.       D. I., Carey, and   ,  C. T Hann. “Markov processes for simulating daily point rainfall.”  J. Irrig. Drain, Div. ASCE 104 (IRI), 1978,  pp 111-125.

4.       , D.I. Careyand C.T.  Haan, “Markov process for simulating daily point rainfall.” J.Irrig. and Drain Div., (1978) 104, 111 – 125.

5.       , E.H.  Chin “Modelling daily precipitation occurrence process with Markov chain.” Water Resource Research, Vol.13, 1977 , Issue 6, pp 949-956.

6.       MHI Dore,.  “Climate change and changes in global precipitation patterns: what do we know.”  Environ. In. 31(8),  2005,  pp 1167-1181.

7.       K. R., Gabriel, and J Neumann. "A Markov chain model for daily rainfall occurrence at Tel Aviv." Quarterly J. Royal Meteorological Society, 88, Bracknell, England, U.K., 1962,pp 90-95.

8.       M., Hulme, T. J Osborn,. and T. C. Johns, “Precipitation sensitivity to global warming: comparison of observations with HADCM2 simulations.” Geophysical Res. Letter 25, 1998, pp 3379- 3382.

9.       N. T., Kottegoda, L. Natale and E Raiteri. “Some considerations of periodicity and persistence in daily rainfalls.” J Hydrology, Vol. 296,  2004, pp 23–37.

10.    R., Lazaro, FS. Rodrigo,  L .Gutierrez,  J.   Puigdefafregas, “Analysis of a 30-year rainfall record , 1967-1997, in semi-arid SE Spain for implications on vegetation.”  J. Arid Environment  ., 48, 2001,  pp 373 - 395.

11.    M. Mimikou, “A study for improving precipitation occurrences modelling with a markov chain”   Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 70, 1984,  pp 25-33.

12.    Rodriguez-Iturbe, D.R. Cox, V.  Isham, “Some models for rainfall based on stochastic point processes.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 410 , 1987,  p 269–288.

13.    L. Siriwardena,  R. Srianthanand  , T. A. McMahon; Evaluation of two daily rainfall data generation models, Technical Report 02/14, December 2002, www.toolkit.net.au./cgibin/webobjects/toolkit.woa/wa/downloadPublications?id100014technicalreport211214, Dated: (13/01/2006).

14.    R. Srikanthan, and T. A.  McMahon, “Stochastic generation of annual, monthly and daily climate data: A review.” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 2001,  pp 653-670.

15.    R. Srikanthan, and T. A. McMahon, “Automatic Evaluation of Stochastically Generated Rainfall Data.”  Conference Paper, Australian Journal of Water Resources 2005, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2005,  pp 195-201.

16.    S. Tamil Selvi, and R.  Samuel Selvaraj, “Stochastic modelling of annual rainfall at Tamil Nadu.” Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology, Vol.
1, Issue 4,  2011, pp 566-570.

17.    M. Thyer, and G. Kuzcera, “Modelling long term persistence in rainfall time series: Sydney rainfall case study.”  Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, Institution of Engineer, Australia, 550-555. 1999

18.    Q.J. Wang and R.J. Nathan  “A daily and monthly mixed algorithm for stochastic generation of rainfall time series.” Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, Melbourne, 20-23 May 2002.

19.    M. Zohadie Bardaie and Ahmad Che Abdul Salam.  “A Stochastic Model of Daily Rainfall for Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.”  Serdang, Pertanika, 4(1),  1981, pp 1 – 9.


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25.

Authors:

Ankita P. Dadhich, Rohit Goyal, Pran N. Dadhich

Paper Title:

Geospatial Technique for Drinking Water Quality Analysis of Kota City

Abstract:  As the industrial and educational centre of India, Kota has experienced an extensive urban growth in last two decades. With this rapid urbanization, Kota city is facing the variations in availability of water in time, quantity and quality. In this paper, the spatial and temporal variations of drinking water quality were evaluated for seven parameters using geospatial technique during 2011 to 2015. The drinking water quality data was collected from Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) for various locations in and around the city during the study period. The Spatial Analyst Tool of ArcGIS software was employed for interpretation of data. The spatial distribution maps of various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Total alkalinity; Fluoride and Nitrate were created at ward level during the study period. The spatial pattern of these different parameters indicate that most of the locations are under the permissible limit and suitable for human use.This paper indicates the potential of geospatial technique to understand the spatial pattern of drinking water quality and its management.

Keywords:
drinking water quality, geospatial technique, GIS, spatial distribution


References:

1.       Asadi  S.S., Vuppala P., Reddy M.A. (2007) Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 4(1): 45-52; doi:10.3390/ijerph20070100082.       Bhatt B., Joshi J.P. (2012), Sustainable management of agricultural lands using GIS-A spatio temporal analysis of irrigation water quality in Vadodara taluka, International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 2(3): 911-920.
3.       BIS (2012). Drinking water specification. IS 10500.Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

4.       Dadhich A.P., Nadaoka K. (2012) Analysis of terrestrial discharge from agricultural watersheds and its impact on nearshore and offshore reefs in Fiji. Journal of
Coastal Research, 28(5): 1225-1235.

5.       Dadhich A.P., Nadaoka K., Motomura Y., Watanabe A. (2017) Potential impacts of land use change dynamics and submarine groundwater discharge on fringing reefs of Kuroshima Island, Japan. Journal of Coastal Conservation, DOI: 10.1007/s11852-017-0495-7.

6.       Gupta N., Nafees S.M., Jain M.K., Kalpana S. (2011). Physico-chemical assessment of water quality of River chambal in Kota city area of Rajasthan State (India).  Rasayan J. Chem., Vol.4, No.2, pp.686-692.

7.       India Population (2017). http://indiapopulation2017.in/population-of-kota-2017.html

8.       Jain N., Sharma S., Duggal R. (2014). Physico-Chemical &Microbial Assessment of Ground Water of DCM Industrial Area and Its Adjoining Areas, Kota [India].Part I. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(11):17237-17244.

9.       Mathivanan V., Vijayan P., Sabhanayakam S. (2005). Pollution studies on River Cauvery in Mettur, Tamil Nadu, J. Expt. Zoology, 8: 321-328.

10.    Mathur S.P., Maheshwari N. (2006) Water Quality and Environment in and around industrialized city of Kota. Indian J. Environmental Protection, 26(10):917-922.

11.    Pokale, W.K., Thakur, J.N. and Warhate, S.R. 2010. Water quality status of Pench Reservoir (India). J. Environ. Science & Engg., 52(3): 255-258.

12.    Rajkumar N., Subramani T., Elango L. (2010), Groundwater contamination due to municipal solid waste disposal – A GIS based study in Erode city, International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1(1): 39-55.

13.    Rajkumar V.R., Sneha M.K. (2012). Water quality analysis of Bhadravathi taluk using GIS – a case study. International Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2(4): 2443-2453.

14.    Susanna T. Y. T.,Wenli C. (2002). Modeling the relationship between land use and surface water quality, Journal of Environmental Management, 66: 377-393.


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26.

Authors:

Ayush Goyal, Arun Kumar Sain, Bhagvan Prasad, Ankit Meena, Anand Rathor

Paper Title:

Impact of Metro Rail Construction Work Zone on Traffic in Phase -1 Jaipur Metro

Abstract: Jaipur, the symphony in pink, is the land of superlatives, where breathtaking beauty and rich & culture blend superbly. The present situation of traffic scenario in Jaipur city is quite alarming with lot of congestion, parking problems, accidents, air and noise pollution etc. The situation is going to be more critical in the coming year and hence a comprehensive and integrated approach to traffic and transport management is the need of the hour. The accidental and environmental problem in Jaipur city is primarily due to high growth of personalized vehicle and private owned public transport vehicles, so in that case metro will be one of the best option of mass transits system which will help in reducing accidental and environmental problems. The environmental and traffic Impact during construction of Jaipur Metro is very important issue for people residing along metro corridors. Jaipur city represent the cities of developing countries in true sense, hence the outcome of the present study can very well be implemented in other similar cities of the developing countries.

Keywords:
Jaipur, The environmental and traffic Impact during construction of Jaipur Metro is very important issue for people residing along metro corridors.


References:

1.    Critical Issues Related to Metro Rail Projects in India Article • January 2013 DOI:10.1177/0974930613488296 Authors Niraj Sharma (CSIR Central Road Research Institute), Rajni Dhyani (CSIR Central Road Research Institute), S.GangopadhyayDirector, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute New Delhi, India.
2.    SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACT OF JAIPUR METRO PROJECT-A CASE STUDY Authors R. Sathish Kumar1 kumar.sathish100@gmail.com (Associate Professor National Institute of Construction Management and Research  Hyderabad)

3.    Analysis of traffic corridor impacts from the introduction of the new Athens Metro system Author  J.C. Golias * Department of Transportation Planning and Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, ZOGRAFOU Campus, 5 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73, Greece

4.    Metro railway safety: An analysis of accident precursors Authors Miltos Kyriakidis, Robin Hirsch, Arnab Majumdar  Centre for Transport Studies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

5.    Analysis of traffic corridor impacts from the introduction of the new Athens Metro system Author  J.C. Golias * Department of Transportation Planning and Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, ZOGRAFOU Campus, 5 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73, Greece


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27.

Authors:

Ayush Goyal, Arun Kumar Sain, Bhagvan Prasad Sharma, Ankit Kumar Meena, Anand Rathor

Paper Title:

Impact of Metro Rail Construction Work Zone on Environment in Phase -1 Jaipur Metro

Abstract:  Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a systematic process designed to identify and predict the potential impacts of human activity on the biophysical and human environment. It also functions as an environmental management tool to identify measures to avoid, mitigate or compensate for those effects. EIA is intended to be an iterative process to followup to projects post implementation to determine actual environmental outcomes, interpret and communicate information about those outcomes and investigate opportunities for improved project environmental performance. Originating from the United States’ National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, EIA is now amongst the most successful and widely practiced environmental management tools in the world. Jaipur, the symphony in pink, is the land of superlatives, where breathtaking beauty and rich & culture blend superbly. The present situation of Jaipur city is quite alarming with lot of congestion, parking problems, accidents, air and noise pollution etc. The situation is going to be more critical in the coming year and hence a comprehensive and integrated approach to solve environment problems, management is the needed to solve the problems. The environmental problem in Jaipur city is primarily due to high growth of personalized vehicle and private owned public transport vehicles, so in that case metro will be one of the best option of mass transits system which will help in reducing accidental and environmental problems. The environmental Impact during construction of Jaipur Metro is very important issue for people residing along metro corridors. Jaipur city represent the cities of developing countries in true sense.

Keywords:
Environmental Impact, noise pollution, Air pollution, Jaipur Metro, impact prediction; mitigation and management of impacts; cumulative environmental effects


References:

1.    Critical Issues Related to Metro Rail Projects in India Article • January 2013 DOI:10.1177/0974930613488296 Authors Niraj Sharma (CSIR Central Road Research Institute), Rajni Dhyani (CSIR Central Road Research Institute), S.GangopadhyayDirector, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute New Delhi, India.
2.    SOCIO ECONOMIC IMPACT OF JAIPUR METRO PROJECT-A CASE STUDY Authors R. Sathish Kumar1 kumar.sathish100@gmail.com (Associate Professor National Institute of Construction Management and Research  Hyderabad)

3.    The Effect of Metro Rail on Air Pollution in Delhi Author Deepti Goel_and Sonam Guptay

4.    Control of dust from construction and demolition activities Vina Kukadia, Stuart Upton, David Hall

5.    Analysis of traffic corridor impacts from the introduction of the new Athens Metro system Author  J.C. Golias * Department of Transportation Planning and Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, ZOGRAFOU Campus, 5 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Athens 157 73, Greece

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28.

Authors:

Prakash Somani, Vivek Singh Parihar, Toshant Kumar Meena

Paper Title:

Imparting Strength to Damaged Structure by Covering Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Jacket

Abstract: Damaged or old structures sometime need to be repaired or reinforced to enhance its structural life and performances. There are many ways to strengthen structures. This research investigates the potential of using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) as reinforcement to concrete beam. In this study, use of CFRP as reinforcement was explored. The CFRP reinforcement is applied in strip form, which is more economical compared to wrapping or forming it into bar shape, because it easier and uses less fiber to achieve similar performance. Samples of CFRP reinforced concrete beam were tested to failure in three  point bending test. The results obtained are compared with performance of steel reinforced concrete. From the research, we can conclude that the CFRP reinforced concrete beam give the required resistance and strength as designed, with behavior similar to those reinforced with steel bars.

Keywords:
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP, Reinforcement, Flexural Strength, Failure etc. 


References:

1.          Gyuseon Kim, Jongsung Sim and Hongseob Oh (2008). Shear strength of strengthened RC beams with FRPs in shear. Construction and Building Materials pp. 1261–1270.
2.          Oral Buyukozturk, Oguz Gunes and Erdem Karaca (2004). Progress on understanding deboning problems in reinforced concrete and steel members strengthened using FRP composites. Construction and Building Materials pp. 9–19.

3.          Shit, T.2011. Experimental and Numerical Study on Behavior of Externally Bonded RC T-Beams Using GFRP Composites. Department of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela,Orissa: : Master's Thesis

4.          Bousselham, A., and Chaallal, O., (2004),“ Shear Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Beams with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer: Assessment of Influencing Parameters and Required Research, ACI Structural Journal, V. 101, No. 2, Mar.-Apr., pp. 219-227

5.          Matthys, S., and Triantafillou, T., (2001), “Shear and Torsion Strengthening with Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement,” Proceedings of the International Workshop on Composites in Construction: A Reality, E. Cosensa, G. Manfredi, and A. Nanni, eds., Capri, Italy, pp. 203- 210.

6.          Tan, K.Y. 2003. Evaluation of Externally Bonded CFRP System for the Strengthening of RC Slabs. University of Missouri-Rolla. Center for Infrastructure Engineering Studies: Master's Thesis

7.          Ekenel,M ., Stephen,V., Myers, J.J. & Zoughi,R.(2004). Microwave NDE of RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP Laminates Containing Surface Defects and Tested Under Cyclic Loading. Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409, USA, pp 1-8

8.          Aram MR, Czaderski C, Motavalli M (2008). Debonding failure modes of flexural FRP-strengthened RC beams. Composites Part B: Engineering. 39: 826-41

9.          Pham H, Al-Mahaidi R (2004). Assessment of available prediction models for the strength of FRP retrofitted RC beams. Composite Structures. 66: 601-10

10.       Teng GJ, Smith TS, Yao J, Chen JF (2003). Intermediate crack-induced debonding in RC beams and slabs. Construction and Building Materials. 17: 447-62

11.       Smith S.T and Teng J.G. 2002. FRP-strengthened RC beams I: Review of Debonding Strength. Eng Struct. 24: 385-95.

12.       Smith S.T and Teng J.G. 2002. FRP-strengthened RC beams. II: Assessment of Debonding Strength Models. Engineering Structures. 24: 397-417.

13.       Manuel A.G. Silva and Hugo Biscaia. 2008. Degradation of Bond between FRP and RC Beams. Composite Structures. 85: 164-174

14.       Ceroni F (2010). Experimental performances of RC beams strengthened with FRP materials. Construction and Building Materials. 24: 1547-59.

15.       Jumaat MZ, Alam MA (2010). Experimental and numerical analysis of end anchored steel plate and CFRP laminate flexurally strengthened r. c. beams. Int. J. Phys. Sci. 5:132-144.

16.       Wang YC, Hsu K (2009). Design recommendations for the strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with externally bonded composite plates. Composite Structures. 88: 323-32.

17.       Alam MA, Jumaat MZ (2008). Behavior of U and L shaped end anchored steel plate strengthened reinforced concrete beams. European Journal of Scientific Research. 22: 184-96.

18.       Ceroni F, Pecce M, Matthys S, Taerwe L (2008). Debonding strength and anchorage devices for reinforced concrete elements strengthened with FRP sheets. Composites Part B: Engineering. 39: 429-41.

19.       Xiong GJ, Jiang X, Liu JW, Chen L (2007). A way for preventing tension delamination of concrete cover in midspan of FRP strengthened beams. Construction and Building Materials. 21: 402-8.

20.       Pham H, Al-Mahaidi R (2006). Prediction models for debonding failure loads of carbon fiber reinforced polymer retrofitted reinforced concrete beams. J Compos Constr, ASCE. 10: 48-59.

21.       Costa IG, Barros JAO (2010). Flexural and shear strengthening of RC beams with composite materials - The influence of cutting steel stirrups to install CFRP strips. Cement and Concrete Composites. In Press, Corrected Proof.

22.       Ombres ,L (2010). Prediction of intermediate crack debonding failure in FRP-strengthened reinforced concrete beams. Composite Structures. 92: 322-9.

23.       Mohamed,B.B, Abdelouahed T, Samir B (2009). Approximate analysis of adhesive stresses in the adhesive layer of plated RC beams. Computational Materials Science. 46: 15-20.


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29.

Authors:

Prakash Somani, Devendra Singh Chundawat, Vishal Soni, Vikas Bhatt

Paper Title:

Improvement of Cement Concrete by Adding Sugarcane Ash

Abstract:  India is an agricultural country which growth is depends upon the production of crops. Mostly crops are grown up in our country but biggest problem of wastage of crops in which sugarcane is one of them. India is a second largest producer country of world with 341200 TMT tons of sugarcane. In our experimental study we are taking the ash of sugarcane fibres which are wastage material. This experiment reduces the wastage problem of sugarcane as well as its works as admixture in cement which reduces the cost of the cement. In this paper different proportions of sugarcane ash is mixed with cement and examined the properties of cement like consistency, initial and final setting time, soundness, compaction factor, slump and most important property compressive strength. This test with sugarcane ash gives positive effect on mixing of admixture which is beneficial for us.

Keywords:
sugar cane ash, concrete, strength, durability etc.


References:

1.       J. Wang, “Fundamentals of A.V.S.Sai.  Kumar,  Krishna  Rao  “A Study on Strength of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Cement with Quarry Dust and Metakaolin, March 2014.
2.       Venkata Sairam Kumar, Dr.  B. Panduranga  Rao, Krishna Sai, “Experimental Study on Partial Replacement of Cement with Quarry Dust”

3.       H. S. Sureshchandra, G. Sarangapani, and B. G.Naresh Kumar, Experimental Investigation on the Effect of fly Ash on Mortar Mixes.

4.       Replacement of Sand by Quarry Dust in Hollow Concrete Block for Different Mix Proportions. February 2014.

5.       Baboo Rai, Sanjay Kumar, and Kumar Satish, Effect of Fly Ash on Mortar Mixes with Quarry Dust as Fine Aggregate. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering.


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30.

Authors:

Prakash Somani, Aakansha Mittal, Akshay Gupta, Ajaj Ahmed, Mohit Sharma, Jitendar Yadav

Paper Title:

Influence of Waste Plastic and Rubber on Bituminous Concrete

Abstract: Bitumen is one of the most important construction material for flexible pavement and one of the most sensitive mixtures as it has a great impact on the performance of bitumen pavement which causes rutting, aging and fatigue problem due to which road condition becoming worst. To overcome this waste material “RUBBER AND PLASTIC” has been use with bitumen which will produce superior road surface as rubber has a capability of storing and releasing of energy and plastic is a versatile material. Use of this material will also save the environment from plastic and rubber degradation. Various tests were performed on bitumen with the main motto of this paper is to increase the strength of bitumen pavement by being eco-friendly and cost effective.

Keywords:
Low density polyethylene (LDPE), Crumb rubber, marshal stability test, bitumen  


References:

1.       Dr. Abhaykumar , Use of Waste Plastic and Waste Rubber in Aggregate and Bitumen for Road Materials (ISSN Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 7, July 2013)
2.       Axay Shah ,UTILIZATION OF WASTE MATERIALS IN PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION (Volume: 02 Issue: 03 | June-2011 )

3.       Rishi Singh Chhabra A Review Literature On The Use Of Waste Plastics And Waste Rubber Tyres In Pavement, (International Journal Of Core Engineering & Management,Volume 1, Issue 1, April 2014)

4.       IRC: SP:98-2013. ”Guideline for the Use of Waste Plastic in Hot Bituminous Mixes (Dry Process) in Wearing Courses”. Indian Road Congress

5.       Apurva J Chavan “ Use of Plastic Waste in Flexible Pavements”, International Jouranal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management(IJAIEM),ISSN 2319 - 4847 Vol.2, Issue4, April 2013 Page 540-552

6.       Mr.P.B.Rajmane, Prof.A.K.Gupta, Prof.D.B.Desai“ Effective Utilization of Waste Plastic In Construction Of Flexible Pavement For Improving Their Performance”,ISSN: 2278-1684, PP: 27-30

7.       Verma S. S., (Nov. 2008), “Roads from plastic waste”, Science Tech Entrepreneur, The Indian Concrete Journal, P.No.43 – 44

8.       Binduc.S,Dr. K.S.Beena,”Waste plastic as a stabilizing additive in Stone Mastic Asphalt” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol.2 (6), 2010, 379-387

9.       Sangita,”A Novel Approach to Improve Road Quality by Utilizing Plastic waste in Road Construction” Journal of Environmental Research And Development Vol. 5 No. 4, April-June 2011

10.    Vatsal Patel, “Utilization of Plastic Waste in Construction of Roads”International Journal of Scientific Research, Volume : 3 Issue : 4 April 2014 , ISSN No 2277

11.    Mercy Joseph Poweth, Solly George, Jessy Paul, “STUDY ON USE OF PLASTIC WASTE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION”,International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 3, March 2013

12.    Amit P. Gawande,”Economics and Viability of Plastic Road”Journal of Current Chemical Pharmaceutical Science: 3(4), 2013, 231-242 , ISSN 2277-2871


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31.

Authors:

Rituraj Singh Rathore, Abhishek Upadhyay, Khagendra Kumar

Paper Title:

Influence on the Properties of Concrete after Partially Replacing Cement by Fly ash and Coarse Aggregate by Recycled Coarse Aggregate 

Abstract:  At present situation  massive construction is take place and due to that the amount of natural and artificial  resource consume a lot. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect on the properties of concrete after partially replacing cement by FA (fly ash) and coarse aggregate by RCA (recycled coarse aggregate).FA is the supplementary material which is use to partially replacement of cement and it is produced by  combustion of coal.  Recycled coarse aggregate is the aggregate which is already used before but can be recycle again. when FA is mixed with concrete in place of OPC grade 43 cement  it increase the  strength, workability and durability of concrete.The amount of FA and RCA replacing cement and CA is in the percentage  0%,7.5%, 15% and 25% to the weight of cement and 0%,5%,10% and 40% to the total weight of CA simultaneously[2] .  The grade of concrete is M25 and various test is also perform like compressive strength test at 3 day and 7 day,compaction factor test, slump test, and workability test . Total number of specimen for cube was 8, which were casted for testing to study the influence of fly ash on concrete. All the specimen were deep cured  under normal atmospheric temperature .  On the basis of that results, by using fly ash, concrete was found to increase compressive strength and durability of concrete while adding different proportion of partially added material. When it compare to normal concrete it gives better results. Its use should be promoted for better performance and for environmental sustainability           `

Keywords:
fly ash, compressive strength, recycled coarse aggregate, workability, compaction factor, ordinary Portland cement.


References:

1.       Ministry of Environment and Forest, New Delhi, “Report of committee to evolve Road Map on Management of works in India”, March 2010, pp-ii
2.       Abrahams Mwasha (2009), “Natural and Recycle Guanapo Quartzite Aggregates for Ready Mix Concrete”, The Journal of the Association of Professional Engineer of Trinidad and Tobayo, Vol. 38, no. I,pp-50-56

3.       Yasuhiro Dosho, 2007. Development of a sustainable concrete waste recycling system: Application of recycled aggregate concrete produced by aggregate replacing method. In: Rudolph N. Kraus, Tarun.R. Naik, Peter Claisse, Sadeghi-Pouya, ed. Proc. Int. Conf: Sustainable construction materials and technologies, 11-13 June 2007 Coventry, Special papers proceedings, Pub. UW Milwaukee CBU, p142-156

4.       Otsuki, N., Miyazat, S., and Yodsudjai,W. (2003). "Influence of recycled aggregate on interfacial transition zone, strength, chloride penetration, and carbonation of concrete." J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 15(5), 443–451.

5.       Ravindrajah R S, Loo Y H and Tam C T. (2005) Strength evaluation of recycled aggregate concrete by in-situ tests. Mat Stru; 21(4):289–95.

6.       Olorunsogo, F. T., and Padayachee, N. (2002). "Performance of recycled aggregate concrete monitored by durability indexes." Cem. Concr. Res.,32(2), 179–185.

7.       Jay Patel1, Kunal Patel and Gaurav Patel “Utilization of Pond Fly Ash As A Partial Replacement In Fine Aggregate With Using Fine Fly Ash And Micro silica fume In Hsc” International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, eISSN: 2319-1163 & pISSN:2321-7308, volume 2, issue 12, pp.600606,Dec 2013.

8.       Siddharth  P. Upadhyay  and  M.A. Jammu  “Effect on Compressive strength of High Performance Concrete Incorporating Micro silica fume and Fly Ash” International Journal Of Innovative Research & Development, ISSN 22780211, volume 3, issue 2,pp.124-128, February 2014

9.       IS: 10262-2009 &IS: 10262-1982, “Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India

10.    IS: 456-2000, “Plain and Reinforced Concrete - Code of Practice “Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India


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32.

Authors:

Prakash Somani, Ritik Khandelwal, Shubham Arya, Vikram Choudhary, Vikash Meena

Paper Title:

Investigate the Quality Aggregate for Road Construction in Jaipur

Abstract:   Road pavement is an important part of transportation and play main role in the development of country. Workability and durability of road pavement is affects by design procedures, climate, materials, transport loads and construction quality. But the main factors are selected materials for road pavement structure and their properties. Structural and functional performance of a pavement is affected by aggregate properties; therefore, determining the aggregate properties is decisive. Ranges of standard tests are conducted for selection of aggregate with good specifications and long term performance. This research compares aggregate samples of four quarries situated around Jaipur (Rajasthan) according to their different physical properties. For comparison, seven standard tests (Impact value test, Crushing value test, Abrasion value test, Grain size analysis test, Elongation test, Flakiness test and Water absorption test), were conducted. The aim of this research is to evaluate high quality aggregate for workable and long- lasting flexible pavement. Test results show the comparison of four aggregate samples according to their properties and best aggregate for flexible pavement.

Keywords:
 Flexible pavement, Aggregate, Strength, Quarry etc.`


References:

1.       Rozaliza kozul, David Darwin (1996), “Effect of Aggregate type, size and content on concrete strength and fracture Energy”, University of Kansas Centre for Research, Lawrence,       
2.       Yiping Wu, Frazier Parker, Ken Kandhal (1998), “Aggregate toughness, abrasion resistance and durability/soundness tests related to asphalt concrete performance in pavements”, National Centre for Asphalt technology, Alabama

3.       K.B. Woods, J.F. McLaughlin, R.L. Schuster (1998), “Quality Aggregates for Indiana Highways”, Joint Highway Research Project, Purdue University, Indiana

4.       John Siekmeier, Nelson Cruz, Erol Tutumluer (2012), “Best Value local aggregate for Road Foundations”, Department of Transportation Minnesota, Minnesota

5.       Islam Gokalp, Volkan Emre Uza, Mehmet Saltan a Adana Science and Technology University, Department of Civil Engineering, 01180 Adana, Turkey Suleiman Demirel University, Department of Civil Engineering, 32100 Sparta, Turkey

6.       Dr. L.R. Kadyali, Dr. N.B. Lal, “Principles and practices of Highway Engineering”,    Khanna Publishers, Delhi

7.       http://www.mapsofjaipur.com/general-information/maps/jaipur-road-network-map.html


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33.

Authors:

Suresh Soni, Subham Jaiswal, Rajat Singhal, Subham Jain

Paper Title:

Analysis of Jaipur Mass Transportation System

Abstract: Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan state require efficient and convenient transportation of persons and goods. There are, public modes of transportation service for all persons, while cars are used by those who own them and can drive. Thus, the city needs public transportation system, which offers greater mobility for the entire population and those in rural areas can also enjoy them. We also know that transportation plays a vital role in today’s world and has a deep impact on almost all spheres of human activity including leisure, tourism, supplies and business. Therefore, proper research work in transportation system, urban development, and its planning is required for the betterment of the individuals. Parking also plays a vital role in reducing the traffic and controlling air pollution therefore smart parking is needed so that there is less consumption of space, traffic congestion and driver frustration. Application of the transportation system regarding physical activities is also updated. Future research should be brief regarding the safety and security of users and its impact on environmental elements.

Keywords:
 Urban development, Parking survey, APS  Automated parking system.


References:

1.       http://www.jaipur.org.uk/local-transport.html (25 March 2017)
2.       A.Osmani and A.Gawade, “Research paper on smart city parking system,” Vol-2 Issue-3 2016 IJARIIE-ISSN (O)-2395-4396

3.       A.Borovskoy, “Simulation Model of Parking Spaces through the Example of the Belgorod Agglomeration”

4.       D.Mohan, “Public Transportation Systems for Urban Areas A Brief Review”

5.       http://www.jaipur.org.uk/local-transport.html / (27 March 2017)

6.       S.K Singh, “Review of Urban Transportation in India”

7.       M. Chavarria, “PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH STUDY”

8.       http://nptel.ac.in/courses/105101087/ (28 March 2017)  


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34.

Authors:

Suresh Soni, Virendra Kumar Jangid, Udit Goyal, Chitranjan Jaga

Paper Title:

Jaipur Metro: Role of Parking

Abstract:  The paper deals with the interaction between metro stations and metro parking’s. Traffic congestion is mainly results by growing number of vehicle trip by cars and two wheelers. Road accident and pollution is a major problem in urban areas. To invent a high capacity rail transits system are being promoted to decrease this trend. In recent years, the metro system has advanced into an efficient transport system in many mega-cities. This paper intends to analyze the impact of different parking pressure characteristics in the estimation of local accessibility. The paper mainly concerned here with the problems in the efficiency of metro system. Parking is one of the major problems that are created by increasing of road traffic day by day. Here parking facilities and transportation route can affect it to a great extent. If we see future aspect in metro cities there will be more congestion, so To make metro efficient we have to deal with efficiency in parking. So we need to provide safe and sufficient parking near to metro station and easy approachable to bus stand and the parking facilities to the travelers should be comfort which encourage people to park their two wheeler and/or four wheelers at station and use metro services.

Keywords:
 Jaipur Metro, Sufficient and safe parking,


References:

1.       http://transport.rajasthan.gov.in/jmrc
2.       Rto.ac.in/jaipur

3.       https://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/tvm/1111/581_Parking/plain

4.       http://www.engineeringcivil.com/different-types-of-parking-spaces-and-multiple- level-car-parking.html

5.       http://www.cmdachennai.gov.in/pdfs/Seminar_Towards_SustainableUrban_Mobility/Session2.pdf

6.       http://www.cmdachennai.gov.in/pdfs/Seminar_Towards_Sustainable_Urban_Mobility/Session2.pdf

7.       http://transport.rajasthan.gov.in/jmrc

8.       http://transport.rajasthan.gov.in/content/transportportal/en/metro/PassengerInformation/MetroStations.html

9.       http://transport.rajasthan.gov.in/content/dam/transport/metro/Project/DPR%20Phase-1/DPR%20Phase%20I.pdf

10.    http://transport.rajasthan.gov.in/content/dam/transport/metro/Project/DPR%20Phase%20II/DPR%20Phase%20II.pdf

11.    http://iot-smartcities.lero.ie/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Investigation-of-Smart-Parking-Systems-and-their-technologies.pdf


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35.

Authors:

Divya Sharma, Dashrath Singh, Shweta Mehar, Priyanka Mahar

Paper Title:

Smart Cities Challenges and Solution ‘‘Conceptual Case Study’’

Abstract: Now a days due to rapid urbanization the major problem occurring in the cities is congestion, pollution and providing basic facilities like electricity, water, school, hospital etc. Smart city is playing an incredible role in management of infrastructure such as water, energy, transportation, Eco-friendly industrialization, housing, electricity consumption and resource utilization which leads to a higher quality of life. As mentioned in the Government of India’s vision our honorable Prime Minister has launched 100 smart cities in June 2015 in different states for maximizing the utility of urban infrastructure and connecting people by the information technology. This paper aims to know about the selection process of smart cities, number of smart cities in different states, challenges during execution and their solution.

Keywords:
Financial plan, Infrastructure challenges and their solution, Selection process, Smart cities, Strategies.


References:

1.       "Mission Statement and Guidelines - Smart Cities" (PDF). Ministry of Urban Development, GOI.
2.       February 2016.^ a b c "Narendra Modi launches smart city projects in Pune", Live Mint, 25 June 2016^ a b c Cabinet nod To Rs 1 lakh cr for urban renewal, 98 smart cities to take off, New Delhi: Business Standard, BS Reporter, 30 April 2015^ "No time extension beyond December 15 for 3 Smart City plan", The Economic
Times,

3.       November 2015^ Smart Cities in India^ "Bhubaneswar leads Govt's Smart City list, Rs 50,802 crore to be invested over five years", The Indian Express, New Delhi,

4.       29 January 2016^ List of 98 Smart Cities, The Times of India^ "Centre unveils list of 98 smart cities; UP, TN strike it rich". The Hindu.

5.       28 August 2015. ^http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/india-20-smart-cities-list ,

6.       https://smartcity.com

7.       http://smartcities.gov.in/content/

8.       United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development Inter-sessional Panel 2015-2016 “Paper On Smart Cities and Infrastructure”.


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36.

Authors:

Ankita P. Dadhich, Pran N. Dadhich, Rohit Goyal

Paper Title:

Multi Temporal Land Use-Land Cover Change Dynamics of Kota City, Rajasthan

Abstract: Rapid land use change has taken place in Kota city over the past two decades due to accelerated urbanization and industrialization. This study evaluates land use/land cover change dynamics and urban expansion in Kota city, Rajasthan, over a period of 27 years (1989 to 2016) using satellite remote sensing data and Geographic Information System (GIS). Spatial and temporal dynamics of land use/cover changes were quantified using Landsat images of 1989, 1999 & 2016 and Resource sat 2 LISS III (Linear Imaging Self Scanner) of 2011. Hybrid classification approach i.e. combination of supervised and unsupervised algorithm followed by visual interpretation was used to classify the land use/land cover data into various classes viz. built-up, cropland, fallow land, scattered vegetation, barren, water body, railway, road and airport. The results imply substantial growth of built-up areas in Kota cityand tremendous loss in agriculture land during the study period. Results reveal huge urban land expansion in city periphery and along the major roads or highways. This study demonstrates that integration of satellite remote sensing and GIS was an effective approach for analyzing spatial pattern of land use change. Furthermore, the outputs of this study will be useful for decision makers for sustainable urban land use planning decisions.

Keywords:
Land use, Land cover, GIS, Remote Sensing.


References:

1.       Chawla S. (2012) Land Use Changes in India and its Impacts on Environment Journal of Environment Vol. 01, Issue 01, pp. 14-20
2.       Dadhich A.P., Goyal R., Dadhich P.N. (2016). Urban sprawl pattern assessment using spatial metrics. Hydro 2016, 21st International Conference on Hydraulics, Water Resources and Coastal Engineering, In Proceedings of Hydro2016, CWPRS Pune, India,  Dec. 8-10,pp. 848-858.

3.       Dadhich A.P., Goyal R., Dadhich P.N. (2017). Impact of Urbanization on arable land in Kota - a geospatial analysis. Engineering Sciences International Research Journal, Vol. 5 Spl issue, 1-4.

4.       Dadhich A.P., Nadaoka K. (2013). Modeling Hydrologic response to land use change in Watersheds of Viti Levu Island, Fiji. Journal of Environmental Research and Development Vol. 8(3), 492-503.

5.       Deng J.S., Wand K., Hong Y., Qi J.G. (2009). Spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use change and landscape pattern in response to rapid urbanization. Landscape and Urban Planning 92: 187–198

6.       Hegazy I.R., Kaloop M.R. (2015). Monitoring urban growth and land use change detection with GIS and remote sensing techniques in Daqahlia governorate Egypt. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 4, pp.117–124

7.       Hubacek K., Vazquez J. (2002). The economics of land use change. Interim Report, IR-02-015. The Economics of Land Use Change Klaus Hubacek, IIASA.

8.       Karwariya S., Goyal S. (2011). Land use and land cover mapping using digital classification technique in Tikamgarh district, Madhya Pradesh, India using Remote Sensing. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 2(2), pp. 519-529.

9.       Muttitanon W., Tripathi N. (2005). Land use/cover changes in the coastal zone of Bay Don Bay, Tailand using Landset 5 TM data. Int. J. Remote Sen. 26 (11), pp.2311–2323.

10.    Sankhala S., Singh B. (2014). Evaluation of urban sprawl and land use land cover change using remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Jaipur City, India. Int. J. Emerging Technol. Adv. Eng. 4 (1), pp. 66–72.

11.    Chawla S. (2012) Land Use Changes in India and its Impacts on Environment Journal of Environment Vol. 01, Issue 01, pp. 14-20

12.    Dadhich A.P., Goyal R., Dadhich P.N. (2016). Urban sprawl pattern assessment using spatial metrics. Hydro 2016, 21st International Conference on Hydraulics, Water Resources and Coastal Engineering, In Proceedings of Hydro2016, CWPRS Pune, India,  Dec. 8-10,pp. 848-858.

13.    Dadhich A.P., Goyal R., Dadhich P.N. (2017). Impact of Urbanization on arable land in Kota - a geospatial analysis. Engineering Sciences International Research Journal, Vol. 5 Spl issue, 1-4.

14.    Dadhich A.P., Nadaoka K. (2013). Modeling Hydrologic response to land use change in Watersheds of Viti Levu Island, Fiji. Journal of Environmental Research and Development Vol. 8(3), 492-503.

15.    Deng J.S., Wand K., Hong Y., Qi J.G. (2009). Spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use change and landscape pattern in response to rapid urbanization. Landscape and Urban Planning 92: 187–198

16.    Hegazy I.R., Kaloop M.R. (2015). Monitoring urban growth and land use change detection with GIS and remote sensing techniques in Daqahlia governorate
Egypt. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 4, pp.117–124

17.    Hubacek K., Vazquez J. (2002). The economics of land use change. Interim Report, IR-02-015. The Economics of Land Use Change Klaus Hubacek, IIASA.

18.    Karwariya S., Goyal S. (2011). Land use and land cover mapping using digital classification technique in Tikamgarh district, Madhya Pradesh, India using Remote Sensing. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 2(2), pp. 519-529.

19.    Muttitanon W., Tripathi N. (2005). Land use/cover changes in the coastal zone of Bay Don Bay, Tailand using Landset 5 TM data. Int. J. Remote Sen. 26 (11), pp.2311–2323.

20.    Sankhala S., Singh B. (2014). Evaluation of urban sprawl and land use land cover change using remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Jaipur City, India. Int. J. Emerging Technol. Adv. Eng. 4 (1), pp. 66–72.


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Authors:

Haseeb Muhammad, Ramesh Chand Sharma, Sanjay Jangid, Ramesh Kumar

Paper Title:

Optimum Utilization of Mobile Phone in Civil Engineering Construction

Abstract: This paper has an objective to study the use of mobile phones in civil engineering construction field and its impact on facilitating the construction process and eco-systems. This research work has targeted to forecast and correlate the growing facilities of smart phone with the eco-friendly civil engineering construction process. The research problem is to look at the current application of mobiles in computing, conveying information, image processing systems, using cameras and different designed apps, in new innovations those are introduced in the current markets. The potential outcome of this paper is to develop a suitable and logical approach for Optimum Utilization of Mobile Phone in Civil Engineering Construction.

Keywords:
Add on hardware, Apps, App ecosystems, App Store, Civil engineering, crowd funding, mobile computing, smart phones.


References:

1.    https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/occipital/structure-sensor-capture-the-world-in-3d 31/03/2017
2.    https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/ikegps/spike-laser-   accurate-measurement-and-modelling-on 31/03/2017

3.    https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.civilsutra.shilpshastr&hl=en 31/03/2017

4.    https://play.google.com/store/apps/distometer

5.    http://www.autodesk.com/mobile-apps

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38.

Authors:

Akshima Gautam, Devendra Suthar, Ashish Kumar Sewaliya

Paper Title:

Physical and Chemical Properties of Different Water Samples

Abstract:  Jaipur is developing rapidly due to industrialization. It is considered being most polluted city in India due to rapidly growing industries. The present study was carried out with a view to have an understanding about the pollution status of different areas of jaipur city, particularly water quality in vicinity of Industrial area. Environmental studies were carried out on ground water to find out the physical and chemical parameters like PH, TDS, TS, Hardness, Odour, Temperature. Eight samples were collected from different sites, in order to evaluate the drinking water quality in and around jaipur city. The analysis of various parameters using standard methods and their comparison with WHO standard values, suggested that most of the parameters were within permissible limit given by Bureau of Indian standards  (BIS).  Concentration of parameters beyond the limits in some locations need to be reduced so that water could be used for the domestic purpose. The present paper accounts water quality of various sites situated in Jaipur city and their efficiencies respectively.

Keywords:
Ground water, Physical-Chemical Parameters.


References:

1.    WHO,(2001), “Water health and human rights”, world water day. http://www.Worldwater day.org/thematic/hmnrights.html#n4   
2.    Kumar R. Singh, R.D., Sharma, K.D., (2005), “Water Resources of India”, Current Science, 89(5), pp 794-811

3.    Kumar,A.K., Kanchan, Taruna Sharma, H.R., (2002), “Water quality index and suitability assessment of urban ground water of Hisar and Panipat in Haryana”, Journal of Environmental Biology, 23, pp 325-333   

4.    Salve, V.B. and Hiware C.J. (2008): Study on water quality of Wanparakalpa reservioir Nagpur, Near Parli Vaijnath, District Beed. Marathwada region, J. Aqua. Biol., 21(2): 113-117.


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39.

Authors:

Siddarth Sharma, Dushyant Kumar Sharma, Krishna Sharma

Paper Title:

A Study of Fibre Reinforced Concrete using Cold-Drink Cans as Steel Fibre

Abstract: In this Research paper a live study on the above mentioned title “a study of fibre reinforced concrete using Cold-drink cans as steel fibre An experimental & analytical investigation of the behaviour of concrete reinforced with steel fibres is done in this study. It is now well established that one of the important properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) is its superior resistance to cracking and crack propagation. As a result of this ability to arrest cracks, fibre composites possess increased extensibility and tensile strength, both at first crack and at ultimate load and the fibres are able to hold the matrix together even after extensive cracking. In this study, effect of concrete with steel fibres has been investigated with casting of a total of 11 specimens. The specimens were tested at two different ages, at 14 and 28 days, with L/D ratio as two for cylinder (300mm height- 150mm dia.) and 150mm ×150mm × 150mm for cube. In which 6 specimens are concrete cubes which were tested in compression and 5 specimens are concrete cylinders which were tested in split tensile at 14 days and 28 days. An attempt has been made in the present investigation to study the influence of addition of cold drink-can waste material as fibres at a dosage of 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% by volume of concrete. The width and length of the waste tin fibres are 5 mm and 50 mm respectively. The properties studied include compressive and split tensile strengths. The study is conducted on M25 design concrete mix, with specimen sizes (150mm × 150mm × 150mm). These tests were carried out to evaluate the compressive strength and split tensile concrete strength .

Keywords:
Steel fibre, Compressive Strength, Split Tensile Strength.


References:

1.    B.Parthiban, K.Suguna, P.N.Raghunath International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2015.
2.    Ganesan, N., & Ramana Murthy, J. V. (1990). Strength and Behaviour of Confined steel fibre reinforced concrete column. ACI Materials Journal, 221-227

3.    Foster, S. J. (2001). On Behavior of High-Strength Concrete Columns: Cover Spelling, Steel Fibers, and Ductility. ACI Structural Journal, 583-589.

4.    IS: 456-2000, Specifications for plain and reinforced concrete

5.    Mohd Muzammil Ahmed, Mohd Majiduddin Department of Civil Engineering NSAKCET, India ASST PROF Department of Civil Engineering NSAKCET, India.

6.    M Vijaya Sekhar Reddy, Ramana Reddy, K M Mohan Reddy, M C Nataraja and N Krishna Murthy (2012), durability aspects of high performance concrete containing supplementary cementing materials, International Journal of structural and civil Engineering Research, vol.1, no.1, ISSN: 2319-6009

7.    M.N.S. Hadi School of Civil, Mining and Env. Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia

8.    N.Ganesan Bharati Raj, A.P.Shashikala & Nandini S.Nair (2012), effect of steel fibres on the strength and behaviour of self compacting rubberised concrete, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), vol.3, pp: 94-107

9.    N. Buratti, C. Mazzotti & M. Savoia DISTART – Structural engineering, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

10. Sreeja . M.D Department of Civil Engineering SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai


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40.

Authors:

Bharti Joshi, Nimish Gaur, Nikhil Kumar Bansal, Rohit Sharma, Prajapati Omprakash, Rahul Sharma, Kanhaiya Maheshwari

Paper Title:

Enhancement of Concrete Properties by using Coconut Shell as Coarse Aggregates

Abstract: As we know that the cost of building construction materials is the factor of great concern. The prices of building materials are rising day by day. In this paper, the utilization of coconut shell as a coarse aggregate has been discussed based on the results obtained from comprehensive review of literature & study done by us. M 30 grade of concrete cube was casted by replacing coarse aggregate with coconut shell. Thirty cubes were casted and their compressive strength and flexural strength were evaluated at 7, 14 and 28 days. The compressive strength of concrete reduced as well as the percentage replacement increased. Concrete cubes casted by 10%, 20% replacement attained 28 days compressive strength of 34.67 N/mm2, 34.22N/mm2 respectively. But with increment in % of coconut shell the compressive strength decreases gradually. It is economical as compared to conventional concrete and also contributes to sustainable construction. The aim of this paper is to familiarize the people about the use of coconut shell as a construction material in civil engineering which will be helpful for the utilization of waste coconut shell.

Keywords:
Concrete, Coarse Aggregate, Crushed Coconut Shell (CS), Compressive Strength, waste utilization


References:

1.    U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Transportation Applications of Recycled Concrete Aggregate - FHWA State of the Practice National Review. Washington, DC, USA, 2004; pp. 1-47.
2.    Transport Research Laboratory. A review of the use of waste materials and by-products in road construction, contractor report 358, 1994.

3.    William H. Langer, Lawrence J. Drew, Janet S. Sachs. Aggregate and the environment, American Geological Institute, 2004.

4.    Filipponi P, Polettini A, Pomi R, Sirini P. Physical and mechanical properties of cementbased products containing incineration bottom ash. Waste Management 2003;
23(2): 145–156.

5.    Dhir RK, Paine KA, Dyer TD, Tang MC. Value-added recycling of domestic, industrial and construction arisings as concrete aggregate. Concrete Engineering International 2004; 8 (1): 43–48.

6.    Poon CS, Shui ZH, Lam L, Fok H, Kou SC. Influence of moisture states of natural and recycled aggregates on the slump and compressive strength of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research 2004; 34(1): 31–36.

7.    Khatib ZM. Properties of concrete incorporating fine recycled aggregate. Cement and Concrete Research 2005; 35(4): pp. 763–769.

8.    Andrade LB, Rocha JC, Cheriaf M. Evaluation of concrete incorporating bottom ash as a natural aggregates replacement. Waste Management 2007; 27(9): 1190–1199.

9.    M. R. Jones, L. Zheng, A. Yerramala, K. S. Rao. Use of Recycled and Secondary Aggregates in Foamed Concretes. communicated, Magazine of Concrete Research, 2012.

10. E.A. Olanipekun, K.O. Olusola, O. Ata. A comparative study of concrete properties using coconutshell and palm kernel shell as coarse aggregates. Building and Environment 2006; 41(3):p297–301.

11. K. Gunasekaran, P.S. Kumar, M. Lakshmipathy. Mechanical and bond properties of coconutshellconcrete. Construction and Building Materials 2011; 25(1): p 92–98.

12. V.T. Markrose, Coconuts in India. Coconut Development Board, Kerala, India. http://www.bgci.org/education/1685/, accessed on 31-3-2012.


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