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Volume-2 Issue-3 Published on February 28, 2013
26
Volume-2 Issue-3 Published on February 28, 2013
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S. No

Volume-2 Issue-3, February 2013, ISSN:  2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Amel Dhahri, Ahmed Omri

Paper Title:

A Review of solar Chimney Power Generation Technology

Abstract:    The present paper presents an overview of the main characteristics of a novel kind of solar thermal application called solar chimney power plant. It is a technology of electric power generation using solar energy by employing basic physics that when air is heated it rises.  The created updraft can be used to turn a turbine placed at an appropriate position within a tall chimney to generate electricity. The paper discusses the principles and characteristics of such a system, its requirements, its construction and its operation. It also focuses on actual research and development of solar chimney projects.

Keywords:
  projects, power generation, solar chimney, solar energy.


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2.

Authors:

Jeena Mary Abraham, M.S.P. Subathra, Senraj. R

Paper Title:

Single Stage Inverter Topology for Renewable Resources

Abstract:   Power sector faces great troubles in the generation of power when the energy sources are renewable resources like wind power, hydro turbines etc. These resources may not be available at a constant rate continuously. Wind power generation is high only when the velocity of the wind is high, but this may not happen all the time. So the input will  not be stable, in such situations inorder to produce a stable, stepped up ac voltage with high reliability, high boost gain and efficiency, the use of single stage boost inverter with coupled inductor is suggested

Keywords:
   single stage; coupled inductor; boost gain.


References:

1.        F. Z. Peng, “Z-source inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 504–510, Mar. 2003.
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3.        M. Shen and F. Z. Peng, “Operation modes and characteristics of the Zsource inverter with small inductance or low power factor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 89–96, Jan. 2008.

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6.        K. Zhou and D. Wang, “Relationship between space-vector modulation and three-phase carrier-based PWM: A comprehensive analysis,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 186–196, Feb. 2002.

7.        F. Z. Peng, M. Shen, and Z. Qian, “Maximum boost control of the z-source inverter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 833–838, Jul. 2005.

8.        M. Shen, J. Wang, A. Joseph, and F. Z. Peng, “Constant boost control of the z-source inverter to minimize current ripple and voltage stress,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 770–778, May/Jun. 2006.
9.        G. Zhu and K. Wang, “Modeling and design considerations of coupled inductor converters,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf., 2010, pp. 7–13.

10.     Yufei Zhou  and Wenxin Huang,”Single-Stage Boost Inverter With Coupled Inductor” IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, Vol. 27, No. 4, April 2012.


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3.

Authors:

B. R. Yadwade, S.B. Patil

Paper Title:

Diagnosis of cardiac deceases by Using ECG signal compression for cffective communication

Abstract:    An ECG contains diagnostic information related to cardiac activity. A method to compress diagnostic information without losing data is required to store and transmit them efficiently on a wireless personal area network (WPAN). As electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are generally sampled with a frequency of over 200 Hz, an ECG signal compression method for communications on WPAN, which uses feature points based on curvature, is proposed. The feature points of P, Q, R, S, and T waves, which are critical components of the ECG signal, have large curvature values compared to other vertexes. Thus, these vertexes were extracted with the proposed method, which uses local extrema of curvatures. Furthermore, in order to minimize reconstruction errors of the ECG signal, extra vertexes were added according to the iterative vertex selection method. It was concluded that the vertexes selected by the proposed method preserved all feature points of the ECG signals. In addition, it was more efficient than the amplitude zone time epoch coding method.

Keywords:
   Electrocardiogram (ECG), Curvature, Feature Extraction, Vertex


References:

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3.        C. K. Yeo, I. Y. Soon, and C. T. Lau, “Lossless compression of multispectral satellite images,” J. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, pp. 226–230, 1999.

4.        B. Schijvennaars, G. V. Herpen, and J. A. Kors, “Intraindividual variability in electrocardiograms,” J. Electrocardiology, vol. 41, pp. 190–196, 2008.

5.        H. Kim, R. F. Yazicioglu, P. Merken, C. V. Hoof, and H. Yoo, “ECG signal compression and classification algorithm with quad level vector for ECG holter system,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed., vol. 14, pp. 93–100, 2010.

6.        W. C. Mueller, “Arrhythmia detection program for an ambulatory ECG monitor,” Biomed. Sci. Instrum., vol. 14, pp. 81–85, 1978.

7.        J. R. Cox, F. M. Nolle, H. A. Fozzard, and G. C. Oliver Jr., “AZTEC, a preprocessing program for real time ECG rhythm analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. BME-15, pp. 128–129, 1968.

8.        J. Abenstein and W. Tompkins, “A new data-reduction algorithm for realtime ECG analysis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. BME-29, pp. 43–48, 1982.

9.        U. E. Ruttimann and H. V. Pipberger, “Compression of the ECG by prediction or interpolation and entropy encoding,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. BEM-26, pp. 613–623, 1979.

10.     A. Djohan, T. Q. Nguyen, and W. J. Tompkins, “ECG compression using discrete symmetricwavelet transform,” in Proc. IEEE EMBC., vol. 1, 1995, pp. 167–168.

11.     M. L. Hilton, “Wavelet and wavelet packet compression of electrocardiograms,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 44, pp. 394–402, 1997

12.     J. Martinez, R. Almeida, S. Olmos, A. P. Rocha, and P. Laguna, “A wavelet-based ECG delineator: Evaluation on standard databases,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 51, pp. 570–581, 2004.

13.     Q. Zhang, A. I. Manriquez, C. Medigue, Y. Papelier, and M. Sorine, “An algorithm for robust and efficient location of T-wave ends in electrocardiograms,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 53, pp. 2544–2552, 2006.

14.     M. Benmalek and A. Charef, “Digital fractional order operators for Rwave detection in electrocardiogram signal,” IET Signal Process., vol. 3, pp. 381–391, 2009.

15.     B. Yun, S. Lee, J. Cho, J. Choi, and H. Kang, “A new vertex selection scheme using curvature information,” Lecture Note in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 3215, pp. 887–893, 2004.

16.     A. A. Iglesias and J. G.Moros, “Automatic real time ECG coding methodology guaranteeing signal interpretation quality,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 55, pp. 2519–2527. 2008.

17.     Y. Zigel, A. Cohen, and A. Katz, “The weighted eiagnostic distortion (WDD)measure for ECG signal compression,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 27, no. 11, 2000.


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4.

Authors:

Sanjay Kumar Khadagade, N.K. Mittal

Paper Title:

Comparison of BER of OFDM System using QPSK and 16QAM over Multipath Rayleigh Fading Channel using Pilot-Based Channel Estimation

Abstract:    This paper investigate and compare the various channel estimation techniques based on pilot arrangement with the communication system that uses QPSK and 16-QAM to transmit information using OFDM over multipath Rayleigh fading channel. Bit Error Rate (BER) has been considered as the performance index in all analysis. In the block type pilot arrangement, the performance of channel estimation is analyzed with three different algorithms: LS, LMMSE and SVD algorithm. In comb type pilot arrangement, the paper introduces three method of interpolation: linear interpolation, second order interpolation and cubic spline interpolation for channel estimation. The analysis  has been carried out with simulation studies under MATLAB environment.

Keywords:
   Channel Estimation, OFDM, Pilot Symbol, Rayleigh Fading channel


References:

1.             A. R. S. BAHAI AND B. R. SALTZBERG, MULTI-CARRIER DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF    OFDM,  KLUWER ACADEMIC/PLENUM, 1999. 
2.             J.-J. van de Beek, O. Edfors, M. Sandell, S. K. Wilson, and P. O. Borjesson, “On channel estimation in OFDM   systems,” in Proc. IEEE 45th  Vehicular Technology Conf., Chicago, IL, Jul. 1995, pp. 815–819.

3.             O.  Edfors, M. Sandell, J.-J. van de Beek, S. K. Wilson, and P. O. Brjesson, “OFDM channel estimation by singular value decomposition,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 931–939, Jul. 1998.

4.             M. Hsieh and C.Wei, “Channel estimation for OFDM systems based on comb-type pilot arrangement in frequency selective fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 44, no. 1, Feb. 1998.

5.             R. Steele, Mobile Radio Communications. London, England: Pentech Press Limited, 1992.

6.             R. Van Nee, R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications, 1st ed, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000.

7.             P. Hoeher, S. Kaiser, P. Robertson, ―Two-dimensional Pilot-Symbol-Aided Channel Estimation by      Wiener Filtering‖, Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1997. ICASSP-97., 1997 IEEE International Conference, Apr 1997, Vol. 3, pp. 1845-1848.

8.             U. Reimers, “Digital video broadcasting,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 104–110, June 1998.

9.             Louis L. Scharf. Statistical Signal Processing: Detection, Estimation, and Time Series Analysis. Addison-Wesley, 1991.

10.          M.X.Chang and Yu T.Su ,” performance analysis of Equalized OFDM systems in Rayleigh fading” IEEE Trans. On wireless comm. Vol. 1 no.4. pp.721-732.oct2002.

11.          Design and Implementation of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing by: Alan C. Brooks • Stephen J. Hoelzer. 


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5.

Authors:

Sanyam Agarwal, A.K.Gautam

Paper Title:

Analysis of Delay Variation in ATM Network

Abstract:    Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM). ATM was selected by the telecommunication (Carrier) industry as the technology to deliver the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN) carrier service. ATM is designed to handle different kinds of communication traffic (voice, audio, video and data) in an integrated manner. It is particularly important during periods of congestion that traffic flows with different requirements be treated differently and provided a different Quality of  Service  (QoS).

Keywords:
   BISDN, QoS, ABR, VBR ,DS


References:

1.        N.Saravana Selvam.M.E.and  Dr.S.Radhakrishnan , “ Active Services to improve Quality of Service in Networking using Network Processor”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.8 No.10, 243-, October 2008
2.        Jason Schareiber, Mehrdad Khodai Joopari and M.A.Rashid, “Performance of voice and video conferencing over ATM and Gigabit Ethernet backbone networks”, Res. Lett. Inf. Math. Sci., Vol. 7, pp 19-27, 2005.

3.        Opnet Technologies Inc.: Opnet Modeler, Version 7.0B, Manual, 2000.

4.        Gupta,  B.K., Lal, M., and Sharma, S.C., “Evaluation of Cell Loss Probability of Non-Blocking Multiple Input ATM Switches” Indian Journal of Information Science and  Technology, Chennai, INDIA in Nov., 2005.   

5.        J.Paek, C.Oh and K.Kim.: “ An Estimation of Traffic Parameters for VBR services in ATM networks, ”Computer Communications ,Vol.24 , pp.1380-1389, 2001.

6.        Orhan Cagri Imer,Sonia Compans, TamersBasar and R.Srokant.: “Available Bit Rate Congestion Control in ATM Network,” IEEE Control System Magazine, pp.38-56, February 2001.

7.        Bong Joo Kim, Gang Uk Hwang and Yeon Hwa Chung “Traffic Modelling and Bandwidth Allocation for Video Telephony Service Traffic”,Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization,Volume 5, Number 3, pp. 541–552, August 2009.

8.        Andrew S. Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks”, Vrije University Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Published by Pearson Education (Singapore) 4th, Edition, pp 384- 395, 2003.

9.        Gupta, B.K., Sharma, S.C., and Lal, M. : “Evaluation of  cell loss  probability of shared-memory ATM switch,” Journal of the CSI, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 15-20,  Dec. 2000, INDIA


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6.

Authors:

Piyush M Asolkar, Vinayak M Umale

Paper Title:

Analysis Of Microcirculation Videos Based On Adaptive Thresholding Technique

Abstract:   The study  of microcirculation is a key factor in the analysis of blood circulatory system. The blood flow distribution changes, based on the physiological effects of disorders. This study presents a method for analysis of microcirculation. The technique applies advanced image processing methods to the images. micro vessels (capillaries and small blood vessels), and estimate the average Functional Capillary Density on 20 consecutive frames for each subject. The algorithm consists of four main parts: pre-processing,  averaging, adaptive local thresholding segmentation and calculation of parameters. The key objective is to analyse the malfunctioning of the microcirculation in various organs. The designed system will help physicians and medical researchers in diagnostic and decision making to determine the functionality of organ sufficiency of resuscitation process and the effect of drug consumption in patients. Calculation of two parameters capillary flow density , functional capillary density and mass flow index allows analysing severity of malfunctioning.

Keywords:
   Capillary flow density , functional capillary density, Image processing microcirculation , Thresholding


References:

1.        Daniel De Backer, Steven Hollenberg, Christiaan Boerma, Peter Goedhart, ‘How to evaluate the microcirculation: report of a round table conference
2.        H. Glenn Bohlen ‘The Microcirculation and the Lymphatic System’, chapter 16

3.        V. Cerný, Z. Turek, and R. Pařízková, “Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a review”, Physiol. Res. 56, 2007.

4.        R. F. Tuma, W. N. Duran, K. Ley. HANDBOOK OF PHYSIOLOGY MICROCIRCULATIO , Elsevier Science, USA, 2008.

5.        AR. Pries, D. Neuhaus and P. Gaehtgens, “Blood viscosity in tube flow: dependence on diameter and hematocrit.” Am J Physiol,263: H1770-H1778, 1992. Research

6.        Chih-Kuang Yeh, Sheng-Yi Lu, and Yung-Sheng Chen, Microcirculation Volumetric Flow Assessment Using High-Resolution, Contrast-Assisted Images  ieee transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control, vol. 55, no. 1, january 2008

7.        S. Chaudhuri, S. Chatterjee, N. Katz, M. Nelson, and M. Goldbaum, “Detection of blood vessels in retinal images using two dimensional matched filters:’ IEEE Trans. Medical imaging, vol. 8, no. 3, 1989.

8.        Y. Xiao, Z. Cao, and T. Zhang, “Entropic Thresholding Based on Gray Level Spatial Correlation Histogram”, IEEE Trans. On Wireless Communications 7(1): 334-342, 2008.

9.        D. De Backer, S. Hollenberg, C. Boerma, P. Goedhart, G. Büchele, G. Ospina-Tascon, I. Dobbe, C. Ince, “How to evaluate the microcirculation: report of a round table condference”. Critical Care, 11:R101, 2007.

10.      D. Johnson, "Introducing the MicroScan". MicroVision Medical. July 1,2010<http://www.microvisionmedical.com/mvm_docs/MicroScan.pdf>.

11.      S Mehmet, S Bulent, “Survey over image thresholding techniques and quantitative performance evaluation” Journal of Electronic Imaging, 2004.1. Groner W, Winkelman JW, Harris AG, Ince C, Bouma GJ, Messmer K, Nadeau RG: Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: a new method for study of the microcirculation. Nat Med 1999, 5:1209-1212.

12.      Ince C: The microcirculation is the motor of sepsis. Crit Care 2005:S13-S19.

13.      Trzeciak S, Dellinger RP, Parrillo JE, Guglielmi M, Bajaj J, Abate NL, Arnold RC, Colilla S, Zanotti S, Hollenberg SM: Early microcirculatory perfusion derangements in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: relationship to hemodynamics, oxygen transport, and survival. Ann Emerg Med 2007, 49:88-98.

14.      J. Tang and S. T. Acton, “Vessel boundary tracking for intravital microscopy via multi-scale gradient vector flow snakes,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 316–324, Feb. 2004.

15.      T. S. Koh*, L. H. Cheong, Z. Hou, and Y. C. Soh ’A Physiologic Model of Capillary–Tissue Exchange for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging of Tumor Microcirculation ’IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 50, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2003


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7.

Authors:

Zouhair A. Sadouq, Mounia Seraoui, Mohamed Essaaidi

Paper Title:

Tanja: A framework to Conserve Energy in WSN

Abstract:    Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks raise a growing interest among industries and civil organizations where monitoring and recognition of physical phenomena are a priority. Their possible applications are extremely versatile. WSN represent a significant technology that attracts more and more considerable research attention in recent years. It has emerged as a result of recent advances in low-power digital and analog circuitry, low-power RF design and sensor technology. In this paper we propose a new framework for modeling Wireless Sensor Networks that supports WSN to handle real-time network management by using a hierarchical framework based on general features identified through a careful analysis of existing sensor networks. Our framework is based on the GSM model. In fact, it’s an energy optimization approach based on cross-layer for wireless sensor networks, joining optimal design of the physical, medium access control, and routing layer. It can be considered as a special kind of clustering architecture that extends the network life by efficiently using every node’s energy and distributes management tasks to support the scalability of the management system in densely deployed sensor networks.  However, it is more systematic, more robust and more scalable. In our solution we propose dynamic construction of clustering. The network is partitioned into clusters or cells.  A cluster is composed with nodes, where every node can play one of three roles: source or sensing role as a slave, router, or a master as a cluster head and a gateway to the external world. We address the energy-consumption efficiency as a major design challenge in succeeding the vision of self-organized WSN. This approach focuses on the computation of optimal transmission power, routing, and duty-cycle schedule that optimize the WSNs energy-efficiency and by the way, reduces node energy consumption and contributes to extending the lifetime of the entire network.

Keywords:
   Energy consumption-efficiency, GSM model, Self-configuration, WSN.


References:

1.        I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci. Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey. Computer Networks, 38(4): March 2002, pp. 393–422.
2.        Z. Sadouq and M. Essaaidi. Design Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Real-time Middleware. Information and Communication Technologies International Symposium, ICTIS’07, April 3 - 4 - 5, Fez, 2007.

3.        M. Tuñón, W. M. López, and Z. Sadouq. Characteristic Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks with Real-time Middleware. In Proceedings of the II Congreso Español de Informática CEDI 2007, September 12-14, Zaragoza, 2007, pp. 21 - 28

4.        M. Kochhal, L. Schwiebert, and S. Gupta. Role-based hierarchical self-organization for wireless ad hoc sensor networks. In Proceeding of the 2nd ACM International Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications, 2003, pp.98-107.

5.        M. Yebari, T. Addali, Z. Sadouq and M. Essaaidi. Energy Conservation Challenges in Communication Protocols for Wireless Sensors Networks: the state of the art. In Proceedings of the International Journal on Information and Communication Technologies, Vol. 1, No. 1-2, January-June 2008, pp. 29-35.

6.        I. Demirkol, C. Ersoy, F. Alagöz, 2006 MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks: a survey. IEEE Communications Magazine, 44 (4) April 2006, pp.115-121.

7.        Z. Sadouq, M. Tuñón, and M. Essaaidi. Tanja: A framework for modelling Wireless Sensor Networks. Workshop on Sensor Networks and Applications. WSeNA’08. September  1–5, Gramado, 2008.

8.        M. Yu, H. Mokhtar, M. Merabti, A survey of network management architecture in wireless sensor network. In Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Post-Graduate Symposium on The Convergence of Telecommunications, Networking and Broadcasting, 2006.

9.        J.L. Chen, H.F Lu and C.A Lee. Autonomic self-organization architecture for wireless sensor communications. International Journal of Network Management, Vol.17 No.3, June 2007, pp.197-208.

10.      A. T. Tai, K.S.T., and William H. Sanders. Cluster- Based Failure Detection Service for Large-Scale Ad Hoc Wireless Network Applications in Dependable Systems and Networks. DSN'04. 2004.

11.      Mklm;energy analysis of multi-hop wireless sensor network. In the proceeding of European Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks EWSN’05, January 31 - February 2, Istanbul, 2005, pp. 33-44.

12.      M.C. Vuran and I.F. AKyildiz. Spatial correlation-based collaboration medium access control in wireless sensor network. IEEE/ACM Transaction on Networking 14(2), June 2006.

13.      P. Skraba, H. Aghajan, and A. Bahai. Cross-layer optimization for high density sensor networks: Distributed passive routing Decision. In: Nikolaidis, I., Barbeau, M., Kranakis, E. (eds.) ADHOC-NOW 2004, vol. 3158, pp. 266–279.

14.      M. Zorzi, and R. Rao. Geographic random forwarding GeRaF for ad hoc and sensor networks: multihop performance. IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing 2(4), pp. 337-348.

15.      S. Cui, R. Madan, A. Goldsmith, and S. Lall. Joint routing, MAC, and link layer optimization in sensor networks with energy constraints. In the Proceeding of IEEE ICC’05.

16.      R. Madan, S. Cui, S. Lall, and A. Goldsmith. Cross-layer design for lifetime maximization in interference-limited wireless sensor networks. In the Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM’05.

17.      A. Bharathidasas, and V. Anand. Sensor networks: An overview. Technical report, Dept. of Computer Science, University of California at Davis, 2002

18.      D. Estrin, R. Govindan, J. Heidemann, and S. Kumar. Next century challenges: Scalable coordination in sensor networks. In Proceedings of ACM Mobicom, Seattle, Washington, USA, August 1999, pp. 263—270.

19.      I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, "A Survey on Sensor Networks", IEEE Communications Magazine, August 2002, pp. 102-114.

20.      D. Estrin, L. Girod, G. Pottie, M. Srivastava. Instrumenting the world with wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP’01.

21.      E. S. Biagioni and G. Sasaki. Wireless sensor placement for reliable and efficient data collection. In the proceeding of 36th  International Conference on Systems Sciences, Hawaii, January 2003.

22.      R. Krishnan and D. Starobinski. Efficient clustering algorithms for self-organizing wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 2005.

23.      A. Savvides, C. Han, and M. Strivastava, Dynamic finegrained localization in ad-hoc networks of sensors. In Proceeding of ACM MOBICOM’01, ACM Press, 2001, pp. 166–179.

24.      L. Doherty, L. El Ghaoui, and K. S. J. Pister. Convex position estimation in wireless sensor network. In Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM’01, Anchorage, AK, April 2001.

25.      CC1000 A unique UHF RF Transceiver, http://www.chipcon.com.

26.      CC2420 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 / ZigBee-ready RF Transceiver, http://www.chipcon.com.

27.      S. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Zhou, L. Gu, T. He, and J.A. Stankovic. Atpc: adaptive transmission power control for Wireless Sensor Networks. In the Proceeding of SenSys’06.

28.      W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin. An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In 21st Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM), June 2002. Vol 3, pp. 1567-1576.

29.      W.R. Heinzelman, A.P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan. Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks. In Proceedings of the Thirty Third International Conference on System Sciences HICSS ’00, Maui, January 2000.


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8.

Authors:

Neeraja Narayanan, S. Paul Sathiyan

Paper Title:

Electronic Ballast for High Intensity Discharge Lamp Based On AC-AC Sepic Converter

Abstract:    This project work proposes SEPIC converter topology for developing electronic ballasts, supplying high-intensity discharge lamps fed by a pulse width-modulation ac–ac converter, implemented with bidirectional switches. The lamp operates directly from the ac mains; thus, the drawbacks of the low frequency square waveform operation get eliminated. The features of the proposed solution are high efficiency, high power factor, low cost, and the absence of electrolytic capacitors. This paper includes the design of passive elements.

Keywords:
   AC–AC conversion, acoustic resonance (AR) phenomenon, ballasts, current control, high-intensity discharge (HID), ignition, lamps.


References:

1.        D. K. W. Cheng, “A simple electronic ballast with high power factor for Metal halide (MH) lamps,” in Proc. PEDS, 2003, pp. 1386–1390.
2.        M. A. Dalla Costa, J. M. Alonso, J. Garcia, J. Cardesin, and   M. Rico-Secades, “Acoustic resonance characterization of low-wattage  metal-halide lamps under low-frequency square-waveform operation,”  IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 735–743, May 2007.

3.        J. Dannehl, M. Lisere, and F. W. Fuchs(2011) “Implementation of voltage multiplier integrated HID ballast circuit with dimming control for automotive application” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 3623–3633.

4.        T. B. Soeiro, C. A. Petry, J. C. dos S. Fagundes, and I. Barbi

5.        (2011), “Direct AC–AC converters using commercial power modules applied to voltage restorers,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 278–288.

6.        G.C varghese,(1996) “The control hand book in power electronics control,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 278–288.


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9.

Authors:

V. Venkataramanan, K. Shankar, D. Vinoth, S. Archana

Paper Title:

Analysis of Cluster Based Zone Routing Protocol in MANET through Network Simulator

Abstract:    The employment of routing data from a source to a destination in a network is dispute. Many routing protocols are suggested for mobile ad-hoc networks. Usually there are two approaches first one is Proactive and another one is Reactive [3]. In which the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) is a composite routing protocol for MANET [2], the ZRP integrates the advantages of the proactive and reactive approaches by conserving an up-to-date topological map of a zone medial on each node. Within the zone, routes are instantaneously available. For destinations outside the zone, ZRP manipulates a route ascertainment procedure, which can profit from the local routing information of the zones. Clustering is a method that divides the network into inter depended substructures, called clusters. Each cluster has a cluster head. It acts as a temporary base station within its zone or cluster and communicates with other cluster heads. In existing system [4], [5], Source cluster node transmits a packet to the source cluster head and then it transmits a packet to destination cluster head through intermediate node and intermediate cluster head. The destination cluster head moves a packet to the destination node. In proposed system the source cluster node transmits a packet to the source cluster head then it transmits a packet to the destination cluster head and it moves to the destination node without using intermediate nodes and cluster heads. The proposed System is simulated in Network Simulator 2 (NS2). The ZRP supplies good packet delivery ratio and curtails time delay compared to existing system. Without using intermediate nodes curtails the time to bring back the route to destination and it utilizes few nodes therefore the packet loss is less. Each cluster heads knows about neighbors cluster head therefore it is easy to identify the destination cluster head and route discovery to the destination is understandable one.

Keywords:
   Ad-hoc Network, BRP, IARP, IERP, MANET, Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP),


References:

1.        www.ijcse.com/docs/IJCSE10-01-04-61.pdf
2.        www.dia.unisa.it/~vitsca/RC-0809I/survey_ad_hoc.pdf

3.        www.ijopcm.org/Vol/10/IJOPCM(vol.3.5.11.D.10).pdf

4.        Zhijiang Chang, Georgi Gaydadjiev, Stamatis Vassiliadis., “Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: Current Development and Evaluation”, In proceedings of the 16th annual work shop on circuits, systems and signal processing, prorisc 2005,pp. 489-494,  veldhoven, the Netherlands, November 2005

5.        Yi.-Yu Su, Shiow-Fein Hwang and Chyi-Ren Dow, “An Efficient cluster-based routing algorithm in ad hoc networks with unidirectional links”, Journal of Information Science and Engineering 24, 2007, pp. 1409 – 1428.

6.        Arwa Zabian, Ahmed Ibrahim and Fadi Al-Kalani, “Dynamic Head Cluster Election   Algorithm for Clustered Ad-Hoc Networks”, Journal of Computer Science 4(1), 2008.


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10

Authors:

Hamed Sadabadi, Adeleh Aftabtalab, Shirzad Zafarian, K.Venkateswara. Rao, V.Rajendar

Paper Title:

Synthesis and Characterization of -Al2O3 Platelet Nanoparticle as a Direct Product of Solution Combustion Method

Abstract:    Crystalline -Al2O3 was synthesized by the solution combustion of aluminum nitrate and urea in aqueous media. The effect of conditions was further investigated in detail. The XRD analysis shows that the crystalline -Al2O3 was obtained directly by SC method without annealing at high temperature above 1100oC, and the crystalline size can estimate from XRD result. The SEM micrograph shows the morphology of particles. Thermal behavior of -Al2O3 was evaluated by applying Thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords:
  a-Al2O3, Solution combustion, nanostructure, XRD


References:

1.        Kikuo Okuyama and Wuled Lenggoro“Nanoparticle Preparation and Its Application- A Nanotechnology Particle Project in Japan” Int. Conf. on MEMS, NANO and Smart Sys.2004, (ICMENS’04).
2.        T.Mimani and K.C.Patil, “Solution combustion synthesis of nanoscale oxides and their composites”, Mater.Phys.Mech.J. 4 , 2001,pp134-137.

3.        Singanahally T. Aruna and Alexander S. Mukasyan, “Combustion synthesis and nanomaterials”, Cur. Opin. in Solid State and Mater. Sci J. 12, 2008,pp44–50.

4.        Robert Ianos, Ioan Lazau and Cornelia Pacurariu, “The influence of combustion synthesis conditions on the a-Al2O3 powder preparation”, J Mater Sci 44, 2009, pp1016–1023.

5.        YI Jian-hong, SUN You-yi, GAO Jian-feng, XU Chun-yan ,“Synthesis of crystalline γ-Al2O3 with high purity”, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China J. 19, 2009,pp1237−1242.

6.        Hsing-I Hsiang, Tsung-Hao Chen, and Chia-Che Chuang, “Synthesis of -Alumina Hexagonal Platelets Using a Mixture of Boehmite and Potassium Sulfate”, J. of Am. Ceram. Soc. J. 90 (12), 2007, pp4070–4072.

7.        Fu Su Yen, Huei Shan Lo, Hui Lin Wen, Rung Je Yang, “- to -phase transformation subsystem induced by -Al2O3-seeding in boehmite-derived nano-sized alumina powders”, J. of Crys. Gro. 249, 2003, pp283–293.

8.        Shani Keysar, Gennady E. Shter, Yoram de Hazan, Yachin Cohen, and Gideon S. Grader, “Heat Treatment of Alumina Aerogels”, Chem. Mater J. 9, 1997,pp2464-2467.

9.        Fu-Su Yen, Pei-Ling Chang, Pei-Ching Yu and Rong-Jeh Yang, “Characterization on microstructure homogeneity of θ-Al2O3 powder systems during phase transformation”, Key Eng. Mater. J. 351, 2007, pp81-87.

10.      A. Janbey, Ranjan k.pati, Saad tahir, and Panchanan pramanik, “A new chemical rout for for the synthesis of nano-crystalline -Al2O3 powder”, J. of Europ. Ceram. Soc. 21, 2001, pp2285-2286.


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11.

Authors:

Jose Anand, K. Sivachandar

Paper Title:

Diverse Sorting Algorithm Analysis for ACSFD in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:    The progression in wireless communications and electronics has emerged the expansion of low-cost sensor networks. Sensor networks exploit large number of wireless sensor nodes to collect information from their sensing terrain. The gathered information will undergo in-network process and send to the remote sink. Sensor networks have wide range of applications including medical, military, home, etc. In the sensor networks, a fault-tolerant distributed decision fusion will occur due to the presence of sensor faults. For this fault detection, Collaborative Sensor Fault Detection (CSFD) scheme was used and this fault detection scheme is very difficult to implement because of the extensive computations. So an Approximated Collaborative Sensor Fault Detection (ACSFD) scheme was developed, which is less cost and utilizes less power than CSFD and has the same performance of CSFD. The important blocks present in the architecture of ACSFD consist of multipliers, logarithms, and sorting. In this paper, analysis has been done with various sorting algorithms and concluded the best sorting technique that can be used in ACSFD scheme to improve the performance of the fault detection scheme in the wireless sensor network.

Keywords:
   ACSFD, fault detection, sorting algorithms, wireless sensor networks.


References:

1.        Akyildiz I. F., Su W., Sankarasubramaniam Y., and Cayirci E., “Wireless sensor networks: A survey”, Journal on Computer Networks, Vol. 38, pp. 393-422, 2002.
2.        Cheng Q., Varshney P. K., Mehrotra K. G., and Mohan C. K., “Bandwidth management in distributed sequential detection”, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 51, No. 8, pp. 2954-2961, Aug. 2005.

3.        Chih-Min Chao, and Yi-Wei Lee, “A Quorum-Based Energy-Saving MAC Protocol Design for Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 813-822, Feb. 2010.

4.        Goldberg D. H., Andreou A. G., Julian P., Pouliquen P. O., Riddle L., and Rosasco R., “A wake-up detector for an acoustic surveillance sensor network: Algorithm and VLSI implementation”, Proceedings of the IPSN’04, pp. 134-141, 2004.

5.        Pei-Yin Chen, Li-Yuan Chang, and Tsang-Yi Wang, “A Low-Cost VLSI Architecture for Fault-Tolerant Fusion Center in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 803-813, April 2010.

6.        Vijaya Raja V., Rani Hemamalini R., and Jose Anand, “Performance Evaluation of Agent-based Upstream Congestion Control Approach in WSN” International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications (IJCTA), Vol. 2 (6), pp. 1939-1944, (ISSN: 2229-6093), Nov./Dec. 2011.

7.        Wang T. Y., Chang L. Y., Duh D. R., Wu J. Y., “Fault-tolerant decision fusion via collaborative sensor fault detection in wireless sensor networks”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 756-768, Feb. 2008.

8.        Yuanzhu Peter Chen, Arthur L. Liestman, and Jiangchuan Liu, “A Hierarchical Energy-Efficient Framework for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 789-796, May 2006.


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12.

Authors:

Anandhi, G. Gunasekaran, S.Satthiyaraj

Paper Title:

VC Using Lempel-Ziv-Welch Algorithm

Abstract:    Visual cryptography is one of the techniques used to encrypt the images by dividing the original image into transparencies. The transparencies can be sent to the intended person, and at the other end the transparencies received person can decrypt the transparencies using the tool, thus gets the original image. The proposed Visual cryptography provides the demonstration to the users to show how encryption and decryption can be done to the images. In this technology, the end user identifies an image, which is not the correct image. That is, while transmitting the image the sender will encrypt the image using the application here sender gets the two or more transparencies of the same image. The application provides an option to the end user of encryption. The end user can divide the original image into number of different images. Using the application we can send encrypted images that are in the format of GIF and PNG. The encrypted transparencies can be saved in the machine and can be sent to the intended person by other means.

Keywords:
   Image processing, visual Cryptography Scheme (VCS), GIF Encoding, Decoding.


References:

1.        Feng Liu and chuankun Wu.(2011), ‘Embedded Extended Visual Cryptography Schemes’, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 6, NO. 2, pp. 307-322
2.        Shamir A. (1979), ‘How to share a secret’ Commun. ACM, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 612–613.

3.        Blakley G. R. (1979), ‘Safeguarding cryptographic keys’ in Proc. National Computer Conf., vol. 48, pp. 313–317.

4.        Naor M. and Shamir A. (1995), ‘Visual cryptography’ in Proc. EUROCRYPT 94, Berlin, Germany, vol. 950, pp. 1–12, Springer-Verlag, LNCS.

5.        Naor M. and Pinkas B. (1997), ‘Visual authentication and identification’ in Proc. CRYPTO’97, vol. 1294, pp. 322–336, Springer-Verlag

6.        Chen T. H. and Tsai D. S. (2006), ‘Owner-customer right protection mechanism using a watermarking scheme and a watermarking protocol’ Pattern Recognit., vol. 39, pp. 1530–1541.

7.        Tuyls P., Kevenaar T., Schrijen G. J., Staring T., and Van Dijk M. (2004), ‘Security displays enabling secure communications’ in Proc. First Int. Conf. Pervasive Computing, Boppard Germany, Springer-Verlag Berlin LNCS, vol. 2802, pp. 271–284.

8.        Blundo C., De Bonis A., and De Santis A. (2001), ‘Improved schemes for visual cryptography’ Designs, Codes and Cryptography, vol. 24, pp. 255–278.

9.        Ateniese G., Blundo C., De Santis A., and Stinson D. R. (1996), ‘Visual cryptography for general access structures’ Inf. Computat., vol. 129, pp. 86–106.

10.      Prakash N. K. and Govindaraju S. (2007), ‘Visual secret sharing schemes for color images using halftoning’ in Proc. Int. Conf. Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications (ICCIMA 2007), vol. 3, pp. 174–178.

11.      Luo H., Yu F.X., Pan J. S., and Lu Z. M. (2008), ‘Robust and progressive color image visual secret sharing cooperated with data hiding’ in Proc. 2008 Eighth Int. Conf. Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, vol. 3, pp. 431–436.

12.      Hou Y. C. (2003), ‘Visual cryptography for color images’ Pattern Recognit., vol. 1773, pp. 1–11.

13.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lempl-Ziv-Welch

14.      http://www.sourcefordgde.com.

15.      http://www.ieice.org/eng/shiori/mokuji.html


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13.

Authors:

Bhagyshri Lachhwani, Mehul Barot, Poonam Sengar

Paper Title:

Incremental Sequence Mining

Abstract:    We are given a large database of customer transactions, where each transaction consists of customer-id, transaction time, and the items bought in the transaction. The discovery of frequent sequences in temporal databases is an important data mining problem. Most current work assumes that the database is static, and a database update requires rediscovering all the patterns by scanning the entire old and new database. We consider the problem of the incremental mining of sequential patterns when new transactions or new customers are added to an original database. In this paper, we propose novel techniques for maintaining sequences in the presence of a) database updates, and b) user interaction (e.g. modifying mining parameters). This is a very challenging task, since such updates can invalidate existing sequences or introduce new ones. In both the above scenarios, we avoid re-executing the algorithm on the entire dataset, thereby reducing execution time.

Keywords:
   Data mining, frequent sequences, minimum support, sequential pattern.


References:

1.        M. J. Zaki. Efficient enumeration of frequent sequences. In 7th CIKM, 1998.
2.        Florent Masseglia; Pascal Poncelet; Maguelonne Teisseire;, “Incremental mining of sequential patterns in large databases,” Data & Knowledge Engineering, pp. 97-121, 2003.

3.        S. Parthasarathy; M. Zaki; M. Ogihara; S. Dwarkadas; , “Incremental and interactive sequence mining,” In Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM’ 99), pp. 251–258, 1999.

4.        J. Ayres; J. Gehrke; T. Yiu; J. Flannick; , “Sequential pattern mining using a bitmap representation,” In Proceedings of ACM SIGKDD International Confer ence on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp. 429–435, 2002.

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14.

Authors:

Siva Sankara Raju R, Karun Kumar Y, Pragathi Kumar G

Paper Title:

Design and Analysis of Rocket Motor Casing by Using Fem Technique

Abstract:    This paper deals with the design of solid rocket mainly consists of determining the thickness of motor casing which includes the domes at head end, nozzle end and flange for bolted joints. Modeling of solid rocket motor components and its assembly is done in CATIAV5R19. Stress distributions are due to the effect of working stress developed in the components. The maximum working stress is compared with allowable yield stress of the material. Final conclusion brings out a well designed solid rocket motor for the effective storage of propellant for obtaining the required impulse. 2D Axi -Symmetric structural analysis for solid propellant rocket motor Casing is performed to determine the stress level of all components using ANSYS 12.0..

Keywords:
   Design, Analysis, Rocket Thrust   Motor.


References:

1.        ASME Pressure vessel code section VIII division 2.
2.        NASA SP-8025,”Solid rocket motor metal cases”, April 1970(N72-18785).

3.        Model Rocket Construction By Phil Charles Worth, Ukra.

4.        Davanas , G.E. Jensen and D. W. Netzer (Eds),”Solid rocket motor design” chapter 4 of tactical missile propulsion vol. 170,progress in aeronautics and astronautics,AIAA,1996. pp 323-379

5.        Alexander blake “Design of mechanical joints”.vol.42 pp:542-553

6.        Twitchell, S. E., Solid Rocket Motor Internal Insulation, SP-8093, NASA, December 1976.

7.        NASA SD-805,”Solid rocket motor igniters”, March 1971(N71-30346).

8.        ATK Space Propulsion Products Catalog, May 2008, pp. 30

9.        David Heckman, Finite element analysis of pressure vessels, MBARI 1998

10.      George P. Sutton, ‘Rocket propulsion elements’ consultant formerly laboratory associate, Lawrence Livermore national laboratory. ISBN-13: 978-0471838364

11.      NASA SP-8039,”Solid rocket motor performance prediction and analysis”, May 1971(N72-18785).

12.      NASA SP-8064,”Solid propellant selection and characterization”, June 1971(N72-13737).

13.      Sutton, George P. (2000). Rocket Propulsion Elements;7 edition. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-471-32642-9.

14.      L. Strand, “Laboratory test methods for combustion-stability properties of solid propellants,” in Nonsteady Burning and Combustion Stability of Solid Propellants, L. De Luca, E. W. Price, and M. Summerfield, Eds., vol. 143 of Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, pp. 689–718, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics,Washington, DC, USA, 1992.

15.      Ansys 12.0 help desk

16.      “Solid Rocket Motor.”

17.      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid_rocket_motor, en: User: Pbroks13, 19 May 2008.

18.      Sutton, G. P. and Biblarz, O., Rocket Propulsion Elements, 7th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2001

19.      Design Method In Solid Rocket Motors AGARD Lecture Series No.150 Revised Version 1988 (North Atlantic Treaty Organization Advisory Group For Aerospace Research And Development).


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15.

Authors:

Mahendra .U. Gaikwad, P.R. Kulkarni

Paper Title:

Static and Dynamic Analysis of End Mill Tool for Chatter Vibration Reduction

Abstract:    Milling is a very commonly used manufacturing process in the industry due to its versatility to generate complex shapes in variety of materials at high quality.  Due to the advances in machine tool , CNC, CAD/CAM, cutting tool and high speed machining technologies in last couples of decades ,the volume and the importance of milling have increased in key industries such as aerospace ,die/ mold, automotive and component manufacturing. But however the unstable machining (namely chatter vibration) is one of the main limitations for high speed machining which shortens the tool life and decreases machined surface quality. In this paper static and dynamic analysis of end mill tool with different geometry is carried out by Finite element analysis (FEA), also some practical equations are developed to predict the static and dynamic properties of end mill tool And the results obtained by both the methods are nearly same. However in case of static analysis amount of deflection of tool for a particular value of cutting force can be easily determined, while in case of dynamic (modal) analysis natural frequencies and mode shapes can be determined.

Keywords:
   CNC, CAD / CAM, (FEA).


References:

1.        E.B. Kivanc, E. Budak, Structural modeling of end mills for form error and stability analysis, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 44 (2004)
2.        A. Tekeli and E. Budak, Maximization of chatter-free material removal rate in end milling using analytical methods, Machining Science and Technology,2005, 9:147–167

3.        Nam H. Kim et al, Numerical Analysis and Parameter Study of a Mechanical Damper for use in long Slender End mills, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 2006;46, 2005: 500–507. 

4.        E. Budak, Analytical models for high performance milling. Part I: Cutting forces, structural deformations and tolerance integrity, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 1478–1488 

5.        T. Prem Singh Inbaraj* and M. Vinoth: Dynamic Analysis Of Milling Machine Chatter Vibration Reduction, Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp 4858,(2007)


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16.

Authors:

Shashank Mittal, Reshu Nautiyal, Swati Mamgain, Kumud Pant,Tribhuvan Chandra

Paper Title:

Signature Patterns for Major Virulent Proteins of HIV1

Abstract:    Realizing the importance of understanding major virulent proteins of HIV we are attempting to unravel various amino acid signatures that exist for two major proteins in HIV i.e. Gag and Env. The results have been obtained through freely available software VESPA available at HIV database project funded by the Division of AIDS of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The results obtained help us to understand the sites in proteins which can be hot spot of mutations or sites where propensity of finding different amino acid exists. This is a novel work where signature patterns for various HIV proteins have been deduced.

Keywords:
   HIV, AIDS, (NIAID), (NIH).


References:

1.        Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Transmission in a Dental Practice, Chin-Yih Ou et.al. SCIENCE * VOL. 256 * 22 MAY 1992.
2.        J. S. Smith etal., N. Engi. J. Med. 324, 205 (1991); H. J. Un etal., J. Infect. Dis. 164, 284 (1991); G. P. Holmes et al., Ann. Intem. Med. 112, 833 (1990); R. Rico-Hesse, M. A. Pallansch, B. K. Nottay, 0. M. Kew, Virology 160, 311 (1987).

3.        P. Balfe et al., J. Wrol. 64, 6221 (1990).

4.        G. Myers et al., Eds., "Human retroviruses and AIDS 1991: A compilation and analysis of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences," (Theoretical Division, T10, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 1991).

5.        Ou C-Y, Cielsielski CA, Myers G, Bandea CI, Luo C-C, Korber BTM, Mullins JI, Shochetman G, Berkelman RL, Nikki Economou AN, Witte J, Furman LJ, Satten GA, MacInnes KA, Curran JW, and Jaffe HW: Molecular epidemiology of HIV transmission in a dental practice. Science, 1992 May; 256(5060):1165-71.

6.        B. Korber and G. Myers: Signature Pattern Analysis: A Method for Assessing Viral Sequence Relatedness. AIDS Research and Hum. Retroviruses, 1992 Sep; 8(9):1549-60.

7.        The UniProt Consortium, Reorganizing the protein space at the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) Nucleic Acids Res. 40: D71-D75 (2012).


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17.

Authors:

Ahmad Kamil Arshad, Frag Ahmed Ma Kridan, Mohd Yusof Abdul Rahman

Paper Title:

The Effects of Sasobit® Modifier on Binder at High and Intermediate Temperatures

Abstract:     Research in the laboratory was carried out to determine if the addition of warm mix asphalt additive (sasobit®) has effects on the stiffness of the virgin bitumen and if the modified bitumen has the potential to increase the amount of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) used in warm mix asphalt. To fulfil this purpose, two types of samples have been prepared.The first was identified as control samples (virgin bitumen 80/100 penetration grade). The other was modifed using the same bitumen penetration grade with sasobit-additive in concentrations from 1% to 3 % by weight of binder at intervals of 0.5%, identified as saso mixes. Both groups  were subjected to viscosity test at high service temperatures (115, 125, 135 °C) and intermediate service temperatures (70, 80, 95°C) as well as penetration test to all samples at 25°C to determine the effect of sasobit additive on binder at ambient temperature. The results showed significant reduction in penetration value to all samples in all concentrations of the modifier on the bitumen. The results also showed decrease in viscosity values at high service temperatures to all modified samples compared to that of control samples. However, these values increased at intermediate temperatures to confirm the similar trend in penetration values, which indicated that the addition of sasobit on virgin binder increase the stiffness at low and intermediate temperatures. With regard to incorporating the recovered binder from RAP, the same trend was observed at high service temperature of 135°C to modified samples at sasobit concentration of 1.5% . This may assist in increasing the amount of RAP materials used with this modifier in the mix compared to the amount allowed in conventional mix.

Keywords:
   Warm Mix Asphalt, Sasobit additive, viscosity, high service temperature, intermediate service temperature, Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement.


References:

1.    Arif,C.and Joe, W. B. Review Of Warm MixAsphalt.SWUTC/08/473700-00080-1..TexasTransportation Institute. Texas A&M University System College Station.Texas 777843-3135. 2008.
2.    Austroads. Warm Mix Asphalt(WMA) Review. Austroads Technical Report AP-T91/07,Sydney,2007.

3.    Austroads,. Review of the Environmental Aspects of Warm Mix Asphalt. Austroads Publication No. AP–T163/10,2010.

4.    Brian, D. P. and Graham, C. H. (2005), August). Starting to Warm. [Accessed October 5, 2009 ] www.NACT.com.

5.    Frag Ahmed Ma Kridan,Ahmad Kamil Arshad and Mohd Yusof Abdul Rahman. (2010). Development of Warm Mix Asphalt and Compliance WithThe Requirements Set By Specifications. European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.48 No.1, 2010,  page, 118-128.

6.    FHWA. (2009, June). Warm Mix Technologies and Reseaerch. Federal High Administration.US.Department Of Transportation.[Accessed October 17, 2009] http:/ /www. fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/wma.html.

7.    JKR, SPJ. 20403 . 00030 Standard Specification For Road Works. Section 4 Flexible Pavement.Jabatan. Kerja Raya Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur,2008.

8.    John, D. A., Eric, H., John, B., Gaylon, B., Matthew, C. and JACK, C,. Warm Mix Asphalt: European Practice. FHWA-PL-08-007,Office Of International Programs Office of Policy Federal Highway Administration,US.Department Of Transportation American Association Of State of Highway and Transportaion Officials National Cooperative Highway Research Program.,2008.

9.    Kristjansdottir, O,. Warm Mix Asphalt For Cold Weather Paving. A thesis For Partial Fulfillment Of the DegreeOfMasterOf Science in Civil Engineering.University Of Washongton.Seattle.Washongton, 2006.

10.  M.O. Hamzah, A. Jamshidi, and Z. Shahadan,. Effects of Sasobit® on the Required Heat Energy and CO2 Emission on Blended Asphalt Binder Incorporated With Aged Binder. European Journal of Scientific Research. ISSN 1450-216X Vol.42 No.1, 2010, pp.16-24.

11.  NABA. The Role Of Research In Addressing Climate Change In Transportation Infrastructure, testimony of Mike Acott,. 2009.

12.  Newcomb, D,. Warm Mix .The Wave Of TheFuture,  HMAT, 2005. 

13.  Olof Kristjansdottir, Stephen, T. M., Larry, M. and Gloria, B,. Assessing Potential For Warm Mix Asphalt Technology. Adoption. Transportation Research Board:Journal Of the Transportation Research Board .No. 2040 Transportation Research Board Of the National Academics. Washington, D.C, 2007, pp.91-99.

14.  SasolWax,http://www.sasolwax.com/Sasobit_Technology.html. [Accessed December 12, 2009]

15.  Stacey, D. D., Kevin, K. M. and Bridget, M. D,. Installation Of Warm Mix Asphalt Projects In Virginia. Virginia DepartmentOf Transportation1401 E.Broad Street Richmond .VA23219 .FHWAP.O .Box 10249 Richmond .va23240. FHWA /VTRC 07-R25, 2007. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                            

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18.

Authors:

S. Ghanbarnezhad , A. Nemati, M. Bavand-Vandchali, R. Naghizadeh

Paper Title:

Effect of TiO2 in Spinel Formation and Reactive Sintering of Magnesia-rich Ceramics

Abstract:    The solid solubility of magnesia in magnesium -aluminate spinel and magnesium-aluminate spinel in magnesia does not change with temperature thus not creating bonds over periclase grains in single stage sintering process. In the present study, magnesia and alumina powders along with tetravalent oxide (TiO2) additive was analyzed for its role in reactive densification of spinel in single stage firing process in order to achieve a better binding system for magnesia-based refractories. This tetravalent oxide on reaction with magnesia from spinel solid solution with MgAl2O4 as they have similar crystal structure. The spinel solid solution formed using oxide additive is expected to higher solubility in magnesia than magnesium- aluminate spinel, resulting in improvement of the bonding during sintering through increased in solid solubility at elevated temperatures, similar to the complex spinel in magnesia-chrome refractories. The formation of spinel during firing remains as a second phase that retards the grain growth of periclase.

Keywords:
   Densification, Periclase, Reaction sintering, Spinel Solid solution, tetravalent oxide.


References:

1.        E. Ryshkewitch, Oxide ceramics, Academic Press, New York, 1960, 257-274.
2.        S,Banerjee. Monolithic Refractories A Compre- hensive Handbook, World Scientific Publishing, 1998, 33-34.

3.        Refractories Handbook,The Technical Association of Refractories, June, Japan, 1998, 163-164.

4.        G. Ye, G. Opera, T. Troczynski, Synthesis of MgAl2O4 spinel powder by combination of sol-gel and precipitation processes, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 88(11) , (2005), 3241-3244.

5.        A. Ghosh, R. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee and S.K. Das, Effect of spinel content on the properties of magnesia -spinel composite refractory, J. Eur, Ceram, Soc24, (2004), 2079-2085.

6.        H. Makino, T. Obana and A. Tsuchinari,  Effect of  TiO2 concentration on properties of MgO-TiO2-Al2O3 clinker and MgO refractories with clinker addition" Journal of  the technical association of refractories, Japan, 25]2[,(2005) 105-108.

7.        A. Ikesue, J. Yoshitomi, H. Shikano and T. Eguchi, Formation of precipitated complex spinel in magnesium-chrome refractories and its characteristic- s, Interceram, 41 (6), (1992), 406-412.

8.        R.E Carter, Mechanism of Solid State Reaction Between MgO-Al2O3 and MgO-Fe2O3, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc, 44(3) (1965), 116-120.

9.        A. Ghosh, S.K. Das, J.R. Biswas, H.S. Tripathi and G.Bannerjee, The effect of ZnO additionon the densification and properties of magnesium aluminate spinel, Ceramics International, 26 (6), (2000), 605-608.

10.      R.Sakar, G.Bannerjee, Effect of Addition of TiO2 on Reaction Sintered MgO-Al2O3 spinels, J. Eur, Ceram, Soc, 20 (12), (2000), 2133-2141.

11.      R. Lodha, T. Troczynaski and G. Oprea, Role of oxide additives in the synthesis and sintering of magnesium aluminate spinel, Interceram, 57(5), (2008), 324-329.

12.      C.A.Schacht: Refractories Handbook, Marcel Dekker Inc.,New York ,2004, 215-257.

13.      R. Lodha, T. Troczynaski and G. Oprea, Role of Ti4+ and Sn4+ ions in spinel formation and reactive sintering of magnesia-rich ceramics, Ceramic International, 37, (2011), 465-470.

14.      R. Naghizadeh, R.H. Rezaie, F. Golestani-fard Effect of TiO2 on phase evolution and microstructure of MgAl2O4 spinel in different atmospheres, Ceramic International 37, (2010), 349-354.

15.      Solmaz Ghanbarnezhad Education: M.S,. In Ceramic Engineering, in the Department of Materials Engineering, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran,  2012.

16.      Thesis:

17.      The effect of TiO2 on physical, mechanical, thermo-mechanical properties, coating and corrosion resistance of chrome-free basic brick.

18.      B.S,. In Ceramic Engineering, Maybod University, Islamic Azad University , Yazd, Iran , 2006.

19.      Research work: Ceramics, Refractories, Sensor and Podwer synthesis.

20.      Some publications: 4th EFRS, JOMB journal, 6th ISR,  ICEEA, ICESD,…

21.      Ali Nemati   Education: Ph.D., In Materials Science and Engineering (Ceramic major)  Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland , Ohio, USA, 1994.

22.      Dissertation: The effects of Ce Doping on the PTCR effects of Barium Titanate

23.      Advisors: Professor M.R. DeGuire & Professor M. Tabib Azar

24.      M.S., In Ceramic, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran, 1988.

25.      Thesis: Stabilization and Transformation Toughening in Zirconia Ceramics.

26.      B.S., In Ceramic, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran, 1985.

27.      PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS:

28.      Iranian Ceramic Society, (member & a member of Board of the Society)

29.      Iranian Metallurgical Society, (member)

30.      Center of excellence in Adv. Eng. Materials, ( Head and member)

31.      Member of Biomedical Research Center of Sharif

32.      American Ceramic Society (Former member- While living in the USA)

33.      Mohamad Bavand-Vandchali  Education: Ph.D., Department of Metallurgy & Material Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran.

34.      M.S., Department of Metallurgy & Material Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran.

35.      B.S., Department of Metallurgy & Material Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran.


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19.

Authors:

Sheeja Agustin A, S. Suresh Babu

Paper Title:

A Review of Thyroid Disorder Detection, Segmentation and Classification on Medical Images

Abstract:    Thyroid is a small butterfly shaped gland located in the front of the neck just below the Adams apple. Thyroid is one of the endocrine gland, which produces hormones that help the body to control metabolism. Different thyroid disorders include Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, goiter, and thyroid nodules (benign/malignant). Ultrasound imaging is most commonly used to detect and classify abnormalities of the thyroid gland. Other modalities (CT/MRI) are also used. Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) help radiologists and doctors to increase the diagnosis accuracy, reduce biopsy ratio and save their time and effort. Numerous researches have been carried out in thyroid medical images and that are utilized for the diagnosis process. In this paper, a broad review on the researches that are developed for the thyroid diagnosis using medical images is presented along with the classification.  A short description about thyroid, thyroid diseases and thyroid diagnosis are also presented.

Keywords:
   Medical imaging, Thyroid, Thyroid disorders, Segmentation, Classification.


References:

1.             Chuan-Yu Changet al. “A Neural Network for Thyroid Segmentation and Volume Estimation in CT Images”, November 2011 IEEE COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE MAGAZINE, pp 43-55
2.             Jianrui Ding et al.  “A novel quantitative measurement for thyroid cancer detection based on elastography”, 4th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing 2011

3.             Chuan-Yu Chang et al. “Thyroid Segmentation and Volume Estimation in Ultrasound Images”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 57, NO. 6, JUNE 2010Chuan-Yu Chang et al. “Classification of the Thyroid Nodules Using Support Vector Machines”, International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) 2008

4.             Deepika Koundal1 et al.,” Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodule: A Review”,International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey (IJCSES) Vol.3, No.4, August 2012

5.             Singh1 and  Mrs Alka Jindal,” A segmentation method and classification of diagnosis for thyroid nodules”, . IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSRJCE) ISSN : 2278-0661 Volume 1, Issue 6 , PP 22-27,2012

6.             Edgar Gabriel et al. “Towards high performance cell segmentation in multispectral fine needle aspiration cytology of thyroid lesions”, computer methods and programs in biomedicine, pp 1-10

7.             M. Savelonas et al. “Variable Background Active Contour Model for Automatic Detection of Thyroid Nodules in Ultrasound Images”, Dept. of Informatics and Telecommunication

8.             Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood and Akmal,” Segmentation and Area Measurement for Thyroid Ultrasound Image”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2011

9.             Dimitris E. Maroulis,” Variable Background Active Contour Model for Computer-Aided Delineation of Nodules in Thyroid Ultrasound Images”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 11, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2007

10.          http;//www.nlm.nih.gov/medlinep/us/ency/article/000371.htm

11.          http://www.wikipedia.com

12.          http://thyroid.about.com/library/weekly/qathyroid 101-e.htm

13.          http://ww.medicinenet.com/script/main/at.asp

14.          Preeti Aggarwal et al. “Role of Segmentation in Medical Imaging: A Comparative Study” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 29– No.1, September 2011

15.          Nikita Singh et al. “ A Segmentation Method and Comparison of Classification Methods for Thyroid Ultrasound Images” International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 50 – No.11, July 2012

16.          Eystratios G.et al.” ΤND: A Thyroid Nodule Detection System for Analysis of Ultrasound Images and Videos” Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

17.          Eleonora Horvath et al.” An Ultrasonogram Reporting System for Thyroid Nodules Stratifying Cancer Risk for Clinical Management”, J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 1748–1751, 2009

18.          Yutaka Hatakeyama et al. “Algorithm for Estimation of Thyroid Gland Size in Ultrasonography Images for Extracting Abnormal Thyroid in Medical Practice” Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics Vol.16 No.1, 2012

19.          Mary C. Frates et al. “Management of Thyroid Nodules Detected at US: Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Consensus Conference Statement” Management of Thyroid Nodules Detected at US Volume 237 , Number 3

20.          M.Seetha et al.” ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND OTHER METHODS OF IMAGE CLASSIFICATION”, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology,2008
21.          Won-Jin Moon et al.” Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules: US Differentiation—Multicenter Retrospective Study” Radiology: Volume 247: Number 3—June 2008
22.          U Rajendra Acharya et al.” Automated Benign & Malignant Thyroid Lesion Characterization  and Classification in 3D Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound”34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS San Diego, California USA, 28 August - 1 September, 2012

23.          Skrgio Okida et al. “Expert System to Support the Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules”, Proceedings of the 22"' Annual EMBS international Conference, July 23-28,2000, Chicago IL.

24.          D.E. Maroulis et al. “Computer-Aided Thyroid Nodule Detection in Ultrasound Images”, Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS’05) 2005 IEEE

25.          Konstantinos K. Delibasis et al.” Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Thyroid Malignancy Using an Artificial Immune System Classification Algorithm”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 13, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2009

26.          Elpiniki I. Papageorgiou et al.” Fuzzy cognitive map based decision support system for thyroid diagnosis management”, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems(FUZZ ) 2008.

27.          Michalis A. Savelonas et al” Active Contours Guided by Echogenicity and Texture for Delineation of Thyroid Nodulesin Ultrasound Images”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN BIOMEDICINE, VOL. 13, NO. 4, JULY 2009

28.          Jieming Ma et al. “Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules with Ultrasound Elastography based on Support Vector Machines” , IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings 2010

29.          D.Selvathi et al. “Thyroid Classification and Segmentation in Ultrasound Images Using Machine Learning Algorithms” Proceedings of International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Computing and Networking Technologies (ICSCCN) 2011


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20.

Authors:

Sajid Ullah Khan,Wang Yin Chai, Chai Soo See

Paper Title:

A Novel Noise Removal Technique of X-Ray Carry-on Luggage for Detection of Contraband/Illicit Object(s)

Abstract:    Luggage inspection systems play an important role in ensuring national security at airports. In this paper, a novel approach of noise removal from dual energy X-ray images is proposed to ensure the national security at airport. This novel approach is used as a key step in our previous framework to get perfect results. High Energy and Low Energy x-ray images are combined, de-noise it with the proposed novel approach and at the end enhance the fused image with histogram specification to improve the contrast. The   final  image  did not  only  contains the details, but   is   also   background-noise-free   and   contrast-enhanced, therefore easier to segment automatically or be  interpreted  by  screeners,  thus  reducing  the  false alarm rate in X-ray luggage inspection. It is observed that the proposed approach is more suitable for screeners in detecting contraband/illicit objects than using other conventional techniques.

Keywords:
   dual Energy x-ray Image enhancement, image restoration, image fusion, De-noising, Histogram specification.


References:

1.             Gozani, “The role of neutron based inspection techniques in the post 9/11/ 01 era”,Volume 213, January 2004, Pages 460–463
2.             A. Buffler a, J. Tickner b, “Detecting contraband using neutrons: Challenges and future directions”, Volume 45, Issue 10, December 2010, Pages 1186–1192

3.             George Zentai, “X-ray imaging for homeland security”, Int. J. Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010

4.             S. Singh and M. Singh, "Review Explosives Detection Systems (EDS) for Aviation Security" Signal Processing, vol. 83, pp. 31-55, 2003

5.             Alexey Guilarte Noa and Edel B, Image Processing Methods for X-Ray Luggage Images: A Survey, Oct, 2011.

6.             Andy Buffler, “Contraband detection by fast neutron scattering”,2ndNational Nuclear Technology Conference, May 13–15, NAC, South Africa (2001)

7.             Pawan Patidar, Manoj Gupta,”Image De-noising by Various Filters for Different Noise”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 9– No.4, November 2010

8.             James C. Church, Yixin Chen, and Stephen V. Rice Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Mississippi, “A Spatial Median Filter for Noise Removal in Digital Images”, IEEE, page(s): 618-623, 2008.

9.             Kenneth.R. Castleman, Translated by ZHU zhigang etc.1998.DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING [M].Beijing: Electronic and Industrial Press

10.          J.Harikiran, B.Saichandana, B.Divakar, “Impulse Noise Removal in Digital Images”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 10– No.8, November 2010

11.          M. Jaya Manmadha Rao, Dr.K.V.V.S.Reddy, “Image Fusion Algorithm for Impulse NoiseReduction in Digital Images”, Global Journal of Computer Science and TechnologyVolume 11 Issue 12 Version 1.0 July 2011

12.          Zhiyu Chen; Yue Zheng; Abidi, B.R.; Page, D.L.; Abidi, M.A.; , "A Combinational Approach to the Fusion, De-noising and Enhancement of Dual-Energy X-Ray Luggage Images," Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition - Workshops, 2005. CVPR Workshops. IEEE Computer Society Conference on, vol., no., pp.2, 25-25 June 2005 doi: 10.1109/CVPR.2005.386

13.          ZhiYu Chen; Abidi, B.R.; Page, D.L.; Abidi, M.A.; "Gray-level grouping (GLG): an automatic method for optimized image contrast enhancement - part II: the variations," Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.15, no.8, pp.2303-2314, Aug.2006 doi: 10.1109/TIP.2006.875201

14.          X-ray images, Department of Computer Science Engineering Universidad.


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21.

Authors:

Adebayo, I.G., Adejumobi, I.A., Olajire, O.S.

Paper Title:

Power Flow Analysis and Voltage Stability Enhancement Using Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) Facts Controller

Abstract:    Power demand increased steadily while the expansion of power generation and transmission has been severely limited due to the inadequate resources and environmental forces. As a result of this, some transmission lines are heavily loaded and the system stability becomes a power transfer-limiting factor. Hence, power flow analysis and Voltage stability enhancement  are of paramount essential for a secure power system operation. Presented in this paper is the  application of Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) for power flow  analysis and  voltage control  of  Nigerian 330kV grid system.  Power flow equations involve solution to nonlinear algebraic equations using mathematical algorithms. In this work, the Newton Raphson iterative algorithm was used for solving the power flow problems due to its ability to converge very fast with small number of iteration. Simulation of power flow solutions with and without TCSC was done using MATLAB 7.90 based programme . Where voltage drops were noticed at the load bus, especially, voltages  at buses  9 (Ayede.), 13(New Heaven), 14(Onitsha),and 16(Gombe),TCSC was incorporated to regulate the voltage magnitude at those buses. The application  of TCSC improved the voltage profile of the system and furthely enhanced the power flow .    

Keywords:
   TCSC;  FACTS; Voltage Stability;Power flow, voltage magnitude


References:

1.             S. Sakthivel, D. Mary and M. Deivarajamani, ‘Reactive power planning for voltage stability limit improvement with FACTS Devices in most critical contingency condition’ European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216  Vol.66 No.3 2011, pp. 408-420
2.             S.Hadi, “power system analysis” published by McGraw-Hill publishing company limited, New York. 2006 Pp189-237.

3.             H. Saadat, “Power System Analysis”. Tata McGraw-Hill publishing company limited, New  York. 2002 pp.189-237.

4.             E. Acha,  H. Ambriz-Perez,  C.R. Fuerte-Esquivel, C.S. Chua,   “On the Auditing of Individual Generator Contributions to Optimal Power Flows, Losses and Costing of  Large, Interconnected Power Networks”, IPEC’97 Proc., Volume II, Nanyang University, Singapore, May 1997, pp. 22–24.

5.             G.A. Adepoju, and  O.A. Komolafe,   “power injection model of high voltage Direct   current-voltage source converter for power Flow Analysis”, proceedings of  international Conference on power system Analysis, control, and Optimization (PASCO), india, 2008 8pp.67-72.

6.             E. Acha,   ‘Tracing Wind Power in a Pooled Transmission System’, EPSOM’98, Zurich,Switzerland, September 1998, pp. 23–25.

7.             E.  Acha,, C.R.Fuerte-Esquivel, C.S.  Chua ,  ‘On the Auditing of Individual Generator Contributions to Power Flows and Losses in Meshed Power Networks’, RVP  96- SIS-10,Reunion de Verano de Potencia, IEEE Seccio´n Me´xico, Acapulco Gro., Mexico, July 1996, pp. 170–173.

8.             R. Amold, “Solutions to the power quality problem”.Power Eng. J., 15:2001 pp. 65-73.

9.             L. Gyugyi, k.k. Sen. And C.D. Schauder, ‘‘The interline Power Flow Controller Concept: a New Approach to Power Flow Management in Transmission Systems”, IEEE Trans. PWRD,14(3) 1999, pp.1115-1123.

10.          L. Dedek , “Loss minimization in the modified Algorithm of load flow analysis  in industrial power system”, 2002 pp33-50.           

11.          N.G.Hingorani, and L. Gyugyi, “Understanding,FACTS concepts and Technology of flexible AC transmission systems”. IEEE Press, New York.

12.          M.Nadarajah, A. C. Claudio, R. John  and J.R. Graham  “comparisons of PSS,SVC, and STATCOM Controller for Damping Power System Oscillations”, IEEE Trans. On Power System, Vol. 18, No. 2, May 2003, pp.786-792.

13.          O.S. Onohaebi,  and S.T. Apeh, , “Voltage Instability in Electrical Network: A Case study of the Nigerian 330kV Transmission Grid,” Research Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 2, no. 8,2007 pp. 865-874.

14.          O.A.  Komolafe, and M.O. Omoigui,  “An Assessment of Reliability of       Electricity Supply in Nigeria”, Conference Proceedings of the 4th International  Conference on Power  Systems Operation and Planning (ICPSOP), Accra, Ghana, July 31 – August 3, 2000, pp.89 – 91.

15.          S.H Barbani,  and  K. M. Amit,  “load flow study in power system” A  published thesis submitted for       the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering Department,Rourkela.


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22.

Authors:

Vishnupriya.A, AlthafKhan.J, Gopalakrishnan.R

Paper Title:

A Fast Serial Multiplier Design using Ripple Counters

Abstract:    Multipliers are the fundamental components of many digital systems. Low power and high speed multiplier circuits are highly demanded. It is not possible to achieve both the criteria simultaneously.Therefore, there exists some trade-off between speed and power consumption in the design of a binary multiplier.The partial product (PP) formation and reduction of the partial product tree height in serial multipliers is our primary concern. In existing CSAS architecture of partial product formation is carried out in 2n clock cycles, where n is the number of operand bits. Here, the critical path is along the full adders and AND gates. The disadvantage of this method is increased delay as it involves 2n computational clock cycles. This disadvantage is overcome by using the concept of data accumulation by ripple counters. Column compression technique is used for the reduction of partial product tree height. Unlike the CSAS architecture, the critical path in this technique is found only along the AND gates. The partial product formation is done in n clock cycles instead of 2n clock cycles and hence delay is reduced. Moreover, the counters change states only when input is ‘1’, which leads to low switching power.The final product is computed by the Ripple carry adder (RCA) in both the above architectures. RCA is replaced by KSA for improved performance. The average connection delay in the multiplier architecture due to KSA is reduced and is expressed in terms of nano seconds.

Keywords:
   Binary multiplication, Partial product, Ripple counters, Serial multiplier.


References:

1.        K. Lenstra and E. Verheul, “Selecting cryptographic key sizes,”J.Cryptology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 255–293, 2001.
2.        N. R. Strader and V. T. Rhyne, “A canonical bit-sequential multiplier,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-31, no. 8, pp. 791–795, Aug. 1982.

3.        R. Gnanasekaran, “On a bit-serial input and bit-serial output multiplier,”IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-32, no. 9, pp. 878–880, 1983.

4.        R. Gnanasekaran, “A fast serial-parallel binary multiplier,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-34, no. 8, pp. 741–744,1985.

5.        P. Ienne and M. A Viredaz, “Bit-serial multipliers and squarers,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 1445–1450,1994.

6.        Mark Vesterbacka, Kent Palmkvist, and Lars Wanhammar, “Serial squarers and serial/serial multipliers”.

7.        A. D. Booth, “A signed binary multiplication technique,” Quarterly J.Mechan.Appl. Math., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 236–240, 1951.

8.        C.P. Lerogue, P.Gerard, and J.S. Colardelle, “ A fast 16- bit NMOS parallel multiplier”, IEEE Journal of Solid-state circuits, Vol. 19, no.3, pp. 338-342, Mar 1984.

9.        Jin-HaoTu and Lan-Da Van, “Power-Efficient PipelinedReconfigurable Fixed-Width Baugh-Wooley Multipliers” IEEE Transactions on computers, vol. 58, No. 10, October 2009.

10.     A. Dandapat, S. Ghosal, P. Sarkar, D. Mukhopadhyay (2009), “A 1.2- ns16×16-Bit Binary Multiplier Using. High Speed Compressors”, International Journal of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, 2009, 234-239.

11.     William J. Stenzel, William J. Kumitz,Member IEEE, GillesH.Garcia, “Compact High- Speed Parallel Multiplication Scheme” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-26:948-957(1977).

12.     S. Haynal and B. Parhami, “Arithmetic structures for inner-product and other computations based on a latency-free bit-serial multiplierdesign,”presented at the 13th AsilomarConf. Signals, Syst. Comput., Geneva, Switzerland, 1996.

13.     ManasRanjanMeher, Ching-ChuenJong,Chip-Hong Chang “High-Speed and Low-Power Serial Accumulator for Serial/Parallel Multiplier” IEEE Xplore,2010.

14.     Parhami, Computer Arithmetic: Algorithms and Hardware De-signs. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2009.

15.     R. Menon and D. Radhakrishnan, “High performance 5:2 compressor architectures,”IEEProc-Circuits Devices Syst., vol. 153, no. 5, pp.447–452, Oct. 2006.

16.     G. Bi and E. V. Jones, “High-performance bit-serial adders andmultipliers,”IEEProc G-Circuits Devices Systs, vol. 139, no. 1, pp.109–113, Feb. 1992.

17.     “A High Bit Rate Serial-Serial Multiplier With On-the-Fly ccumulation by Asynchronous Counters”ManasRanjanMeher, Student Member, IEEE, ChingChuen Jong, and Chip-Hong Chang, Senior Member, IEEE, IEEE transactions on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems, 2011.

18.     Y.Kim and L.S .Kim, “64-bit carry-select adder with reduced area,” Electron. Lett. vol.37, no.10, pp.614-615, May 2001.

19.     R.P.BrentandH.T.Kung,“ARegular Layout forParallel Adders,” IEEE Transactions on Computers,vol. C-31,no.3,pp.260–264, 1982.

20.     J. Sklansky, “Conditional-sum addition logic,” IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers, vol. 9, pp. 226–231, 1960.

21.     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kogge%E2%80%93Stone_adder

22.     P.M. Kogge and H.S. Stone, “A Parallel Algorithm for the Efficient Solution of a General Class of Recurrence Equations,”IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. C-22, no. 8, pp. 786-792, Aug. 1973.

23.     J.Rabaey, “Digital Integrated Circuits: A Design Perspective”, Prentice Hill, Second Edition, 2003.

24.     S. Ghosh et al., “Tolerance to small delay defects by adaptive clock stretching,” IOLTS, 2007.

25.     P. Ndai et al., "Fine-grained redundancy in adders,” ISQED, 2007.

26.     W. J. Townsend et al., "Quadruple time redundancy adders," DFT, 2003.

27.     W. Johnson, “Design and analysis of fault tolerant digital systems,” Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1989.

28.     J. H. Patel et al., “Concurrent error detection in ALUs by recomputing with shifted operands,” Trans. Comput., 1982.

29.     K. Wu et al., “Algorithm level RE-computing with shifted operands - a register transfer level concurrent error detection technique,” ITC, 2000.


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23.

Authors:

S.Vaishnavi, R.Karthika, P.Suganya

Paper Title:

Elimination of Silent Data Corruption by Improved Error Detection using Difference Set Codes for Memories

Abstract:   Now-a-days, the memory devices are susceptible to Single Event Upsets (SEU) which is one of the soft errors due to radiation effects. Though several error correcting codes (ECC) are available, the simplest and effective ECC for memory application is Difference Set Cyclic Codes (DSCC). These codes are Majority logic decodable codes. This method of error correction will lead to Silent Data Corruption (SDC) in which the additional errors beyond the code’s correction capability are not detected. This SDC will provide faulty word after decoding which actually looks like error free corrected word. This is because the existing method assumes that the input word contains error which is less than the error correction capability and it tends to correct the additional errors, resulting in wrong output. The proposed algorithm will eliminate the SDC and detect the any number of additional errors. The proposed algorithm is coded in VHDL and simulated using Modelsim and Xilinx ISE simulator

Keywords:
  Single Event Upsets (SEU), Error Correction Codes (ECC), Difference Set(DS) Codes, Majority logic decoding.


References:

1.        R. C. Baumann, “Radiation-induced soft errors in advanced semiconductor technologies,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliabil., vol. 5, no.3, pp. 301–316, Sep. 2005.
2.        J. von Neumann, “Probabilistic logics and synthesis of reliable organisms from unreliable components,” Automata Studies, pp. 43–98, 1956.

3.        Robin Schriebman, “Error Correcting Codes”
http://wwwmath.mit.edu/phase2/UJM/vol1/COOKE7FF.PDF.Viewed, April 13, 2006.
4.        S. Lin and D. J. Costello, “Error Control Coding”, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2004.

5.        M.Y. Hsiao, “A Class of Optimal Minimum Odd-weight-column SECDED Codes”, IBM Journal of R & D Vol. 14, July 1970, pp. 395-401.

6.        R. Naseer and J. Draper, “DEC ECC design to improve memory reliability in sub-100 nm technologies,” in Proc. IEEE ICECS, 2008, pp.586–589.

7.        R.W.Hamming, Bell Systems Tech.J.26, No.2, 147 (April 1950).

8.        I. S. Reed, “A class of multiple-error-correcting codes and the decoding scheme,” IRE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. IT-4, pp. 38–49, 1954.

9.        V. Beiu, S. Aunet, J. Nyathi, R. R. Rydberg-III, and A. Djupdal. “The vanishing majority gate trading power and speed for reliability”. In Proceedings of NanoArch, 2005.

10.      S.-C. Chae and Y.-O. Park. “Low complexity encoding of regular low density parity check codes”. In Proceedings of VTC, 2003.

11.      S. Ghosh and P. D. Lincoln, “Low-density parity check codes for error correction in nanoscale memory,” SRI Comput. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. CSL-0703, 2007.

12.      Bane Vasic, Shashi Kiran Chilappagari, “An Information Theoretical    Framework for Analysis and Design of Nanoscale Fault-Tolerant Memories Based on Low-Density Parity-Check Codes”, ieee transactions on circuits and systems, vol. 54, no. 11, november 2007.

13.      M. A. Bajura et al., “Models and algorithmic limits for an ECC-based approach to hardening sub-100-nm SRAMs,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 935–945, Aug. 2007.

15       C. W. Slayman, “Cache and memory error detection correction, and reduction techniques for terrestrial servers and workstations,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliabil., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 397–404, Sep. 2005.

16.      H. Naeimi and A. DeHon, “Fault secure encoder and decoder for NanoMemory applications,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 473–486, Apr. 2009.

17.      E. J.Weldon, Jr., “Difference-set cyclic codes,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol.45, pp. 1045–1055, 1966.

18.      C. Tjhai, M. Tomlinson, M. Ambroze, and M. Ahmed, “Cyclotomic idempotent-based binary cyclic codes,” Electron. Lett., vol. 41, no. 6, Mar. 2005.

19.      T. Shibuya and K. Sakaniwa, “Construction of cyclic codes suitable for iterative decoding via generating idempotents,” IEICE Trans. Fundamentals  vol. E86-A, no. 4, pp. 928–939, 2003


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24.

Authors:

S.Jananee, N.Annu, K.Jayapriyadharshini

Paper Title:

Round Rescheduling Technique for Hash Function Blake using Carry Select Adder with Binary to Excess  Converter

Abstract:    Cryptographic hash functions are used widely in many applications mainly for its high speed and security. NIST organized SHA-3 competition and the final round candidates are BLAKE, KECCAK, SKEIN, JH AND GROSTL.  Among the five finalists design and architecture of BLAKE is analyzed in this paper. Hash function BLAKE is the one-way cryptography which means no key is used while sending and receiving the message. In the field of cryptography speed and secrecy are the tradeoffs. To obtain high speed and efficiency, Round Rescheduling Technique is incorporated. To make BLAKE more efficient, modular addition is replaced with Carry Select Adders (CSA) using Binary to Excess Converter (BEC). The Existing and Proposed architecture of BLAKE is designed using CSA whereas Modified BLAKE is designed using CSA with BEC. So that the Area and Power consumed in Proposed method is less compared with Existing methods. BLAKE-32 and BLAKE-64 are coded in VHDL language and simulated in Mentor Graphics Front-End tool - Modelsim. Area and Power results are shown in Xilinx ISE simulator.

Keywords:
   Hash Function, SHA-3, NIST CSA, BEC, VHDL, Xilinx ISE simulator.


References:

1.        J.-P. Aumasson, L. Henzen, W. Meier, and R. C.-W     Phan, “SHA-3    Proposal BLAKE, submission to NIST,” 2008. [Online]. Available:http://131002.net/blake/  
2.        Cryptanalysis of Dynamic SHA 2 by Jean-philipe, Orr Dunklemen, Bart Preneel Sabastian Indesteege.

3.        SHA-1 Standard, National Institute of Standards   and Technology (NIST), Secure Hash Standard, FIPS PUB 180-1,International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology- volume3Issue2- 2012, ISSN: 2231-2803 Page 272 1995, available on line at www.itl.nist.gov/fipspubs/ fip180-1.htm

4.        X. Wang and H. Yu, “How to break MD5 and other hash functions,” in Advances in Cryptology—EUROCRYPT 2005, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2005, vol. 3494, pp.19–35.

5.        NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, “Announcing the secure hash standard,” FIPS180-2, 2002.

6.        NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, “SP 800-106, Randomized hashing Digital Signatures,” 2007.

7.        L. Ji and X. Liangyu, “Attacks on round-reduced BLAKE,” 2009.

8.        Xu Guo , Meeta Srivastav , Sinan Huang , Leyla Nazhandali and Patrick Schaumont Silicon Implementation of SHA-3 Final Round Candidates: BLAKE, Gr_stl, JH, Keccak and Skein dec. 2009,

9.        Ryan Toukatly SHA-3: The BLAKE Hash Function – 2009

10.      Luca Henzen, Pietro Gendotti, Patrice Guillet, Enrico Pargaetzi, Martin Zoller, and Frank K. Gurkaynak. Developing a Hardware evaluation method for sha-3candidates. In Mangard and Standaert [21], pages 248{263.

11.      National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Cryptographic Hash Algorithm CompetitionWebsite.

12.      J.Sklansky, “Conditional-sum Addition Logic”, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers, EC-9,p 226-231, 1960

13.      O.J Bedrij, “Carry-select adder,” IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers,pp. 340- 344, 1962.

14.      R.P Brent and H.T.Kung, “A Regular Layout for Parallel Adders”, IEEE Transactions on Computers,vol. C-31, No.3,p.260-264, march, 1982.

15.      Tyagi, “A reduced are scheme for carry- select adders”, IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.42, pp.1163-1170, 1993.

16.      Paul F.Stelling, “Design strategies for optimal hybrid final adders in parallel multiplier”, Journal of VLSI signal processing, vol 14, pp. 321-331, 1996.

17.      T.Y.Ceiang and M.J.Hsiao, “Carry-select adder using single Ripple carry adder,” Electron .Lett., vol.34, no.22,pp.2101-2103, oct. 1998. K.Rawwat, T.Darwish and M. Bayoumi, “A low power Carry select adder with reduces area,” proc. of Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp.218-221, 2001.

18.      A.Shams, T.Darwish and M.Byoumi,”performance analysis of low power 1-bit CMOS full adder cells,” IEEE Trans.VLSI Systems, vol.10,pp.20-29, Feb.2002.

19.      Massimo Alioto and Gaetano Palumbo, “Analysis and Comparison on Full Adder Block in Submicron Technology”, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, vol. 10, No.6, December 2002.

20.      Y.He ,C.H.Chang and J.Gu, “An area efficient 64-bit square root carry-elect adder for low power applications,” in Proc. IEEE Int . Symp.Circuits Syst.,2005, vol. 4,pp.4082-4085.

21.      Behnam Amelifard, Farzan Fallah and Massoud Pedram, “Closing the gap between carry select adder and ripple carry adder: a new class of low-power high performance adders”, in Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED), 2005.

22.      Yan Sun, Xin Zhang, Xi Jin “High performance Carry select adder using fast All-one Finding Logic”, IEEE  Int conf modelling and simulation , pp 1012-1014, 2008.

23.      Padma Devi,Ashima Girdhar and Balwinder Singh “Improved Carry select adder with Reduced Area and low power consumption” Int Jou of Com Appl(0975-8887) vol3-no.4,June 2010.

24.      St_ephanie Kerckhof1, Fran_cois Durvaux, Nicolas Veyrat-Charvillon, Francesco Regazzoni, Guerric Meurice de Dormale2, Fran_cois-Xavier Standaert. University catholique de Louvain, UCL Crypto Group,B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium on Compact FPGA Implementations of the Five SHA-3 Finalists.

25.      St_ephanie Kerckhof1, Fran_cois Durvaux, Nicolas Veyrat-Charvillon, Francesco Regazzoni, Guerric Meurice de Dormale2, Fran_cois-Xavier Standaert. University catholique de Louvain, UCL Crypto Group,B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium on Compact FPGA Implementations of the Five SHA-3 Finalists.


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25.

Authors:

Suguna, Logesh Kumar, Lavanya

Paper Title:

Lossy Image Compression and Data Embedded In Compressed Encrypted Image

Abstract:    This work is based on lossy image compression and data embedded in compressed encrypted image. In this, the original image is compressed by lossy compression method and encrypted using the encryption key. Data is hided into the compressed encrypted image using the data hiding key. If the receiver has encryption key then he can recover the image after decompression, if data hiding key he can extract the data, if both data hiding key and encryption key then he can extract the data and recover the original image after decryption and decompression.

Keywords:
   Lossy Compression, Encrypting an image, Data hiding, Recovery of image/ Extraction of data.


References:

1.        M.Johnson, P.Ishwar, V. M. Prabhakaran, D. Schonberg, and K.Ramchandran, “On compressing encrypted data” .
2.        IEEE Trans. Signal Process. vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 2992–3006, Oct. 2004.

3.        W. Liu, W. Zeng, L. Dong, and Q. Yao, “Efficient compression of encrypted grayscale images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 19, no. 4,pp. 1097–1102, Apr. 2010.

4.        [3] X.Zhang, “Lossy compression and iterative reconstruction for encrypted image,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Forensics Security, vol. 6, no. 1,pp. 53–58, Feb. 2011.

5.        J. Tian, “Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion ,”IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–896,Aug. 2003.

6.        Z. Ni, Y.-Q. Shi, N. Ansari, and W. Su, “Reversible data hiding,” IEEE Trans Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 354–362, Mar.2006.

7.        M. U. Celik, G. Sharma, A. M. Tekalp, and E. Saber,

8.        “Lossless generalized-LSB data embedding,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 14, no.2, pp. 253–266, Feb. 2005.

9.        C.-C. Chang, C.-C. Lin, and Y.-H. Chen, “Reversible data-embedding scheme using differences between original and predicted pixel values,” IET Inform. Security, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 35–46, 2008.

10.      X. Zhang, “Reversible data hiding in encrypted

11.      Image,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 255–258, Apr. 2011.

12.      X. Zhang, “Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image, ”IEEE transactions of information forensics and security” ,vol 7,No.2, Apr 2012


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26.

Authors:

Saad Abdulqader Ali, Ismail bin Yusof, Madi Hermadi, Marwan B.S. Alfergani, Abdalla Ab Sinusi

Paper Title:

Pavement Performance with Carbon Black and Natural Rubber (Latex)

Abstract:    Many studies have been done to find other alternative material to use as modifiers in asphalt mixes on the improvement of its properties and highway quality. In this research Carbon Black and Natural Rubber (Latex) have been used as bitumen modifiers, bitumen is sensitive to rate of traffic load and temperature susceptibility. Therefore, bitumen modification has become the main factor to improve the hot mix asphalt properties and permanent deformation (Rutting).The use of carbon black and natural rubber in this project was identified to have the potential of becoming a modifier in HMA mixes due to the elastic behavior and in reducing the rutting potential. This study presents the viability of carbon black and natural rubber as an additive in bitumen as binder and hot mix asphalt concrete with different ratios of 10,15,20% CB and 1,3,5% NR blended separately and with each other. The behaviors of the two modifiers were investigated by comprehensive laboratory testing and evaluation. The DSR was used to determine the rheology of the modifiers with bitumen and Superpave mix design method was used to determine the optimum bitumen content and one aggregate gradation was considered under this investigation. The performance of carbon black and natural rubber mixtures at 40° C was determined by the dynamic creep test and indirect tensile test. It was observed that the addition of carbon black and natural rubber gave better overall performance in the bituminous mixes. The stiffness modulus decreases as the addition of carbon black and natural rubber increase. However, the performance of 10% CB gave better stiffness modulus whereas, the stiffness is higher. The creep values are also the lowest with 10% CB. Thus, this shows carbon black and natural rubber may contribute toward better flexible roads in the future.

Keywords:
   Carbon Black, Natural Rubber (Latex), Polymers, Modified Bitumen.


References:

1.        Astana, D.A. (2008/2009).  The Effect of Epoxy Bitumen Modification on Hot Mix Asphalt Properties and Rut Resistance. University Technology Malaysia pp.  5-6. 
2.        Brown, S. F., and Bouncher, J. L. (1990). Asphalt Modification. Proceedings of the 1990 Conference on Highway Research: Sharing the Benefits. 29-31 October. London: 181-200.

3.        Chowdhury, A., Button, J. W. & Grau, J. D. (2001). Evaluation of Superpave Aggregate Specifications.The Texas A&M University System: Ph.D Thesis.

4.        Hunter, N. R. (Ed.) (2000). Asphalts in Road Construction. London: Thomas Telford Publisher. pp 77

5.        Hisazumi, Y. Carbon Black Manufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities in View of Global Warming. Tokai Carbon Co., LTD

6.        Illinois Department of Transportation, IDOT. (2005, February). Performance graded binder material for hot mix asphalt, PTA-04

7.        Lavin G (2003). Asphalt Pavements: A Practical Guide to Design, Production, and Maintenance for Engineers and Architects. London and New York, Spon Press. p. 39.

8.        Lee, K.H. (1996). The use of waste materials (Air-cooled furnace slag and pyrolyzed carbon black) in hot mix asphalt, PhD Thesis. Purdue University p 1.

9.        Long, F. M. (2001). Permanent Deformation of Asphalt Concrete Pavements: A Nonlinear Viscoelastic Approach to Mix Analysis and Design..University of California, Berkeley: PH.D. Thesis

10.      Mathew, T.V. and Rao, K.V.K. (2007). Pavement Material: bitumen. Introduction to transportation engineering. p. 31.1.

11.      Mamlouk, M. J., Zaniewski, J.P. (2006). Material for Civil and Construction Engineers.2nd ed.United States of America. pp 348

12.      Nicholls, J. C. (1998). Asphalt Surfacings: Cambridge University Press.

13.      Newsletter of the Rubber Foundation Information Center for Natural Rubber 2005.pp. 1-4.

14.      Park,T. (2005). Application of pyrolized carbon black from scrap tires in pavement design (Hot mix asphalt). Purdue University, p. 14.

15.      Richard, R., and Bent, T. (2004). Road Engineering for Development. London. 2nd ed: Spon Press.

16.      Robinson, H.L. ( 2004). Polymers in Aspahlt. Rapra Technology Limited. Vol 15, pp. 15-17-29. 

17.      Roberts, L.F., Kandhal, P.S., Brown, R.E., Lee, D.Y., Kennedy, T.W. (1996). Hot Mix Asphalt Materials, Mixture, Design and Construction. NAPA Education Foundation. Maryland

18.      Shell Bitumen. (2003). The Shell Bitumen Handbook, published for shell bitumen by Thomas Telford publishing. pp. 61-65-125.

19.      Shell Bitumen. (1995). The Shell Bitumen Handbook, published by shell bitumen. p. 23.

20.      Tripathi, R. & Others. (2000). Toner-Modified Asphalt Composition. Patent 6, 113, 681.

21.      Tuntiworawit N, Lavansiri D and Phromson C (2005). The modification of asphalt with natural rubber latex. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5.  pp. 679-694.

22.      Uranga, O.G. (2008). Rheological properties of bitumen modified with polyethylene and polyethylene based blends. Universidad del pais. p. 122.

23.      Yen, T.F. and Chilingaraian, G.V (1994). Asphaltenes and Aspahlts,1. pp. 381-384.

24.      Zahran, S.Z. (1988). A Mechanistic Evolution of Modified Asphalt, PhD thesis, North Carolina State University. p. 12.


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27.

Authors:

D. B. Salunke, R. S. Kawitkar

Paper Title:

Analysis of LMS, NLMS and MUSIC Algorithms for Adaptive Array Antenna System

Abstract:   As technology developed this decade proves communication is the most important factor for the data interchange. Smart antennas have been considered to be one of the most demanding communication technologies. It adapted as most demanding technology because of high-bit rate or high quality in broadband commercial wireless communication. Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation is based on the MUSIC algorithm for identifying the directions of the source signals incident on the sensor array comprising the smart antenna system. Adaptive beam forming is achieved using the LMS algorithm for directing the main beam towards the desired source signals and generating deep nulls in the directions of interfering signals. The smart antenna system designed involves a hardware part which provides real data measurements of the incident signals received by the sensor array. Results obtained verify the improved performance of the smart antenna system when the practical measurements of the signal environment surrounding the sensor array are used. This takes the form of sharper peaks in the MUSIC angular spectrum and deep nulls in the LMS array beam pattern.

Keywords:
   Smart antenna, Angle of arrival, LMS, NLMS and MUSIC.


References:

1.        Bellofiore, S.; Balanis, C.A.; Foutz, J.; Spanias, A.S.; Smart-antenna systems for mobile communication networks. Part I. Overview    and antenna design Volume 44, Issue 3, and Page: 145 – 154 Jun 2002
2.        S. Haykin, “Adaptive Filter Theory”, Prantice-Hall, 4ThEdition, 2002.

3.        Frank Gross, “Smart Antennas for Wireless Communications with Matlab”, McGraw Hill, New-York, 2005.

4.        B. Widrow and S.D. Steams, Adaptive Signal Processing  (New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1985).

5.        L.C. Godara, "Applications of Antenna Arrays to Mobile Communications.I. Performance Improvement, Feasibility, and System Considerations,"Proceedings of IEEE, Volume 85, Issue 7, Pages1031-1060,  July 1997.

6.        L.C. Godara, "Application of Antenna Arrays to Mobile Communications.II. Beamforming and Direction-of-Arrival Considerations,"Proceedings of  IEEE, Volume 85, Issue 8, , Pages1195-1245. August 1997


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28.

Authors:

Anwar M. Mousa

Paper Title:

Promising Communication Technologies for Emergency and Safety Systems

Abstract:    this article discusses the uses of promising modern communication technologies for emergency and safety systems focusing on cognitive radio technologies and their roles in effective spectrum use. Given that only 10% to 30% of licensed spectrum is occupied in a specific time and locations, the remaining unused spectrum constitutes a huge room for increasing bandwidth and hence the number of served users in emergency events. Based on cognitive radio and sensed spectrum holes, the paper developed new approximated linear relations between the total number of served users in emergency situations as a function of total available bandwidth. Results show that increasing the number of channels per cell, as a result of sensed spectrum holes, yields a significant increase in cell capacity and the number of served users. The paper begins with  highlighting the impact of current andpromising communications technologies on strengthening disaster awareness and mitigation.

Keywords:
   emergency communications, trunking, cognitive networks, spectrum holes, system capacity.


References:

1.        www.tetra.com
2.        www.etsi.com

3.        TETRA MoU group, www.tetramou.com

4.        http://www.etsi.org/technologies-clusters/technologies/tetra

5.        TETRA Advanced Packet Service (TAPS), ETSI TS 101 962 V1.1.1 (2001-07)

6.        www.idenetwork.org/

7.        H. Aïache et al. “WIDENS: Wireless Ad-Hoc Network for Public Safety”, in 14th IST Mobile & Wireless Communications Summit, 2005, Dresden, Germany.

8.        Project MESA, a transatlantic initiative for future public safety broadband communication systems, www.projectmesa.org

9.        http://www.sensor-networks.org/

10.      URL: http://www.3gpp.org

11.      URL: http://www.wi-fi.org

12.      URL: http://www.wimaxforum.org

13.      www.vsat-systems.com/

14.      http://www.gps.gov/

15.      R.K.Jain, Risal Singh, “Role of Nanotechnology in future wireless and communication systems”, National seminar proceeding, Academy of Business & Engineering Science Ghaziabad, pp-19-28, 16-17th January 2009.

16.      High Altitude Platforms for Wireless Communications, T.C.Tozer, D. Grace, Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal June 2001.

17.      Mike Faulkner, Phil Conder, “COGNITIVE RADIO: Spectrum, the next frontier” Lund Circuit Design Workshop-2009.

18.      S. Haykin, “Cognitive Radio: Brain–Empowered Wireless Communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 23, no. 2, February 2005, pp. 201–220.

19.      Ian F. Akyildiz, et al. “A survey on Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Networks” Communications Magazine, IEEE, vol 46, April 2008, pp. 40-48

20.      Theodore S. Rappaport, (Wireless Communications-Principles and Practices), Second Edition 2004

21.      Teletrafic-engineering,http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Teletraffic_engineering/Trunking.


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29.

Authors:

Shweta Chawla, Ramanand Harijan, Harpal Singh

Paper Title:

Design Low Power 32-Bit Barrel shifter using Efficient Charge Recovery Logic

Abstract:    Today power dissipation has become the main concern as the circuit size become larger and larger. Especially in this paper we presented the reduction of the power dissipation which shows an increasing growth as the technology is scaled down. Various theories have been formulated regarding this problem. Out of which Adiabatic Logic is gaining much attention because of its exemplary results. By adiabatic technique, power dissipation in transistors can be minimized as well as energy stored in load capacitance can be reused instead of dissipation as heat. In these circuits we can reduce the energy dissipation during switching process as well as reuse the energy from the load capacitance by making a feedback path from load capacitance to the supply.In this paper we first study  of various adiabatic techniques and will lay emphasis on one of its widely used technique called the Efficient Charge Recovery Logic (ECRL). We will study how ECRL technique is better than the rest and how circuits are implemented using it.Using this technology we will design a 32 bit barrel shifter and perform various tests on the circuit. We will also compare the results of this adiabatic technology with the normal CMOS technology and show the drastic reduction in power dissipation. All the design structures based on Adiabatic Switching Logic are designed and simulated using standard TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology and 5 V voltage supply at an operating temperature of 27º C. Mentor Graphics Corporation based tool known as IC Design Architect have been used for all the design and analysis.

Keywords:
   Low power, Adiabatic, ECRL, Fully Adiabatic., Partially Adiabatic Circuit (Quasi),Barrel shifter, Multiplexor


References:

1.        A. P. Chandrakasan, S. Sheng, and R. W. Brodersen, “Low Power CMOS Digital Design,” IEEE Journal of Solid-state Circuits, Vol. 27, No. 04, pp. 473-484, April 1999.
2.        J. S. Denker, “A Review of Adiabatic Computing”, 1994 IEEE Symposium on Low Power Electronics, pp 94-97, 1994.

3.        T. Indermauer and M. Horowitz, “Evaluation of Charge Recovery Circuits and Adiabatic Switching for Low Power Design,” Technical Digest IEEE Symposium Low Power    Electronics, San Diego, pp. 102-103, October 2002.

4.        W. C. AthaS, J. G. Koller, L. Svensson, “An Energy- Efficient CMOS Line Driver using Adiabatic Switching” Fourth Great Lakes symposium on VLSI, California, March 2005.

5.        A. Kamer, J. S. Denker, B. Flower, et al., “2N2D-order Adiabatic Computation with 2N-2P and 2N-2N2P Logic Circuits,” In Proc. of the International Symposium on Low Power design, Dana Point, pp. 191-196, 1995.

6.        A. Blotti And R. Saletti, “Ultralow- Power Adiabatic Circuit Semi-Custom Design”, IEEE Transaction on VLSI system, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1248-1253, November 2004.

7.        Dragan Maksimovic´, G. Vojin, Oklobdžija, and et all, “Clocked CMOS Adiabatic Logic with Integrated Single-Phase Power-Clock Supply,” IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems, Vol. 08, No. 04, pp. 460-463, August 2000.

8.        Y. Moon and D. K. Jeong, “An Efficient Charge Recovery Logic Circuit,” IEEE JSSC ,Vol.31, No. 04, pp. 514-522, April 1996.

9.        S.S. Rajput and S.S. Jammuar,  “Low Voltage Analog Circuit Design Techniques”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and System Magazine, Vol no.-2, pp. 24 -42, 2002.

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30.

Authors:

E. Suresh Kumar, Bijan Sarkar

Paper Title:

Fault Tree Analysis of Failures in Fire Detection System of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System

Abstract:    The reliability of the grid connected photovoltaic system is primarily and strongly depends on the reliability of the electrical protection systems, failure of which may lead to fire. So a fire detection system is the crucial component in a grid connected PV system. So its reliability is directed related to the overall reliability of the PV system. A literature review of reliability data of fire detection system was made resulting to rough estimates of some failure frequencies. No theoretical or technical articles on the structure of reliability models of these installations were found. In this paper the  classifications of failure severity were made from the system point of view by counting failures of components when possible. Since there are no established fault tree structures available for fire detection system in photovoltaics, these component failure frequencies are intended to be used in the first round of iteration in the fault trees suggested here. The analysis leads to the necessity of the estimation of reliability of fire detection system for the assessment of the reliability of the grid connected photovoltaic power system. 

Keywords:
   Fault tree analysis, Top event, Reliability, Fire detectors, Boolean input


References:

1.        Paul K. Kuhn, Cynthia Furse, Paul Smith, (2006) - Locating Hidden Hazards in Electrical Wiring, Symposium on Aged Electrical Systems Research Application October 18-19, 2006, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
2.        Mohammad Sadegh Javadi1, Azim Nobakht2, Ali Meskarbashee (2011) - Fault Tree Analysis Approach in Reliability Assessment of Power System, International journal of multidisciplinary sciences and engineering, vol. 2, no. 6, september 2011.

3.        Casey C. Grant, P.E. (2010) - Fire Fighter Safety and Emergency Response for Solar Power Systems, The  Fire Protection Research Foundation,  ©  Copyright Fire Protection Research Foundation, May 2010.

4.        Wang Cheng-gang, Wang Zi-zhen (2010) - Design and Implementation of Safety Expert Information Management System of Coal Mine Based on Fault Tree , Journal of Software, Volume  5, NO. 10, October 2010, Pages : 1114 -1120.

5.        R. Karimi, N. Rasmussen and L. Wolf (May 1980 ) – Qualitative and quantitative reliability analysis of safety systems, Energy Laboratory Report No. MIT-EL 80-015, Energy Laboratory and Department of Nuclear Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139.\

6.        Sanjay Kumar Tyagi, D. Pandey and Reena Tyagi (2010) -Fuzzy set theoretic approach to fault tree analysis, International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology Vol. 2, No. 5, 2010, pp. 276-283.

7.        John Andrews (2012) - Introduction to Fault Tree Analysis, 2012 Annual RELIABILITY and MAINTAINABILITY Symposium.

8.        Lei Zhang, and Gaofeng Wang (2009) - Design and Implementation of Automatic Fire Alarm System based on Wireless Sensor Networks, ISBN 978-952-5726-02-2 (Print), 978-952-5726-03-9 (CD-ROM) Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Information Processing (ISIP’09) Huangshan, P. R. China, August 21-23, 2009, pp. 410-413.

9.        Merton Bunker ( 2007) - Fire Alarm Systems Getting It Right The First Time, IMSA Journal Pages : 32-49.

10.     Marsh (2008) - Effectiveness of Fire Safety Systems for Use in Quantitative Risk Assessments, New Zealand Fire Service Commission Research Report Number 89, ISBN Number 978-1-877349-83-6 (on-line), ISBN Number 978-1-877349-82-9 (paperback) © Copyright New Zealand Fire Service Commission


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31.

Authors:

E. Suresh Kumar, Bijan Sarkar, Dhiren Kumar Behera

Paper Title:

Failure of Photovoltaic Modules under Lightning and Thunderstorms

Abstract:    Lightning strikes can affect photovoltaic generators and their exposed installation sites as well as the sensitive electronics of the inverter. Therefore, it is necessary, to estimate the risk by lightning strikes, and to take these results into account for the design. IEC (EN) 62305-2 states procedures and data for the calculation of the risk resulting from lightning strikes into structures and for the choice of lightning protection systems. Actually, the technical guidelines for installation suggest protecting with SPD’s (surge protective device) both the DC and AC sides of the PV plant. The aim of this paper is to estimate voltages due to lightning discharges and to determine the effective need of lightning protection measures on the basis of the risk analysis and the protection costs.

Keywords:
   Lightning electromagnetic impulse, Lightning current arresters, Earth Termination System, Lightning protection level, Lightning flash count.


References:

1.        Roberto Pomponi, Riccardo Tommasini  (2012) -  Risk assessment and lightning protection  for  PV systems and solar power plants,  International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’12),  Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 28th to 30th March,  2012.
2.        National Lightning Safety Institute, U.S.A (2012) - Structural Lightning Safety, May 12, 2012.

3.        Jonathan Woodworth (2008) - The Lightning Surge and Arresters, Arrester Facts 011 The Lightning Surge and Arresters.

4.        F.Heidler, W. Zischank, Z. Flisowski, C. Bouquegneau, C. Mazzetti (2008)- Parameters of lightning current given in IEC 62305-       Background, experience
and outlook.-29th international conference on lightning protection, 23rd -26th June, 2008.

5.        Robert E. Schlesinger (1982)- "Analysis of Three-Dimensional Thunderstorm Model Output in Terms of Geosynchronous Satellite Observations", Semiannual Status Eeport, 1, Mar. .- 31 Aug. 1982 (Hisconsin Univ.) 3 p 00/47.

6.        Josef Birkl, Peter Zahlmann , Ottmar Beierl (2009) - Surge protection for PV generators: Requirements, testing procedures and practical  applications , X International Symposium on Lightning Protection 9th -13th  November, 2009 – Curitiba, Brazil.

7.        Colin Price ( 2008) – Thunderstorms, Lightning and Climate Change, 29th International Conference on Lightning Protection, 23rd – 26th June, 2008 – Uppsala, Sweden.

8.        Giovanni Luca Amicucci, Fabio Fiamingo ( 2009) – Lightning  Risk to Photovoltaic Power Generating Systems, Prevention Today, Volume 5, No. 1/2, Page 51 – 65.

9.        S. S. Kandalgaonkar, M.K. Kulkarni, H.K. Trimbake (2005)- Study of  thunderstorm and rainfall activity over the region, Atmosfera-Pages  91-101.

10.     Asha Nath, G K Manohar, KKDani, and P C S Devara ( 2009) - A  study of lightning activity over land and oceanic regions of India, J. Earth Syst. Sci. 118, No. 5, October 2009, pp. 467–481.

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32.

Authors:

Jesinth santhaseelan.J, S.Jebarani Evangeline

Paper Title:

Hysteresiscontrol of Multilevel Inverter

Abstract:   Multilevel inverters are used for converting DC to AC in places where the conversion is required. However harmonics are present in all types of multilevel inverters. This causes major problems in the output voltage as well as current. In order to reduce these harmonics, several methods are used among them hysteresis control is one of the powerful method. A three phase multilevel inverter with hysteresis current control is proposed to control the current in order to reduce the total harmonic distortion, current ripples and Control over maximum switching frequency and tested using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords:
   Hysteresis modulation, multiband (MB).


References:

1.        AnshumanShukla, Member, IEEE, ArindamGhosh, Fellow, IEEE, and Avinash Joshi, Hysteresis  Modulation of Multilevel Inverters IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 26, NO. 5, MAY 2011.
2.        S. Srikanthan, M. K. Mishra, and R. K. V. Rao, (2009) “Improved hysteresis current control of three-level inverter for distribution static compensator application,” in Proc. IET Power Electron., vol. 2

3.        S. R. Bowes and D. Holliday, (2007) “Optimal regular-sampled PWM inverter control techniques,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54.

4.        Z.Yao, L. Xiao, andY.Yan, (2009) “Dual-buck full-bridge inverter with hysteresis current control,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56.

5.        AnshumanShukla, Student Member, IEEE, ArindamGhosh, Fellow, IEEE, and Avinash Joshi (2007) “Hysteresis Current Control Operation of Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverter and Its Application in Shunt Compensation of Distribution Systems” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 22

6.        P. C. Loh, G. H. Bode, and P. C. Tan, (2005) “Modular hysteresis current control of hybrid multilevel inverters,” in Proc. IEE Electric. Power Appl., vol.152.

7.        P. N. Tekwani, R. S. Kanchan, and K. Gopakumar, (2005) “Current-error space  vector-based hysteresis PWM controller for three-level voltage source inverter fed drives,” in Proc. IEE Electric. Power Appl., vol. 152.


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33.

Authors:

S. S. Gaikwad, P. S. Kachare

Paper Title:

Static Analysis of Helical Compression Spring Used in Two-Wheeler Horn

Abstract:    Every two-wheeler has a provision of horn. It is used for maintaining a safe distance or to communicate for safe drive. The horn is critical element in vehicle. It is directly related to safety as well as goodwill of the company. Static analysis determines the safe stress and corresponding pay load of the helical compression spring. The present work attempts to analyze the safe load of the helical compression spring. A typical helical compression spring configuration of two wheeler horn is chosen for study. This work describes static analysis of the helical compression spring is performed using NASTRAN solver and compared with analytical results. The pre processing of the spring model is done by using HYPERMESH software.

Keywords:
   Geometric modeling, Helical compression spring, Static analysis, Two-wheeler horn.


References:

1.        G. Harinath Gowd and E. Venugopal Goud, “Static analysis of leaf spring”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 4, pp. 3794-3803, 2012.
2.        Mr. V. K. Aher and Mr. P. M. Sonawane, “Static and fatigue analysis of multi leaf spring used in the suspension system of LCV”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 2,  pp. 786-1791, 2012.

3.        Shigley, “ Mechanical Engineering Design”, Eighth Edition, Budynas−Nisbett, McGraw−Hill Primis , 2006,  Ch. 10.

4.        Mehdi Bakhshesh and Majid Bakhshesh, “Optimization of steel helical spring by composite spring”, International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 3, pp. 47-51, 2012.

5.        M. Senthil Kumar and S. Vijayarangan,“Static analysis and fatigue life prediction of steel and composite leaf spring for light passenger vehicles”, Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, Vol. 66, pp. 128-134, 2007.


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34.

Authors:

Sudarshan D. Kore, S.S.Patil

Paper Title:

Analysis and Design of R.C. Deep Beams Using Code Provisions of Different Countries and Their Comparison

Abstract:    This paper describes analysis and design of deep beams subjected to two equal point loads acting 1/3/rd of span with different L/D ratios and codes referred were INDIAN.STANDERD CODE (I.S.-456-2000), NEWZEALAND (NDS-3101-2006),CANADIAN(CSA-A23.3-2004.),CIRIA GUIDE-2(1977) and APPENDIX-A of ACI -318 {STRUT and TIE METHOD) for design purpose. The parameters obsevered were Lever Arm, Theoretical steel required and strength of deep beam.

Keywords:
   Deep Beam, Finite,strength, code provisions, Design.


R
eferences:

1.        AASHTO, “AASHTO LRFD Bridge Specifications for Highway Bridges” (2001 Interim Revisions), American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 1998.
2.        APENDIX A OF ACI-318 AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE (BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENT FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE ACI -318-2005 AND COMMENTARY ACI- 318R-2005).

3.        ACI-318-2005 AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE (BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENT FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE ACI -318-2005 AND COMMENTARY ACI- 318R-2005).

4.        ‘British code of practice’ B.S.8110-02(BRITISH STANDARD Structural Use of concrete part-1 Code of practice for design and construction)

5.        CANADIAN CODE (CSA-A23.3-2004)(CANADIAN STANDARD ASSOCIATION Design of Concrete Structures)

6.        CIRIA Guide 2 (1977), “The design of deep beams in reinforced concrete”, Over Arup and Partners and Construction Industry Research and Information Association, London, (reprinted 1984), 131 p.

7.        ‘Design by Strut and Tie method using ACI Appendix A’ from STM website.

8.        Indian Standard Code of Practice Plain and Reinforced Concrete’ IS 456:2000-. Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, New Delhi, India.

9.        Marti Peter, ‘Basic Tools of Reinforced Concrete Beam Design’ ACI journal, Title no. 82-4, January-February 1985.

10.      Kong. F. K. ‘Reinforced Concrete Deep Beam’, Van No strand Reinhold, New York

11.      Mr.Kotsovos, ‘Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams’ Journal of Structural Egg., 28-32, January 1988.

12.      Matamoros and Wong, ‘Design of Simply Supported Deep Beam using strut and tie models’ ACI Structural journal, 100-S72, November/ December 2003.

13.      Mohammed Reza Salamy,Hiroshi Kobayashi and Shigeki Unjoh. ‘Experimental and Analytical Study on Deep Beams’

14.      ‘NEWZEALAND CODE (NZS-3101-2006)New Zealand Standard CONCRETE STRUCTURES STANDARD Part-1 The Design Of Concrete Structures

15.      Nagarajan P, Dr Pillai M M T and Dr Ganesan N, ‘Design of simply supported Deep Beam using IS 456: 2000 and Strut and Tie Method’. IE (I) Journal-CV Vol.88 38-43, May 2007.

16.      Park R. and Pauly T. ‘Reinforced Concrete Structures', Wiely-Interscience Publications

17.      Quintero-Febres, Parra-Montesinos and Wight, ‘Strength of Struts in Deep Concrete Members using Strut and Tie Method’, ACI Structural journal, 103-S61, July/ August 2006.

18.      Rogowsky. David M., MacGregor James G. and See Y. Ong, ‘Tests of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beam’. ACI Journal 614-623, july-August-1986.

19.      Schleicher J. and Schafer .K.’ Design and Detailing of Structural Concrete using Strut–and–Tie Models’. The Structural Engineer, vol 69, 1991,   113.

20.      Varghese and Krishnamurthy, ‘Strength and Behavior of Deep Reinforced Concrete Beams’ Indian Concrete Journal, 104-108, March 1966.

21.      Varghese P.C. ‘Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design’, Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd. New Delhi.


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35.

Authors:

Tanuja S. Dhope (Shendkar) Sulakshana Patil,Vijaya Rajeshwarkar, Dina Simunic

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis of Hard Combing Schemes in Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks

Abstract:    The basic idea of cognitive radio is to reuse the spectrum whenever it finds the spectrum holes in wireless environment. However, detection performance in practice is often compromised with multipath fading, shadowing, receiver uncertainty and even hidden node problem due to primary users activity that is not spatially localized. To mitigate the impact of these issues, cooperative spectrum sensing has been shown to be an effective method to improve the probability of detection by exploiting spatial diversity by collaborating.This paper studies cooperative spectrum sensing and signal detection in cognitive radio system by implementing hard combining in data fusion centre using energy detector to observe the presence of primary user signal.In this paper, we analyzed the detector performance exploiting TV white space by employing OR and AND rules as decision combining under AWGN, Rayleigh time varying fading channel by setting probabilities of false alarm and measuring probability of detection.The simulation results  show that cooperative spectrum sensing employing OR rule has better performance than non-cooperative.The performance of signal detection degrades in time varying fading  Rayleigh channel compared to flat fading  Rayleigh channel.

Keywords:
   IEEE 802.11af, energy detection, fading channels, spectrum sensing, cognitive radio, cooperative sensing, hard decision.


References:

1.        FCC, “Spectrum policy task force report,” in Proceedings of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC ‟02), Washington, DC, USA, Nov. 2002.
2.        T. Dhope, D. Simunic and M. Djurek, “Application of DOA Estimation Algorithms in Smart Antenna Systems,” Studies in informatics and Control, vol.19, Issue 4, pp.445-452, Dec. 2010.

3.        J. Mitola and G. Q. Maguire, “Cognitive radio: Making software radiosmore personal,” IEEE Pers. Commun., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 13–18, Aug. 1999.

4.        K-C. Chen and R. Prasad, “Cognitive radio networks,” John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009.

5.        802.11 Working Group, IEEE P802.11af D0.06: Draft Standard for InformationTechnology,Oct.2010,„http// www.ieee802.org/11/”

6.        T. Dhope, D. Simunic and R.Prasad, “TVWS opportunities and regulation:-empowering rural India,”14th International Symposium on WPMC ‟11, Brest, France, pp.201-205, Oct‟2011.

7.        T. Dhope, D. Simunic and R.Prasad, “TVWS opportunities and regulatory aspects in India,” 14th International Symposium on WPMC ‟11, Brest, France, pp. 566-570, Oct‟2011.

8.        T. Dhope, D. Simunic and R.Prasad, “Hybrid Detection Method for Cognitive Radio”,13th International conferenace on SoftCOM SoftCOM2011,Split-Hvar-Dubrovnik,SS1-78741-1609,Sept.2011.

9.        T. Dhope, D. Simunic, “Performance Analysis of Covariance Based Detection in Cognitive Radio”, 35th Jubilee International Convention MIPRO 2012 under Green ICT world, Opatija, Croatia, pp.737-742, May.2012..

10.      D. Simunic ,T. Dhope, “Hybrid Detection Method for Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio”, 35th Jubilee International Convention MIPRO 2012 under Green ICT world. Opatija, Croatia, pp. 765-770, May 2012.

11.      Ian F. Akyildiz, Brandon F. Lo, Ravikumar Balakrishnan, “Co-operative spectrum sensing in Cognitive Radio networks: A survey”,in the journal of Physical Communication, Elesvier, Vol.4 , pp . 40–62 ,2011(Available on line 2010).

12.      T. Dhope, D. Simunic, “Cluster Based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing   in Cognitive Radio Networks:-A Survey”, accepted and presented in International conference  on Communication, Information and Computing  Technology (ICCICT)-2012 , Mumbai, India, Oct.18th -20th  2012.

13.      J. N. Laneman and D. N. C. Tse, “Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: efficient protocols and outage behavior,” IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, Vol. 50, pp. 3062 – 3080. Dec.2004.

14.      L. S. Cardoso, M. Debbah, P. Bianchi and J. Najim, “Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Using Random Matrix Theory,” IEEE ISWPC2008, Santorini, Greece, pp.334
338,May 2008.

15.      Z. Quan, S. Cui, A. Sayed, “Optimal linear cooperation for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing Vol.2,Issue1,pp. 28–40,2008.

16.      J. Ma, G. Zhao, Y. Li, “Soft combination and detection for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless
Communications 7 (11) (2008) 4502–4507.

17.      W. Zhang, R. K. Mallik and K. B. Letaief, “Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Optimization in Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE ICC 2008, Beijing, China, May 2008

18.      L. S. Cardoso, M. Debbah, P. Bianchi and J. Najim, “Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Using Random Matrix Theory,” IEEE ISWPC2008, Santorini, Greece, pp.334
338,May 2008.

19.      http://www.etsi.org/DVB-terristerial standards.

20.      S. S. Shellhammer, G. Chouinard, M. Muterspaugh, and M. Ghosh,Spectrum Sensing Simulation Model, Jul. 2006. [Online]. Available: „http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/22

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36.

Authors:

Arti Deshpande, Anjali Mahajan

Paper Title:

Domain Driven Multi-Feature Combined Mining for Retail Dataset

Abstract:  Association Mining is used to generate the patterns from static data available. But from the business perspective, usefulness and understandability of those rules are more important. Through classical association mining many redundant rules are generated which may be not useful for business analysis. The proposed framework helps in generating the combined rules which gives informative knowledge for business by combining static and transactional data. This paper gives pruning method to remove the redundant rules before generating the combined rules. Finally Rule Clusters are generated for similar group customer or similar transaction characteristics which provide more interesting knowledge and actionable result than traditional association rule. Experimental result demonstrate the proposed techniques.

Keywords:
   Domain Driven Data Mining, Combined Patterns, Association Rule, Pruning


References:

1.        Longbing Cao, Yanchang Zhao, Chengqi Zhang, “Mining Impact Targeted Activity Patterns in Imbalanced Data” IEEE  Trans  Knowledge And Data Engineering, Vol. 20, No. 8, August 2008, pp 1053-1066.
2.        Dina A. Salem, Rania Ahmed A. A. Abul Seoud, and Hesham A. Ali, “DMCA: A Combined Data Mining Technique for Improving the Microarray Data Classification Accuracy”, in Proc International Conference on Environment and BioScience, IPCBEE vol.21 (2011), pp. 36-41.

3.        Ambikavathi .V, Veeraiah.A, Prabhu.R, Actionable Knowledge Discovery”, International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research, Vol. 2, Issue No.1, pp 56-59.

4.        Longbing Cao, Yanchang Zhao, Chengqi Zhang and huaifeng zhang, “Activity Mining: From Activities to Actions” International Journalof Information Technology and decision making, Vol . 7 No 2, pp 259-273.

5.        Longbing Cao, Huaifeng Zhang Yanchang Zhao, Dan Luo, and Chengqi Zhang, “Combined Mining: Discovering Informative Knowledge in Complex Data”, IEEE Trans Systems, Man, And Cybernetics—Part B: Cybernetics, Vol. 41, No. 3, June 2011pp-699-712.

6.        Longbing Cao, Huaifeng Zhang, Yanchang Zhao and Chengqi Zhang, “General Frameworks for Combined Mining: Discovering Informative Knowledge in Complex Data” IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern B Cybern. 2011 Jun;41(3):699-712.

7.        Yanchang Zhao, Huaifeng Zhang, Longbing Cao, Chengqi Zhang, and Hans Bohlscheid, “Combined Pattern Mining: From Learned Rules to Actionable Knowledge”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2008, Volume 5360/2008, pp. 393-403.

8.        Marie Plasse, Ndeye Niang, Gilbert Saporta, Alexandre Villeminot, and Laurent Leblond , “Combined use of association rules mining and clustering methods to find relevant links between binary rare attributes in a large data set”, Computational Statistics & Data Analysis Volume 52, Issue 1, 15 September 2007, Pages 596–613.

9.        Longbing Cao, “Domain Driven Data Mining (D3M)”, IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, 2008, pp 74-76.

10.      Yanchang Zhao, Longbing Cao, Yvonne Morrow,Yuming Ou, Jiarui Ni, and Chengqi Zhang, “Discovering Debtor Patterns of Centrelink Customers”,  in Proc. AusDM '06 fifth Australasian conference on Data mining and analystics - Volume 61 Pp 135-144.

11.      Xiaoxin Yin, Jiawei Han, Jiong Yang, and Philip S. Yu, “Efficient Classification across Multiple Database Relations: A CrossMine Approach”, IEEE Trans On Knowledge And Data Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 6, June 2006. pp 770 -783

12.      Y. Alp Aslandogan, Gauri A. Mahajani,“Evidence Combination in  Medical Data Mining”, Information Technology: Coding and Computing, 2004. Proceedings. ITCC 2004, Volume: 2  pp 465 – 469.

13.      Yanchang Zhao, Huaifeng Zhang, Fernando Figueiredo, “Mining for Combined Association Rules on Multiple Datasets”, Workshop on Domain Driven Data Mining (DDDM2007), August 12, 2007

14.      T. Nandhini, and N. K. Sakthivel, “A Smart Hybrid Data Mining Technique for Improving Classification Accuracy in Complex Data Sets”, European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol.71 No.2 (2012), pp. 233-242.

15.      Guimei Liu, Haojun Zhang, Limsoon Wong,“Controlling False Positives in Association Rule Mining”, Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, Vol. 5, No. 2 (2011)

16.      Sotiris Kotsiantis, Dimitris Kanellopoulos, “Association Rules Mining: A Recent Overview”, GESTS International Transactions on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol.32 (1), 2006, pp. 71-82

17.      Evelina Lamma, Fabrizio Riguzzi and Sergio Storari, “Improving the K2 Algorithm Using Association Rule Parameters”, c 2005 Elsevier B.V.


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37.

Authors:

Zeinab Raveshi, Sonali R. Idate

Paper Title:

Investigation and Analysis of SQL Injection Attacks on Web Applications: Survey

Abstract:   SQL injection attacks are a serious security threat to Web applications. They allow attackers to gain unrestricted access to the databases underlying the applications and to retrieve sensitive information from databases. Many researchers and practitioners have proposed various methods to solve the SQL injection problem, current ways either fail to solve the full scope of the problem or have limitations that prevent their use. Many researchers and practitioners are familiar with only a subset of the wide range of techniques available to attackers who are trying to take advantage of SQL injection vulnerabilities.  Many solutions proposed in the literature solve only some of the issues related to SQL injection. To solve this problem, we give an extensive review of the different types of SQL injection attacks. For each type of attack, we provide descriptions and examples of how attacks of that type could be performed. We also analyze existing detection and prevention techniques against SQL injection attacks.

Keywords:
   SQL injection, SQL injection vulnerabilities, security thread in web application.


References:

1.             Halfond, W., Viegas, J., & Orso, A. (2006). "Classification of SQLInjection Attacks and Countermeasures." SSSE 2006.
2.             Sandeep Nair Narayanan, Alwyn Roshan Pais, & Radhesh Mohandas. Detection and Prevention of SQL Injection Attacks using Semantic Equivalence. Springer 2011

3.             Preventing SQL Injections in Online Applications: Study, Recommendations and Java Solution Prototype Based on the SQL DOM .Etienne Janot, Pavol Zavarsky Concordia University College of Alberta, Department of Information Systems Security.

4.             Hackers jack thousands of sites, including U.N. domainshttp://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9079961

5.             Hackers hijack a half-million sites in latest attackhttp://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleBasic&articleId=9084991

6.             http://www.breach.com/resources/whitepapers/downloads/WP_WebHackingIncidents_2008.pdf.

7.             Jaroslaw Skaruz, Jerzy Pawel Nowacki, and Aldona Drabik, “Soft Computing Techniques for Intrusion Detection of SQL-Based Attacks,” Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, LNAI 5990, pp. 33-42, 2010.

8.             Buehrer, G., Weide, B. W., and Sivilotti, P. A. G. Using parse tree validation to prevent sql injection attacks. In SEM (2005).

9.             Prithvi Bisht, P. Madhusudan, V. N. VENKATAKRISHNAN. CANDID: Dynamic Candidate Evaluations for Automatic Prevention of SQL Injection Attacks. ACMTransactions on Information and System Security,Vol. 13, No. 2, Article 14, Publication date: February 2010.

10.          Ke Wei, M. Muthuprasanna, Suraj Kothari. Preventing SQL Injection Attacks in Stored Procedures. IEEE Software Engineering Conference, 2006. Australian.


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38.

Authors:

Prabhdeep Kaur, Sheveta Vashisht

Paper Title:

Mingle Intrusion Detection System Using Fuzzy Logic

Abstract:   Intrusion detection system must be proficient of known and unknown vulner-abilities.In order to obtain superior accuracy an appropriate dataset should be there to detect the known and unknown attacks. In this research work new approach will be proposed which will utilize fuzzy if-then rules to detect known and unknown attacks i.e. sequential multilevel misuse along fuzzy if-then rules. In order to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm and KDD’99 data set will be used. As fuzzy if-then rules comes up with overheads so overhead will be evaluated in this research work.

Keywords:
   KDD’99 dataset, Known and Unknown attacks, Misuse and Anomaly Detection.


References:

1.        Mahbod Tavallaee, Ebrahim Bagheri, Wei Lu, and Ali A. Ghorbani “A Detailed Analysis of the KDD CUP 99 Data Set proceeding on 2009”
2.        Lei Li, De-Zhang Yang, Fang-Cheng Shen,” A Novel Rule-based Intrusion detection System Using  Data Mining “international conference 2010.

3.        Radhika Goel, Anjali Sardana, and Ramesh C. Joshi” Parallel Misuse and Anomaly Detection Model” International Journal of Network Security, Vol.14, No.4, PP.211-222, July 2012

4.        K. Kendall “A Database of Computer Attacks for the Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems, M. Eng.Thesis” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, United States, June 1999.

5.        Mrudula Gudadhe, Prakash Prasad” A New Data Mining Based Network Intrusion   Detection Model” International conference on computer and communication   technology, |ICCCT’10|

6.        Duanyang Zhao,” Analysis of an intrusion detection system”” in second international conference on security and management   2012(3):127-13ISSN.

7.        K.Nageswara Rao, D.Rajya Lakshmi, T.Venkateswara Rao” Robust Statistical Outlier based Feature Selection Technique for Network Intrusion Detection” International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2, Issue-1, March 2012

8.        A.A.Olusola, A.S.Oladele and D.O.Abosede, “Analysis of KDD ’99 Intrusion Detection Dataset   for Selection of Relevance Features”. Proceedings of the World Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 1, Oct-2010.

9.        Vipin Das, Vijaya Pathak” Network intrusion detection system on machine learning   algorithm “International Journal of Computer Science &    Information Technology (IJCSIT), Vol 2, No 6, December 2010.

10.     A. S. Ashoor and S. Gore, “Importance of Intrusion Detection system (IDS)”. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.1-4 Jan-2011.

11.     http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/10  56150/data-mining.


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39.

Authors:

Paramjit Kaur, Rupinder Kaur

Paper Title:

Approaches for Generating Test Cases Automatically to Test the Software

Abstract:   Testing the software is very important phase in software development life cycle. So to test the software automatically is the best way to test the software because it consume less time where testing software manually is consuming process. To test the software automatically, test case generation is the best way. One way to generate the test cases is with the help of UML diagrams. In this paper we study the various techniques to generate the test cases from the UML diagrams to test the software automatically. Different tools are used to generate the UML diagrams. A new method is also proposed which will help in testing software automatically by generating test cases.  Techniques in which different approaches are used like model based approach, novel approach. approach in which genetic algorithm is implemented as data mining technique are used to generate the test cases automatically, function minimization technique used for finding the minimum predicate function. The different tools like AGEDIS, TGV and GOTCHA are used for test generation. These approaches have been proposed to bring out all possible test cases of given object diagram

Keywords:
   object diagrams, test cases, UML, genetic algorithm, data mining, tabu search algorithm.


References:

1.        Bertolino.A, “Software Testing:  Guide to the software engineering body of knowledge”, IEEE Software, Vol. 16, 1999, pp. 35-44.
2.        Clay E.Williams, “Software Testing from UML Specifications”, Second International Conference on Hitesh Tahbildar, Bichitra Kalita, “Automated Software Test Data Generation: Direction Of Research”, International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Survey (IJCSES) vol.2, No.1, Feb 2011, pp.  99-120.

3.        Alessandra Cavarra, Thierry Jeron, Alan Hartman, “Using UML for Test Generation”, ISSTA, 2002.

4.        M. Prasanna, K.R.Chandran, “Automatic Test Case Generation for UML Object Diagrams Using Genetic Algorithm”, Int. J. Advance. Soft comput. Appl., vol.1,
no. 1, July 2009, pp.  19-32.

5.        L.C.Briand, Y. Labiche, S.He, “Automating Regression Test Selection based on UML designs”, Information and Software Technology 51(2009)16-30.

6.        A.V.K.Shanthi, Dr.G.Mohan Kumar, “Automated Test Cases Generation for Object Oriented Software”, Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE), vol.2, no.4, Aug-Sep 2011, pp.  543-546.

7.        Sangeeta  Sabharwal, Ritu Sibal, Chayanika Sharma, “ Applying Genetic Algorithm for Prioritization of Test Case Scenarios Derived from UML Diagrams”, International Journal of Computer Science Issues, vol.8, issue 3, no.2, May 2011, pp. 433-444.

8.        Marlon Vieira, Johanne Leduc, Bill Hasling, Rajesh Subramanyan , Juergen Kazmeier, “ Automation of GUI Testing Using a Model – Driver Approach”, Proceeding of International Workshop on Automation of Software Test, 2006, pp. 9-14.

9.        Manoj Kumar, Dr.  Mohammad Husain, Gyanendra K. Gupta and Amarjeet Singh, “An Efficient Algorithm for Evaluated for Object Oriented Models”, International Journal of Computer Application, vol.24, no.8, 2011, pp. 11-15.

10.     Ranjit Swain, Vikas Panthi, Prafulla Kumar Behera, Durga Prasad Mahapatra, “Test Case Generation Based on State Machine Diagram”, International Journal of Computer Information Systems, vol.4, no.2, 2012, pp. 99-124

11.     A.V.K.Shathi, G.Mohan Kumar, “ A Heuristic Approach for Automated Test Case Generation From Sequence Diagram Using Tabu Search Algorithm”, European Journal of Scientific Research, vol.85, no.4, Sep 2012,pp. 534-540.

12.     A.V.K.Shanthi, G.Mohan Kumar, “ Automated Test Cases Generation from UML Sequence Diagram”, International Conference on Software and Computer Application, vol.41, 2012, pp. 83-89.

13.     Philp Samuel, R.Mall, A.K.Bothra, “Automatic Test Case Generation Using UML State Diagram”, IET Software, 2008, pp. 79-93.

14.     Ashalatha Nayak, Debasis Samanta, “Automated Test Data Synthesis Using UML Sequence Diagram”, Journal of Object Technology , vol. 9,no.2, 2010,pp. 75-104.


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40.

Authors:

Manpreet Kaur, Kunwarpal

Paper Title:

Optimize OLSR with Cognitive in Wireless Mesh Network

Abstract:    In this paper, we review the COLSR; Cognitive Optimized Link State Routing in Wireless Mesh Network. COLSR is the extension of OLSR Protocol. With the use of COLSR the throughput and performance are enhanced. COLSR provide better solution to the problem of congestion on the nodes, with surely data are transmitted. In this paper, we also discuss the enhancement of OLSR which is purely different from existing OLSR, and also discuss the generation, reputed-trust mechanism along with weighting mechanism from the nodes and COLSR perform  re-routing for degrade the packet dropping problem  and enhance throughput devoid of congestion on nodes in WMN.

Keywords:
   Congestion, WMN, Routing protocol.


References:

1.        Mohamed ELshaikh et.al:”High Throughput Routing Algorithm Metric for OLSR Routing Protocol in Wireless Mesh Networks”, 2009 IEEE.
2.        Francesco Saverio Proto et.al:” A Framework for Packet-Droppers Mitigation in OLSR Wireless Community Networks”, 2011 IEEE ICC.

3.        S. Marti, T. J. Giuli, K. Lai, and M. Baker, “Mitigating routing misbehaviour in mobile ad hoc networks,” in MobiCom ’00: Proceedings of the 6th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2000, pp. 255–265.

4.        Venkaiahnaidu.A et.al:”A New OLSR Routing Protocol in Cognitive Wireless Mesh Networks”, IJMER Vol.2, Issue.1, Jan-Feb 2012 pp-496-498.

5.        Yu Li”, A Reputation System for Wieless Mesh Network using Mutli-path Routing Protocol,” 2011 IEEE.

6.        Sepandar D. Kamvar et.al,” The Eigen Trust Algorithm for Reputation Management in P2P Networks”, WWW2003, May 20–24, 2003, Budapest, Hungary.

7.        Dominic C. Follett-Smith:”Smart Wireless Mesh Networking: Introduction coginition in the protocol stack.”

8.        S. Zakhary and M. Radenkovic, “Reputation-based security protocol for MANETs in highly mobile disconnection-prone environments,” in Proceedings of WONS 2010, Kranjska Gora, Slovenia, February 2010.

9.        Sonja Buchegger et.al:” A Test-Bed for Misbehavior Detection in Mobile Ad-hoc Nteworks- How Much Can Watchdogs Really Do?” 2004 ICC WMCSA.

10.     C. Adjih et.al, “Attacks against OLSR: Distributed key management for security,” in 2005 OLSR Interop and Workshop, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France.

11.     D. Raffo et.al, “An advanced signature system for OLSR,” in Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Workshop on Security of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (SASN ’04). Washington, DC, USA: ACM Press, October 25 2004, pp. 10–16.

12.     Sepandar D. Kamvar et.al,” The Eigen Trust Algorithm for Reputation Management in P2P Networks”, WWW2003, May 20–24, 2003, Budapest, Hungary.

13.     http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/bwn/surveys/mesh.pdf.

14.     http://www.justha ckitnow.com


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41.

Authors:

Christhu Raj M R, Edwin Prem Kumar G, Kartheek Kusampudi

Paper Title:

A Survey on Detecting Selfish Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Different Trust Methodologies

Abstract:    A Wireless Sensor Networks (Wsn) Is A Network Used For Computing, Sensing. There Are Various Resource Constrains In Wsn Like Energy, Computational Power, Memory, Design Challenges. The Problem In The Sensor Nodes That Nodes May Get Compromised. The Trust Management Schemes Consist Of Effective Tools To Identify Unexpected Behavior Of Sensor Nodes In The Network. Trust Has Been Effective And Provides Secure Mechanism For Managing Each Sensor Node In Network. In This Paper We Investigated Some Trust Techniques And Present The Effective Methodologies To Calculate The Trust Of A Sensor Node To Eliminate The Selfish Or Compromised Nodes In The Network.

Keywords:
   Entropy, Reputation, Bayesian, Fuzzy model, Trust


References:

1.        Kazem sohraby , Daniel Minoli , Taieb znati,Wireless Sensor Networks Technology ,protocol and applications, Second edition    1991
2.        Edwin prem kumar, Baskaran    Kaliapermal, Elijah blessing Rajsingh ”Research issues in Wireless sensor network Applications: A Survey”- International Journal  of information and electronics engineering,Vol 2 No 5 September 2012

3.        Kazem sohraby Applications of Sensor    networks. First edition 2012

4.        Yanli Yu,Keigiu Li, Ping Li “Trust Mechanism in wireless sensor networks :Attacks analysis and countermeasures”, Journal of networks and computer applications press 2011

5.        Javier Lopez, Rodrigo Roman, Isaac Agudo, Carmen Fernandez-Gago “Trust mechanisms in wireless sensor networks: Attack analysis and countermeasures”, Journal of Network and Computer Applications

6.        Javier Lopez, Rodrigo Roman, Isaac Agudo, Carmen Fernandez-Gago “Trust mechanisms in wireless sensor networks: Attack analysis and countermeasures” International Journal  of information and electronics

7.        I.F.Akyildiz,.Su Y.Sankara  E. Cayirci “Wireless sensor networks:a     survey

8.        Blaze M, Feigenbaum J, Lacy J. “Decentralized trust management”. In: Proceeding of the 1996 IEEE symposium on security and privacy, Washington, 1996. p. 164–73.

9.        Sun yl, Han z , YU w , Liu KJP “A trust evaluation  framework in distributed networks: vulnerability analysis and defense against attacks , “IEEE INFOCOM ’06 2006 p-1-13”

10.     Nielsen N , Krukow K , Sassone V ,  Model for event-bases trust” Electronic Notes on Theortical Computer Science (ENTCS) 2007 , vol 172,2007 p 499-521 

11.     Qi J-J Li- Z-Z Wel L .”A trust model based on Bayesian approach” Advances in Web Intelligence(AWIC), 2005 p-374-379

12.     Jarmillo, J Srikant R. “Darwin: Distributed and adaptive reputation mechanism for wireless adhoc networks” MOBICOM ’07 2007 p 87-98

13.     Komathy K. Narayanasamy P. “Trust-AODV routing against selfishness”,Journal of Network and Computer applications vol 31 , Issue 4 ,2008 p 446-471

14.     S. Ganeriwal, L. K. Balzano, and M. B. Srivastava, “Reputation-based framework for high integrity sensor networks,” ACM Trans. Sensor Networks., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1–37, May 2008.

15.     Mohammad Mormani , Subash Challa    ”Bayesian fusion algorithm for interfering Trust in wsn ,”Jouranl of networks” vol 5 No 7 2010 

16.     Suat Ozedemir , “Functional reputation based reliable data aggregation and transmission for Wireless Sensor Networks” Computer communications vol 31 2008 p 3941-3953

17.     Hani Alzaid , Ernest Foo , Juan Nieto “RSDA Reputation-based secure data aggregation in Wireless sensor networks”, International conference on Parallel and distributed applications and technologies , 2008

18.     Zahra Taghikkaki “Energy efficient Trust based Aggregation  in WSN ” INFOCOM WKSHPS ‘2011  2011 p 584-589

19.     Boukerche A.Ren “A trust based security system for ubiquitous and pervasive computing”, Computer Communications vol 31 Issue 18,’08

20.     Felix Gomez “TRIP, a trust and reputation infrastructure-based proposal for VANET ” Journal of Network and Computer Applications

21.     E. Aivaloglou and S. Gritzalis, “Hybrid trust and reputation management for sensor networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1493–1510, July 2010.

22.     Junhai Luo “A trust model based on fuzzy recommendations for MANET ”, Computer Networks  vol 53 2009 p 2396-2407

23.     Dai Hongjun “An entropy based  trust modeling and evaluation for Wireless sensor networks” International conference on Embedded  Software systems ,ICESS 2008

24.     Afrand ,”A game theory based approach for security  in wsn”, IEEE International conference on Performance ,Computing and communication 2005 p 259-263

25.     K. Liu, N. Abu-ghazaleh, and K. D. Kang, “Location verification and trust management for resilient geographic routing,” J. Parallel Distrib.Computing, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 215–228, Feb.07.

26.     R. A. Shaikh, et al., “Group-based trust management scheme for clustered wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1698–1712, Nov. 2009.


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42.

Authors:

Gunjan Talaviya, Rahul Ramteke, A.K.Shete AVCOE, Sangamner

Paper Title:

Wireless Fingerprint Based College Attendance System Using Zigbee Technology

Abstract:   In this paper we propose a system that takes attendance of student and maintaining its records in an academic institute automatically. Manually taking the attendance and maintaining it for a long time makes it difficult task as well as wastes a lot of time. For this reason an efficient system is designed. This system takes attendance with the help of a fingerprint sensor module and all the records are saved on a computer. Fingerprint sensor module and LCD screen are dynamic which can move in the room. In order to mark the attendance, student has to place his/her finger on the fingerprint sensor module. On identification of particular student, his attendance record is updated in the database and he/she is notified through LCD screen. In this system we are going to generate Microsoft excel attendance report on computer. This report will generate automatically after 15 days (depends upon user). This report will be sent to the respected HOD, teacher and student’s parents email Id.

Keywords:
   Fingerprints, Enrollment, Fingerprint sensor, Failure to enroll (FTE), Failure to capture (FTC), Verification, Fingerprint templates, identification.


References:

1.        K.G.M.S.K. Jayawardana, T.N. Kadurugamuwa, R.G. Rage and S. Radhakrishnan”, Timesheet: An Attendance Tracking System”, Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Sri Lanka, Vol.13, Part II, 18th December 2008.
2.        Yohei KAWAGUCHI, Tetsuo SHOJI , Weijane LIN ,Koh KAKU-SHO, Michihiko MINOH ,“Face Recognition-based Lecture Attendance System”, Department of Intelligence Science and Technology, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University. Academic Center for Computing and Media Studies, Kyoto University

3.        Anil K. Jain, Arun Ross and Salil Prabhakar,” An introduction to biometric recognition”, Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on Volume 14, Issue 1, Jan. 2004 Page(s):4 – 20.

4.        O. Shoewu, Ph.D.1,2* and O.A. Idowu, B.Sc. 1 , “ Development of Attendance Management System using Biometrics” Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Lagos State University, Epe Campus, Nigeria.1  Department of Electrical and Electronics, University of Benin, Edo State, Nige-ria.2

5.        TABASSAM NAWAZ, SAIM PERVAIZ, ARASH KORRANI, AZHAR-UD-DIN “Development of Academic Attendence Monitoring System Using Fingerprint Identification”  Software Engineering Department Faculty of Telecommunication & Information Engineering University of Engineering & Technology Taxila, Punjab

6.        L. Hong, Y.Wan, and Anil K. Jain. \Fingerprint Image En-hancement: Algorithm and performance algorithm". IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis andMachine Intelligence, 20(8):777-789, May 1998.

7.        J. Ortega-Garcia, J. Bigun, D. Reynolds and J.Gonzalez-Rodriguez, “Authentication gets personal with biometrics”, Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE, 21(2), pp 50-62 (2004).


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43.

Authors:

Sandeep Kaur

Paper Title:

Database Management by Using Java Database Connectivity Architecture of JAVA

Abstract:    This paper consist of Java database connectivity (JDBC).The JDBC  consists of a set of interfaces and classes written in the Java programming language .This shows how the JDBC environment provides the facility to manage  database for multiple applications for updating, retrieving, modify. First three steps are, Selecting the required driver for DSN, specifying the connection details for DSN and testing the creating DSN. The DSN consist of specific information for data.

Keywords:
   Java database connectivity, Data source name database connectivity.


References:

1.     Database Programming with JDBC and JAVA by “George Reese” June 1997 1st edition.
2.     Introduction to database for web developers.

3.     www.extropia.com/tutorials/sql/jdbc.html.

4.     The java tutorial

5.     “docs.orcle.com/javase/tutorial/jdbc/overview/architecture.html”.

6.     Java soft by “Graham Hamilton & Rich Cattel” January 10,1997


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44.

Authors:

Lavanya, Saranya, Uma Maheshwari

Paper Title:

Increased Speed for Network Security through Multi-Character Processing

Abstract:    A clear trend that can be observed in the Internet is the increasing amount of packet data that is being inspected before a packet is delivered to its destination. More recently, Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS), virus scanners, spam filters and other content-aware applications go one step further by also performing scans on the packet payload. Pattern matching algorithm is used in Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS). The system is used to detect network attacks by identifying attack patterns. This paper proposes a memory-efficient pattern matching algorithm which can significantly reduce the number of states and transitions by merging pseudo-equivalent states while maintaining correctness of string matching. Pattern matching is achieved through Aho-Corasick (AC) algorithm. By comparison result we say our matching algorithm is memory efficient than previously proposed method.  As an extension of our work, through Multi-character processing, sufficient speed has been increased. The reduction in clock cycle indirectly increases speed in operation.The architecture is coded in VHDL and simulated using Modelsim and Xilinx.

Keywords:
   Aho-Corasick (AC) algorithm, Finite State Machine (FSM), Non-Deterministic Automation (NFA).


References:

1.        R. Sidhu and V. K. Prasanna, “Fast regular expression matching using FPGAS,” in Proc. 9th Ann. IEEE Symp. Field-Program.CustomComput. Mach. (FCCM), 2001, pp. 227–238.
2.        C. R. Clark and D. E. Schimmel, “Scalable pattern matching on high speed networks,” in Proc. 12th Ann. IEEE Symp. Field Program.CustomComput. Mach. (FCCM), 2004, pp. 249–257.

3.        Z. K. Baker and V. K. Prasanna, “High-throughput linked-pattern matching for intrusion detection systems,” in Proc. Symp. Arch. For Netw.Commun. Syst. (ANCS), Oct. 2005, pp. 193–202.

4.        A. V. Aho and M. J. Corasick, “Efficient string matching: An AID to bibliographic search,” Commun. ACM, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 333–340, 1975.

5.        Y. H. Cho and W. H. Mangione-Smith, “A pattern matching co-pro-cessor for network security,” in Proc. 42nd IEEE/ACM Des. Autom. Conf., Anaheim, CA, Jun. 13–17, 2005, pp. 234–239.

6.        Y. H. Cho and W. H. Mangione-Smith, “Fast reconfiguring deep packet filter for 1 + Gigabit Network,” i n Proc. 13th Ann. IEEE Symp. Field Program.CustomComput. Mach. (FCCM), 2005, pp. 215–224.

7.        S.Dharmapurikar and J. Lockwood, “Fast and scalable pattern matching for content filtering,” in Proc. Symp. Arch. for Netw.Commun. Syst. (ANCS), Oct. 2005, pp. 183–192.

8.        B. Brodie, R. Cytron, and D. Taylor, “A scalable architecture for high-throughput regular-expression pattern matching,” in Proc. 33rd Int. Symp.Comput. Arch. (ISCA), 2006, pp. 191–122.

9.        L. Tan and T. Sherwood, “A high throughput string matching architecture for intrusion detection and prevention,” in Proc. 32nd Annu. Int. Symp. Comput. Arch. (ISCA), 2005, pp. 112–122. SangKyunYun, Member, IEEESComputer Society

10.     “An Efficient TCAM-Based Implementation of Multipattern Matching Using Covered State Encoding”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, VOL. 61, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2012


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45.

Authors:

Karan Mahajan, Manish Mahajan

Paper Title:

Navigating the Current Location without the Availability of GPS

Abstract:    Today in this world we are surrounded of technologies like smart phone technology.In smart phone there is an option GPS that is being used these days very much for checking in our location and navigate the google maps.But what about those cell phones which are having ANDROID operating system but no having option of GPS.This paper deals with the NAVIGATING THE CURRENT LOCATION WITHOUT THE AVAILABILITY OF GPS.Because GPS is having some limitations.First GPS may or may not be available in all smart phones.This application which we developed will work in the phones which are not having feature of GPS.

Keywords:
   GPS, LBS, GIS, MGIS, Android, Ecllipse, SQLITE3, PDA, Toast.


References:

1.        Jisheng Xia, Peiyan Chen, “Time Efficiency Optimization Technique of Mass Data Rendering by Mobile GIS,”National Natural Science Foundation 2011.                                             
2.        Huajun Chen, Keyan Xiao "The Design and Implementation of the Geological Data Acquisition System Based on Mobile GIS"School of Geoscience Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China,2011

3.        Haidong ZHONG, Ping LI, Yingjie HU "A Solution For The Data Collection in The Field Survey Based on Mobile And Wireless GIS" Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062, P.R.China,2010.

4.        Mohamed A. Eleiche,Prof. Dr. Bela Markus "Network Analysis Methods for Mobile GIS" UNIVERSITY OF WEST HUNGARY ‘KITAIBEL PÁL’ PHD SCHOOL Sopron ,2011.

5.        Feixiang CHEN, Chongjun YANG, Wenyang YU, Xiaoqiu LE, Jianyu YANG "Research on Mobile GIS Based on LBS"The State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Information Sciences Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing, China,2005.

6.        Chen Feixiang , Zhao Ming, Qi Jiandong , Jiang Xiaoru "Research on Mobile GIS Based for Information Collection"2009 International Forum on Information Technology and Applications,2009.

7.        Justin Deoliveira "GeoServer: Uniting the “GeoWeb” and Spatial Data Infrastructures",2009.

8.        Maruto Masserie Sardadi, "Quadtree Spatial Indexing Use to Make Faster Showing Geographical Map in Mobile Geographical Information System Technology Using an Oracle 10g Application Server and Map Viewer Applications,", IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 2008.

9.        E.Poorazizi, "Developing a Mobile GIS for Field Geospatial data Acquisition,". A.A.Alesheikh and S.Behzadi, Ed. Asian Network for Scientific Information: Journal of Applied Sciences, 2008.

10.      E. Mensah, "Designing a Prototype Mobile GIS to Support Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana," 2007.


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46.

Authors:

Prashanth L Gopal, F.T Josh 

Paper Title:

Elimination of Lower Order Harmonics in Multilevel Inverters Using Genetic Algorithm

Abstract:   This project presents the Genetic optimization method for harmonic elimination in a cascaded multilevel inverter and  an optimal solution for eliminating pre specified order of harmonics from a stepped waveform of a multilevel inverter topology with equal dc sources. The main challenge of solving the associated non linear equation which are transcendental in nature and therefore have multiple solutions is the convergence of the relevant algorithm. The main objective of selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulation strategy is eliminating low-order harmonics by solving nonlinear equations. The performance of cascaded multilevel inverter is compared based on computation of switching angle using Genetic Algorithm as well as conventional Newton Raphson approach. A significant improvement in harmonic profile is achieved in the GA based approach. A nine level cascaded multi level inverter is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and a hardware model has been fabricated to validate the simulation results.

Keywords:
   Genetic Algorithm (GA), Multilevel inverters, Selective harmonic elimination (SHEPWM).


References:

1.        Dahidah m.s.a and Agelidis v.g, jul. (2008),”selective harmonic elimination pwm   control for cascaded multilevel voltage source converter: a generalised fomula,” ieee trans. power electron.,vol .23,no.4,pp.1620-1630.
2.        Flourentzou. n, Agelidis v.g and Demetriades g.d, mar. (2009),”vsc based hvdc power transmission system: an overview,” ieee trans. power electron, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 592–602.

3.        Fei.w, Ruan.x and wu.b, may 25–27, (2009), pso, “a generalised formulation of quarter-wave symmetry SHE-PWM problems for multilevel inverters,” ieee trans. power electron. vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1758–1766.

4.        Farokhnia.n, and Fathi.s.h, june. (2010),”comparison between approximate and accurate calculation of line voltage thd in multilevel inverters with unequal dc sources,”in proc.iciea, pp.1034-1039.

5.        Hagh .m. t, Taghizadeh.h and Razi. k, oct. (2009),”harmonic minimization in multilevel inverters using modified species-based particle swarm optimization,” ieee trans. power electron., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 2259–2267.

6.        Kaviani .a, Fathi.s.h, Farokhnia.n, sep.(2010),”pso, an effective tool for harmonic elimination and optimisation in multilevel inverters,” proc. 4th ieee conf. ind. electron. appl.,pp.2902-2907.

7.        Deb.k, zare, f ,(2001) “multi objective optimization using evolutionary    algorithm,wiley

8.        Malinowski. m,. Gopakumar k,. Rodriguez. j, and Perez. m. a., jul. (2010). “a survey on cascaded multilevel inverters,” ieee trans. ind. electron. vol. 57,  no. 7, pp. 2197–2206.

9.        Michalewicz.z, Schoenaner.m,(1996),”evolutionary algorithm for constrained parameter optimization problems,” vol.4,pp.1-32

10.     Homaifar.a, Gi.c.x, Lai.s.h (1994) ,”constrained optimization via genetic algorithm simulation,”vol-62,no.4,pp 242-254.


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47.

Authors:

Sreelal Elamana, A. Rathinam

Paper Title:

Interarea Oscillation Damping By Unified Power Flow Controller-Superconducting Magnetic Energystorageintegrated System

Abstract:   Interarea oscillations are turned to be a severe problem in large interconnected power systems, hence they cause severe problems like damage to generators, reduce the power transfer capability of transmission lines, increase line losses, increase wear and tear on the network components etc. This paper introduces a new control technique that uses unified power flow controllers (UPFC) with superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) in order to damp the interarea oscillation in an effective manner

Keywords:
   Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFC), Super Conducting Magnetic Energy Storage Systems (SMES), Inter Area Oscillations


References:

1.        MahyarZarghami, Mariesa L. Crow, , JagannathanSarangapani, Yilu Liu, and StanAtcitty, “A Novel Approach to Interarea Oscillation Damping by Unified Power Flow Controllers Utilizing Ultra capacitors ,”IEEE Transactions On Power Systems, Vol. 25, No. 1, February 2010.
2.        M.klein, G.J Rogers, Kundur, “A Fundamental Study of Interarea Oscillations In Power Systems,”transactions on power systems vol.6, no.3, august 1991.

3.        J.V.Milanovic, I.A.Hiskens, “Effects of Load Dynamics on PowersystemDamping,”IEEETransactions on power systems, vol.10 no.2, may 1995.

4.        M. Mahdavian,G. Shahgholian,N. Rasti, “Modelling and Damping Controller Design for Static Synchronous Compensator,”IEEE ,978-1-4244-3388,2009.

5.        S.Round, Q. Yu, et al, “Performance of a Unified Power Flow Controller Using a d-q Control System,"AC and DC Transmission Conference, April 1996.

6.        N.G.Hingorani, L.Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS,‖Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. IEEE press, 2000.

7.        R.MohanMathur and R.K.Varma, “Thyristor based FACTS Controllers for Electrical Transmission System,”IEEE Series on Power Engineering, US, 2002.

8.        S. Muthukrishnan,Dr. A.Nirmalkumar , G. Murugananth, “Modelling and Simulation Five Level Inverter based UPFC System,” India International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887)Volume 12– No.11, January 2011.

9.        R. D. Saxena, K. D. JoshiG. H. Raisoni, “Application of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for Damping Power System Oscillations – A Review,”International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 1 Issue 4, June – 2012.

10.     A. Kazemi and M.R. Shadmesgaran, “Extended Supplementary Controller of UPFC to Improve Damping Inter-Area Oscillations Considering Inertia Coefficient,”International Journal Of Energy, Issue 1, Vol. 2, 2008.

11.     M.Thangavel, S.Shiny Jasmine, “Enhancement of Voltage Stability and Power Oscillation Damping Using Static Synchronous Series Compensator with SMES,”IJART, Vol. 2 Issue 3, 2012, 94-98.

12.     Ravi Gupta, N K Sharma, P Tiwari, Astha Gupta, Nitisha Nigam, Anubha Gupta, “Application of energy storage devices in power systems,”International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology,Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, pp. 289-297.

13.     S. Padma, Dr. R. Lakshmipathi, K. Ramash Kumar and P. Nandagopal, “A PI Controller for Enhancing the Transient Stability of Multi Pulse Inverter Based Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) With Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES),”International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 2010.

14.     P. Kumkratug and M.H. Haque, “Improvement of Damping of A Power System By STATCOM,”IEEE Transactions On Circuits And Systems- 1: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL 55, and NO.3 APRIL 2009.

15.     Dr.K.Vadirajacharya , “Super conducting Magnetic Energy Storage Based DVR,”International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Vo3. 1 Issue 4, June – 2010.

16.     D. Harikrishna1, N.V. Srikanth, Y. Chandrasekhar, “Improvement of Transient Stability Using Fuzzy Logic Controlled SMES,”Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering Vol. 5, No. 4, December 2011.

17.     NuraddeenMagaji and M. W. Mustafa ,“Optimal Location of TCSC Device For Damping Oscillations,”MalaysiaARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,VOL. 4, NO. 3, MAY 2009

18.     Alberto D.Delrosso, Claudio A. Canizares and Victor M.Dona. “A study of TCSC controller Design for Power System Stability Improvement” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems,Feb, 2003, pp 1-10.

19.     S.Panda, RamnarayanN.Patel. “Improving Power System Transient Stability with an off–CentreLocation of Shunt Facts Devices” Journal of Electrical Engg, vol 57, no 6, 2006, pp 365-368.

20.     L Gyugyi, C D Schauder, S L Torgerson and A Edris.“The Unified Power Flow Controller: A New Approach to Power Transmission Control.” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 10, no 2, 1995, p 1088.

21.     P K Dash, S Mishra and G Panda. “Damping Multimodal Power System Oscillation using a Hybrid Fuzzy Controller for Series Connected Facts Devices”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol15, no 4, November, 2000, p 1360.


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48.

Authors:

M.Aruna, R.Dhivya, D.Mousabin Rani, A.Sharmila L.J.Arthiha

Paper Title:

Electronic Toll Collection System Using Radio Frequency Technology

Abstract:   This paper focuses on an electronic toll collection (ETC) system using radio frequency (RF) technology. Research on ETC has been around since 1992, during which RFID tags began to be widely used in vehicles to automate toll processes [1]. Next method proposes a very simple method for enhancing the performance of infrared electronic-toll-collection systems, resulting in longer communication time interval for the data transmission between the on board unit (OBU) and the road side unit (RSU). The proposed RF system uses antenna that are mounted on the windshields of vehicles, through which information embedded on the tags are read by RF readers, the toll debit will be taken from the owner’s bank account. The proposed system eliminates the need for motorists and toll authorities to manually perform ticket payments and toll fee collections, respectively. Data information are also easily exchanged between the motorists and toll authorities, thereby enabling a more efficient toll collection by reducing traffic and eliminating possible human errors.

Keywords:
   Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) , On board Unit (OBU) , Road side System (RBU) , Radio Frequency (RF) .


References:

1.        D.-W. Lim and J.-S. Jun, “Free-flow multi-lane ETC system using real-time individual vehicle tracking,” in Proc. 5th Asia-Pacific Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Forum, Seoul, Korea, Jul. 2–5, 2002, pp. TS1–TS3.
2.        H. Hashimoto, H. Ohno, M. Konishi, K. Morishita, and K. Sugimoto, “Multi-lane electronic road pricing system in Singapore,” Mitsubishi Juko Giho, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 36–45, 1999.

3.        W.-H. Lee, B.-S. Jeng, S.-S. Tseng, and C.-H. Wang, “Electronic toll collection based on vehicle-positioning system techniques,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Networking, Sensing, and Control, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., Mar. 21–23, 2004, pp. 643–648.

4.        D. M. Grimes and T. O. Jones, “Automotive radar: A brief review,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 804–822, Jun. 1974.

5.        W.-Y. Shieh,W.-H. Lee, S.-L. Tung, B.-S. Jeng, and C.-H. Liu, “Analysis of the optimum configuration of roadside units and onboard units in dedicated short-range communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 565–571, Dec. 2006.

6.        J. D. Kraus, Antennas, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988. ch. 3.

7.        J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 265–298, Feb. 1997.

8.        L. Dorst, A. Hoekstra, J. M. van den Akker, J. Breeman, F. C. A. Groen, J. Lagerberg, A. Visser, H. Yakali, and L. O. Hertzberger, “Evaluating automatic debiting systems by modeling and simulation of virtual sensors,” IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag., vol. 1, pp. 18–25, June 1998.


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49.

Authors:

Adebayo I.G., Adejumobi, I.A., Adepoju, G.A.

Paper Title:

Power Flow Analysis Using Load Tap – Changing Transformer (LTCT): A Case Study of Nigerian 330kv Transmission Grid System

Abstract:    In order to ensure that electrical power transfer from   generator to consumers through the grid system is stable, reliable and economical , it becomes imperative to carry out power flow studies. This paper  presents power flow solution incorporating load tap changing transformer (LTCT)  for solving the steady-state problems of longitudinal power system using Nigerian 330kV transmission system as a case study .  In this work, the  adopted  numerical technique for solving the power flow problems was the  Newton Raphson iterative algorithm. Modified power  flow algorithm was implemented by the application of voltage control method using a load tap changing transformer (LTCT). Simulations were done using MATLAB software package .The results obtained from the existing condition of the Nigerian 330 kV transmission Network indicate that the bus voltages at New Heaven (0.929p.u), Gombe (0.886p.u), and Kano(0.880p.u) were below the set of binding limits that is,   tolerance. With the incorporation of LTCT, voltage magnitudes of 0.995p.u, 0.950p.u and 0.996p.u  were obtained  at New Heaven, Gombe and Kano respectively,  while the total system active power loss on the transmission line  also reduced by about  5.1%.

Keywords:
   Power Flow, LTCT, power system, active power loss, voltage magnitude


References:

1.        Nagrath,. and D. Kothari. Power System Engineering. United Kingdom: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2006,  pp. 194-196.
2.        J. J. Grainger, and W. D Stevenson.  Power System Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill  Inc.pp. 1994, 329-376.

3.        I. G. Adebayo, I. A. Adejumobi and G. A. Adepoju;  Application of Load Tap – Changing Transformer (LTCT) to the Optimal Economic Dispatch of Generation of the Nigerian 330kV grid  System   International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Sciences and Engineering IJETSE,     5(3) :  2012, pp. 40-50.

4.        L. Dedek. Loss minimization in the modified Algorithm of load flow analysis in industrial power system, United Kingdom: University of New South Wales. 2002

5.        J. E., Van Ness, and J. H. Griffin,   Elimination methods for toad flow studies, IEEE Transactions On Power Apparatus And Systems. 86 (11):  1961, pp. 1449- 1460.

6.        W. F. Tinney, and C. E. Hart. Power Flow Solution by Newton Method  IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-86, No. 1, 1967, pp. 449- 460.

7.        H. Saadat “power system analysis” published by McGraw-Hill publishing company limited, New York., 2006,  pp189-237.

8.        N. Dusko “Tap Adjustment in AC Load Flow” UMIST, September, 2002 , pp.1- 10.

9.        E. Acha, C. R. Fuerte-Esquivel, A. Ambriz-Pe´rez and C. Angeles-Camacho. FACTS; Modeling and Simulation in Power Networks. England: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2004  pp: 267-270 .

10.     P. K. Chattopadhyay and G. Purkayastha. “Newton-Raphson Method of Load    Flow Analysis Using   Coordinate Systems”, IEE (I) Journal, Vol. 54, 1974, pp. 221-224.

11.     Y. Yare and G. K. Venayagamoorthy (2010) , “A Differential Evolution Approach to Optimal Generator Maintenance Scheduling of the Nigerian Power  System”, , IEEE Trans

12.     W. F. Tinney and J. W. Walker “Direct solutions of sparse network equations by optimally ordered triangularfactorization”proc. IEEE,  55 (11) : 1976,  pp. 1801-1809.

13.     O.S. Onohaebi “Reduction of the High Technical power loss Associated with the Nigerian 330kv    transmission network.” International journal of electrical and power engineering. 1(4) : 2007, pp. 421-431 , Department of  electrical and electronics engineering, University of Benin, Benin city Nigeria .

14.     O. S.  Onohaebi and O. S. Omodamwen “Estimation of bus voltages, line flows and losses in the Nigerian 330kv transmission grid.” International journal of academic research, vol.2 No3.  Department of electrical and electronics engineering, University of Benin, Benin city Nigeria, 2010,  pp 2-7.

15.     O. S. Onohaebi and S. T. Apeh “voltage instability in electrical network:- a case study of the   Nigerian 330kv transmission grid.” Research journal of applied sciences 2(8). Department of electrical and electronics engineering, University of Benin, Benin city Nigeria.

16.     B. Caven “A study of voltage profile in the National Electrical Power Authority network: Analysis and Recommendations”, NSE Engineering focus, vol.4, no.1, 1991, pp.3-12.


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50.

Authors:

Sandeep Kaur, Manisha Bhardwaj

Paper Title:

Review Paper on Image Processing in Distributed Environment

Abstract:    In distributed image processing framework consist of analysing the performance through distributed control. It is also includes data association and dynamic data control. In this paper various distributed environments are discussed and shows how distributed image processing algorithms work by using dynamic data for a particular application.

Keywords:
   Distributed Image processing, data association.


References:

1.        A.Tchernykh,A.Cristobal-salas,”Partial Evaluation techniques for distributed image processing”2007,vol 17,no 3,pp 390-398 in Pleiades publishing ltd.
2.        Joel guillod,philippe schmid-saugeon etc,(2003)”An open internet plateform to distributed image processing applied to dermoscopy”  published in cross network Ltd swissMedia center vevay,Switzerla.

3.        MarkO.guild,Christianthis,benedikt fischer(2003)”A plateform for distributed image processing and image retieval” department of medical informatics, university of technology, Aachen, germany.

4.        Noel t Goldsmith(2000)”A digital image processing techniques to produce improves focal depth ”in austrelia.

5.        Sam H.Minelli,Andera de polo”Image segmentation search engine applied to a distributed archiving architecture for content retrieval system to educational products” Florence, Italy

6.        X.L.Li,B.Veeravali, and C.C.Ko “Distributed image processing on a network of workstation”2003 international journal of computers and applications, vol 25,no 2.

7.        Sonaka,Hlavac,Boyle,”Digital image processing and computer vision”2008 indian edition by Cengage learning.

8.        A.Fakhri,A nasir,(2012)”A study of image processing in agriculture application under high performance computing environment” international journal of computer science and telecommunications


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51.

Authors:

S Mohamed Ashiq, K Karthikeyan, S Karthikeyan

Paper Title:

Fabrication of Semi Automated Pressurized Flushing System in Indian Railway Toilet

Abstract:    It is a well known fact that large number of people of all age groups travel by train. Irrespective of the type of train or class, one facet of the train that needs improvement is the cleanliness of toilets. An unclean toilet causes bad smell, which makes people uncomfortable. Further it affects people by spreading various diseases. One main reason for the lack of cleanliness is that people forget to flush the toilet often. To maintain toilets clean, separate routines are adopted but only periodically at major stations. Hence most of the time, toilet remains unclean. This project aims to design and fabricate the semi automated flushing system in toilets in railway toilets. The system will be fabricated in such a way that the water is flushed only when the passenger open and close the door. For this operation, a piston mounted on the door will follow the reciprocating motion; consequently the flush system will be actuated. Possible benefits are that minimum quantity of the water will be used efficiently, which reduces wastage of water. In order to make the cleaning more effective, the pressure of the flushing system is to be increased.

Keywords:
   flushing system, Indian railways, cleanliness, water saving, pressurized, simple, comfort


References:

1.        Khan et al, “Sanitation in Indian railways premises: A great cause of concern”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology , Vol.III/ Issue I/January-March, 2012/50-55
2.        "Flushing squat toilets", naturesplatform.com

3.        Virginia Sarah Smith (2007), Clean: a history of personal hygiene and purity, p. 28, ISBN 978-0-19-929779-5, retrieved 30 July 2010

4.        Rodda, J. C. and Ubertini, Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization - Water Science? pg 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004).

5.        C.Michael Hogan. 2007. Knossos fieldnotes, The Modern Antiquarian "Sulabh International Museum of Toilets". Sulabhtoiletmuseum.org. Retrieved 2011-11-18.

6.        Rosheim, Mark E. (1994), Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics, Wiley-IEEE, pp. 9–10, ISBN 0-471-02622-0

7.        Kinghorn, Jonathan (1986), "A Privvie in Perfection: Sir John Harrington's Water Closet", Bath History 1: 173–188.ISBN 0-86299-294-X. Kinghorn supervised a modern reconstruction in 1981, based on the illustrated description by Harington's assistant Thomas Coombe in the New Discourse.

8.        Eveleigh, David J. (2008), Privies and Water Closets, Oxford: Shire Publications, ISBN 978-0-7478-0702-5

9.        GB 189804990, Giblin, Albert, "Improvements in Flushing Cisterns" Mario Theriault, Great Maritime Inventions 1833-1950, Goose Lane Editions, 2001, p. 34.

10.      T. Asano, E. Diamadopoulos, & G. Tschobanoglous (Eds.),

11.      Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse (pp. 55±62). October 17±20, 1995, Iraklio, Crete, Greece (Symposium Reprint Book 1).

12.      "Low-flow revolution: As water concerns rise, toilet makers meeting the challenge", Lacrosse Tribune, 26 November 2007; accessed 3 January 2009

13.      Sandy Fleishman (5 September 1999). "Mich. Congressman offers measure to flush low-flow toilet laws". Sunday Gazette. Washington Post: p. D3.

14.      Low-Flow Toilets All Wet, Some Lawmakers Say". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press (Washington). 28 July 1999.

15.      "Period Style sanitaryware and Antique Bathrooms". Thomas Crapper. Retrieved 2011-11-18.

16.      Norton, Sheriff, Katzman, Blight and Chudacoff (2008). A People and A Nation. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-95196-2.

17.      "Do bathtubs drain counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere?", The Straight Dope, April 15, 1983]


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52.

Authors:

S.Freeda Angeline Rachel, J.Jency Joseph

Paper Title:

An ZVS DC-DC converter for High voltage and Efficiency gain With Reduced Ripple Current  

Abstract:    The power-generation market, has shown obvious growth. However, a high voltage and efficiency gain is essential for the fuel cell and PV panel and for other appliances. The  high step –up converter in the proposed converter  provides ripple- free input current. The full bridge converter provides high voltage gain. An APWM Full Bridge Boost converters are widely used in application where the output voltage is considerably higher than the input voltage. Zero Voltage Switching(ZVS )is typically implemented in the switches.ZVS APWM DC-DC Full bridge converter that does not have any drawbacks of that other converters of this type have such as complicated auxillary circuit,.increased current stress in the main power switches and the load dependent ZVS operation. In this proposed method an interleaved technique of Boost and Full Bridge converter is used..The different modes of operation of MOSFET has been discussed.. Moreover converter has high efficiency because of soft switching operation in switches. A 24V input voltage, 350V output voltage, and 168W output power simulation circuit of the proposed converter has been implemented and its  efficiency is up to 87.5%

Keywords:
   Full bridge converter, Boost converter, Zero-voltage switching, Soft switching, ZVS-APWM clamping circuit.


References:

1.        Fernandez, A. Sebastian, J. Alou, P. Cobos, J.A. Rascon, M. Tecnologia Electronica Edificio 3, “Low output voltage AC/DC converter with a new scheme of synchronous rectification that complies with IEC 1000-3-2 regulations ”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,  July 2003.
2.        M. Jain, M. Daniele, and P. K. Jain, “A bidirectional   DC–DCconverter topology for low   power application,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 595– 606, Jul. 2000..

3.        P. Jose and N. Mohan, “A novel ZVS bidirectional cuk converter for dual voltagesystems in automobiles,” in Proc. IEEE IECON Conf. Rec., 2003, pp. 117–122

4.        R.Li, A.Pottharst, N. Frohleke, and J. Bocker, “Analysis and design of improved isolated full-bridge bidirectional DC–DC converter,” in Proc. IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., 2004, pp. 521–526.

5.        L. Zhu, “A novel soft-commutating isolated boost full-bridge ZVS-PWM DC– DC converter for bidirectional high power applications,” in Proc. IEEE PESC Conf. Rec., 2004, pp. 2141–2146.

6.        J. Wang, F. Z. Peng, J. Anderson, A. Joseph, and R. Buffenbarger, “Low cost fuel cell converter system for residential power generation,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1315–1322, Sep. 2004

7.        J.Wang ,M.Reinhard, F. Z. Peng, and Z. Qian, “Design guideline of the isolated DC-DC converter in green power applications,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Motion Control Conf., 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1756–1761...

8.        V. Vlatkovic, J. A. Sabate, R. B. Ridley, F. C. Lee, and B. H. Cho, “Small signal analysis of the phase-shifted PWM converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 128–135, Jan. 1992..

9.        Fernandez, A. Sebastian, J. Alou, P. Cobos, J.A. Rascon, M. Tecnologia Electronica Edificio 3, “Low output voltage AC/DC converter with a new scheme of synchronous rectification that complies with IEC 1000-3-2 regulations ”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics,  July 2003.

10.      J.-M. Kwon and B.-H. Kwon, “High step-up active-clamp converter with input-current doubler and output-voltage doubler for fuel cell power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 108–115, Jan.2009.


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53.

Authors:

Kapil sharma, Sheveta Vashisht, Richa Dhiman

Paper Title:

A hybrid Approach Using Rule Induction And Clustering Techniques In Terms Of Accuracy And Processing Time In Data Mining

Abstract:   Data Mining: extracting useful insights from large and detailed collections of data. With the increased possibilities in modern society for companies and institutions to gather data cheaply and efficiently, this subject has become of increasing importance. This interest has inspired a rapidly maturing research field with developments both on a theoretical, as well as on a practical level with the availability of a range of commercial tools. In this research work titled a hybrid approach using rule induction and clustering techniques in terms of accuracy and processing time in Data Mining we using induction algorithms and clustering as a hybrid approach to maximize the accurate result in fast processing time. This approach can obtain better result than previous work. This can also improves the traditional algorithms with good result.  In the above section we will discuss how this approach results in a positive as compares to other approaches.

Keywords:
   Rule induction, clustering, SOM algorithm, decision list induction, CN2


References:

1.        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_Logic_Programming.
2.        Khurram Shehzad(2012)” EDISC: A Class-Tailored Discretization Technique for Rule-Based Classification”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING, VOL. 24, NO. 8, AUGUST 2012.

3.        Ning Zhong, Yuefeng Li(2012)” Effective Pattern Discovery for Text Mining”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING, VOL. 24, NO. 1, JANUARY 2012.

4.        Anil Rajput, S.P. Saxena(2012)” Rule based Classification of BSE Stock Data with Data Mining”, International Journal of Information Sciences and Application. ISSN 0974-2255 Volume 4, Number 1 (2012), pp. 1-9.      

5.        K. Shehzad(2011)” Simple Hybrid and Incremental Post-pruning Techniques for Rule Induction”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE AND DATA ENGINEERING.

6.        Alexander Borisov(2011)” Rule Induction for Identifying Multilayer Tool Commonalities”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 24, NO. 2, MAY 2011.

7.        Alexander Borisov(2011)” Rule Induction for Identifying Multilayer Tool”,IEEE.

8.        Fernando E. B. Otero(2011)” A New Sequential Covering Strategy for Inducing Classification Rules with Ant Colony Algorithms”,IEEE.

9.        Thomas R. Gabriel and Michael R. Berthold(2010)” Missing Values in Fuzzy Rule Induction”, IEEE.

10.      Nick F Ryman-Tubb(2010)” SOAR –  Sparse Oracle-based Adaptive Rule Extraction: Knowledge extraction from large-scale datasets to detect credit card fraud”, IEEE.

11.      Alberto Fern´andez(2010)” Genetics-Based Machine Learning for Rule Induction: State of the Art, Taxonomy, and Comparative Study”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION, VOL. 14, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2010.

12.      Jeremy Davis(2010)” Methods of Information Hiding and Detection in File Systems”, 2010 Fifth International Workshop on Systematic Approaches to Digital Forensic Engineering.

13.      Richard Jensen, Chris Cornelis(2009)” Hybrid Fuzzy-Rough Rule Induction and Feature Selection”, R. Jensen and Q. Shen are with the Department of Computer Science, Aberystwyth University, UK.


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54.

Authors:

Taranjeet Kaur, Rupinder Kaur

Paper Title:

Comparison of Various Lacks of Cohesion Metrics

Abstract:    In software engineering there are plenty of applications used for reduced complexity and improved fault prediction approaches. In this paper we study various metrics that are not very much suitable to find fault classes in software. Basically using the concept of metrics to find fault classes and reduced complexity of classes. . various techniques like linear regression, logistic regression, one way ANOVA, principal component analysis, radial basis function network, support vector machines, single layer perceptron, multilayer perceptron, error correction learning, back propagation algorithm.  all these techniques are used to find faulty classes and reduced complexity in software.

Keywords:
   Object oriented classes, class cohesion metrics, software quality, statistical approach.


References:

1.        Malkit singh and Dalwinder singh salaria (2012 )”Approaches for software fault prediction “IJCST ,Vol 3.Jehad al dallal(2010)”using TLCOM based OO lack of cohesion metrics”,procedia computer science,Vol 3.
2.        S.P.Sreeja And Dr.R.Sridaran(2012)”A survey on different approaches of determining cohesion based object oriented metrics”international journal of engineering research and development, Vol 4.

3.        Ezekie okike(2010)”a proposal for normalized lack of cohesion in methods metrics using field experiment”,IJCSI international journal of computer science issues,Vol(7)

4.        Linda badri,Mourad badri and fadal tour(2011)”an empirical analysis of lack of cohesion metric for predicting testability of classes”international journal of software engineering and applications

5.        J.al.dallal(2008)”software similarity based functional cohesion metrics”journal of software engineering and applications

6.        Jehad.al dallas (2010)”mathematical validation of object oriented class cohesion metrics”international journal of computer science,IEEE,volume 4.

7.        J,bosnia, etzkorn c.davis and w.li”a class cohesion metrics for object oriented design”journal of object oriented programming.

8.        S counsells t.hall d bowes(2009)”theoretical and empirical analysis of three slice based metrics for cohesion”

9.        Shouki a ebad Moataz ahmed(2011)”evaluation framework for package level cohesion metrics”international conference on future information technology IACSIT volume 13

10.     letha etzkorn,carl davis and wei li”a practical look at lack of cohesion in methods metrics

11.     Ezikel okikie(2010)”a pedagogical evaluation and discussion about lack of cohesion in methods using field experiment.


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55.

Authors:

Ahmad Kamil Arshad, Md Diah J, Salah Mohamed Khalil

Paper Title:

Developing and validating HMA Workability Prediction Model for Determining the best Paddle as a Machine component for Workability Device

Abstract:   In extending the previous work in which the authors develop a workability measuring device, this paper presents a laboratory assessment which looks into the relationship between Temperature (T), speed (S), torque (Tq), power (P) and Energy E, under different types of asphaltic concrete mixes using transducer  recording devices.  Seven types of mix and 210 samples at six different mixing temperatures were used and at five different RPMs on three types of Paddle configurations (A, B & C) to determine the Paddle which produces the highest R2 and P- values. Statistical analyses by the MINITAB software was used to develop and validate the model for Energy (workability) for the HMA and the selection of the best Paddle for inclusion, as the component for the workability measuring device. It was found that paddle B was the most suitable and the model was therefore developed using this paddle, as a result of the significant P-value and the highest coefficient of domination (R2) for mixing Temperature, Speed, Power, Energy and Torque. The results of the sensitivity analyses demonstrate that Energy exhibits the highest increase when Speed is kept at minimum, mean and maximum values.

Keywords:
   Workability Model, Paddle, Development, Validation, sensitivity analysis.


References:

1.        Celik, O.N., and Atis, C. D: 2008, Compactibility of hot bituminous mixtures made with crumb rubber-modified binders. In: Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 22, pp. 1143–1147.
2.        Khweir, K.A.J. The Influence of Material Ingredients on Asphalt Workability, Unpublished Ph.D Thesis. Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK  1991.

3-        Khalil, S.M., Rahman A. and Arshad, A.K: 2011,  Development of Workability Measuring device for Asphalt Mixture using Transducer by means of Energy and Temperature Regulator. In: European Journal of Scientific Research,  Vol. 51,  pp 396-405

4.        Marvillet, J. and Bougault, P: 1979,  Workability of bituminous mixes: Development of a workability meter. In: Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 48, pp. 91–110.

5.        Gudimettla, J.M., Cooley, L.A. Jr., and Brown, E.R. (2003). Workability of Hot Mix Asphalt. National Center for Asphalts Technology, NCAT Report 03-03, Auburn University, AL, USA.

6.        Gudimettla, J.M., Cooley, L.A. Jr., and Brown, E.R: 2004, Workability of Hot-Mix Asphalt. In: Transportation Research Record, No.1891, pp. 229–237.

7.        Cabrera J.G: 1992,  Hot bituminous mixtures: Design for performance, In: Proceedings of the 1st National Conference on Bituminous Mixtures and Flexible Pavements. University of Thessaloniki, Greece, pp. 1-12.

8.        Cabrera, J.G: 1991, Assessment of the Workability of Bituminous Mixtures. In: Journal of Highways and Transportation, University of Leeds, Vol. 11, pp. 17-23.

9.        Cabrera, J. G.  Hot Bituminious Mixture Design for Performance, In J. G. Cabrera & J. R. Dixon (Eds.), Performance and Durability of Bituminious Materials (1st ed., pp. 101-113). London: E & FN SPON 1996.

10.      Mohamed, A.A., Hamzah, M.O. and Omar, H: 2008, Performance related mix design evaluation of asphaltic concrete. In: EASTS International Symposium on Sustainable Transportation incorporating Malaysian Universities Transport Research Forum Conference (MUTRFC08), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 12-13 August, 1-9.

11.      Oliver, J., and Alderson, A.  A Development of an Asphalt workablity index: Pilot study, Austroads Incorporated, Sydney: Australia 2006.

12.      Kalil, S. M., Arshad, .A.K., and Abdul Rahman, M.Y: 2012, The Development of Workability Measurement for Asphalt Mixture Using Transducer by Torque. In:  Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol; Vol. 5 (Number 3): 203-208.

13.      Abdelgalil, S. M. K., Rahman, M. Y. A., and Arsha, A. K: 2011,  Towards Improving the Device For  Measurement Of Workability And Compactibility Of Asphalt Mixture Using Electronic Transducer And Temperature Regulator. In: The International Journal of Organizational Innovation, Vol.3,  pp.217-231

14.      PWD Malaysia. Standard Specification For Road Works. Section 4 Flexible Pavement. Jabatan. Kerja Raya Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 2008.

15.      BS 812 Part 105, 107, 112. Standard Method of Aggregate Testing. British Standard Institute (BSI) London 1990, 1995.

16.      ASTM. Standard. Test Designation C 131, ASTM D 5; ASTM D 36; ASTM D 113. ASTM D 1559. Annual Book of ASTM Standards (Section 04). West Conshohocken, Philadelphia, USA 2004. 

17.      Kandhal, P.S. and Mallick, R.B. Pavement Recycling Guidelines for State and Local Governments:Participant’s Reference Book. National Centre for Asphalt Technology and Federal Highway Administration: Publication No. FHWA-SA-98-042 1997.

18.      Soper, D. Statistics Calculators. [Online] February 2012. http://danielsoper.com/statcalc3/default.aspx.

19.      Freedman. A.D. Statistical Models: Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK 2009.

20.      Ryan,  T.P. Modern Engineering Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, New Jersey 2007.

21-      National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) /SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods [Online] 2012. 


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56.

Authors:

V.Thiyagarajan, V.Sekar

Paper Title:

Conversion of IC Engine Driven Bike into Electric Engine Driven Bike

Abstract:   India has large two wheelers for personal and private transportation and these two-wheeled vehicles are driven by IC engine.  Around 1.3 million vehicles are sold per month. Out of these, 600,000 are motorbikes, 400,000 are scooters, 200,000 are mopeds and 150,000 are 3-wheelers. This gives a total of around 16 million 2 and 3 wheelers sold per year in India. Many of our cities and towns suffer from severe air pollution caused partly by the large number of 2 and 3 wheelers with inefficient and polluting engines. Also few millions of vehicles are scraped every year due to the condemned IC engines which goes for least price value. Rather, if we have a technology to recycle those vehicles for next 10 to 15 years that would enable the users to reuse their vehicles and decrease the massive manufacturing process and import/export of brand new vehicles produces a far greater impact, or carbon footprint, than running an older vehicle for many years. The technology is the conversion process of an internal combustion engine to an electric vehicle powered by batteries comprises many steps from choosing the vehicle, sizing a motor, and the type of batteries. By using an existing vehicle with this conversion technology, you are not only extending the life cycle of that unit, but saving the huge energy input of recycling, new parts production and new manufacturing. This paper takes an old, condemned motor bike of model 1997 and converts into an all-electric engine driven vehicle with a DC motor and lead acid batteries and explains the process of conversion

Keywords:
   EV Conversion,  Peukert’s Effect, Conversion Process, Vehicle Mechanics, Transmission Stages


References:

1.        Dhameja, S. (2001). “Electric Vehicle Battery Systems” New Delhi.
2.        Michael Brown, Shari. “Convert It”. 

3.        Larminie, J. , Lowry, J., “Electric Vehicle Technology Explained”.
4.        Daniel Spring., “Future Drive – Electric Vehicles and Sustainable Transportation”.
5.        Seth Leitman ., Bob Brant., “ Build your own Electric Vehicle”.
6.        “Designing an Electric Vehicle Conversion”, Southcon/95. IEEE Conference Record.

7.        Keoun, B.C. (1995). “Designing an Electric Vehicle Conversion”, Southcon/95 Conference.

8.        Caumont, O., Moigne, P. (2000, September 3), Energy Gauge for Lead Acid Batteries in Electric Vehicle. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion  Vol 15.

9.        Ibanez, J., Dixon ,J., (2004), "Monitoring Battery System for Electric          Vehicle, Based On 'One Wire' Technology", IEEE Vehicular Power

10.     Propulsion, pp. 6-8.

11.     Prange. A step-by-step guide through the entire conversion process from Electro Automotive. (ISBN 1879857944). Retrieved from

http://www.electroauto.com.

12.     Bob Brant . Build Your Own Electric Vehicle. (ISBN 0830642315).

13.     Michael Hackelman. The New Electric Vehicles: A Clean and Quiet Revolution. (ISBN 096295887). http://www.eaaev.org

14.     http://eaaev.org/eaalinks.html

15.     http://www.evadc.org/build_an_ev.html.

16.     Examples of vehicles conversions. Retrieved from http://  www.evalbum.com.

17.     Electric car manufacturers. Retrieved from http:// www.smart.com .

18.     The electric auto association . Retrieved from http:// www.eaaev.com.

19.     Reva Electric car manufacturer. Retrieved from  http://www.revaindia.com.

20.     DC Power Systems is a component supplier. Retrieved from http://www.dcpowersystems.com.

21.     AC Propulsion offers many EV technologies. Retrieved from http://www.acpropulsion.com.

22.     EV Parts, Inc is a component supplier. Retrieved from http://www.evparts.com/firstpage.php.

23.     Manzanita Micro EV components. Retrieved from http://www.manzanitamicro.com .

24.     Café Electric EV controllers. Retrieved from  http://www.cafeelectric.com.

25.     KTA Services provides EV components and kits. Retrieved from  http://www.kta-ev.com.

26.     Victor Tikhonov imports Siemens AC drives. Retrieved from   http://www.metricmind.com.

27.     EV conversion vehicles. Retrieved from http://www.evworld.com/archives/hobbyists.html.

28.     EV discussion group. Retrieved from http://geocities.com/ev_list.

29.     EV conversions. Retrieved from http://www.grassrootsev.com.

30.     The Electric Drive Transportation Association. Retrieved from http://www.electricdrive.org/index.php?tg=articles&topics=48&new=0&newc=0


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57.

Authors:

B.Saranya, V.Ramanivetha, M.Vinodhini, R.Sujipriya, A.Shankar

Paper Title:

An Embedded Based Code Finder Using Robotic Arm Movement

Abstract:    Robotics is the science of designing and building robots suitable for real-life applications in automated manufacturing and other non- manufacturing. Robots are meant to aid people, making a task easier or aiding a person who wants or needs help. The main use of robots has so far been in the automation of mass production industries, where the same, definable tasks must be performed repeatedly in exactly the same fashion. There are some places that still maintain manual records. This project is used for the concern that do not process with mass products instead to deal with ledgers and old records. The main aim of this system is to find a particular code present in a book. The code has been developed using embedded C. A barcode scanner is used to scan the barcode in the paper and it sends to the microcontroller to compare with the predefined barcode. If the code is matched then the microcontroller stops the process of the stepper motor, servo motor and electromagnet. Thus the particular person’s record is found out using this system. The experimental results in software illuminate the reliability of this Code finder system as compared with the existing system is also much cheaper and ‘smarter’ than the traditional ones.

Keywords:
    Degree Of Freedom (DOF), Printed Circuited Board (PCB), Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)


References:

1.        Calgar Elbuken, Mir Behrad Khamesee, and Mustafa Yavuz, ‘Design and Implementation of a micromanipulation System using a Magnetically Levitated MEMS Robot,’ IEEE/asme transactions on mechatronics, Vol. 14, pp. 4, August 2009
2.        Ritsuya Oshima, Toshio Takayama, Toru Omata, Kazuyuki Kojima, Kozo Takase, and Naofumi Tanaka, ‘Assemblable Three-Fingered Nine-Degrees-of-Freedom Hand for Laparoscopic Surgery’, IEEE/asme transactions on mechatronics, vol. 15, no. 6, december 2010

3.        Kurt E. Clothier and Ying Shang, ‘A Geometric Approach for Robotic arm kinematics with Hardware Design, Electrical Design, and Implementation’ Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Journal of Robotics, Volume 2010, Article ID 984823, 10 pages, doi:10.1155/2010/984823

4.        Yong Zhang, Brandon K. Chen, Xinyu Liu, and Yu Sun, ‘Autonomous Robotic Pick-and-Place of Microobjects’, IEEE transactions on robotics, vol. 26, no. 1, february 2010

5.        Michael Dumiak,”Book Scanning Robots for Degitize Delicate Texts” IEEE Spectrum,vol 1,January 2008 in www.spectrum.ieee .org

6.        N. Zemiti, G. Morel, T. Ortmaier, and N. Bonnet, “Mechatronic design of A new robot for force control in minimally invasive surgery,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 143–153, Apr. 2007.

7.        S. Fatikow, T. Wich, H. Hulsen, T. Sievers, and M. Jahnisch, “Microrobot System for automatic nanohandling inside a scanning electron microscope,”IEEE/ASME Trans.Mechatronics, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 244–252, Jun. 2007.

8.        W. Ding, H. Zhang, and C. Cetinkaya, “Rolling resistance moment-based Adhesion characterization of microspheres,” J. Adhes., vol. 84, no. 12,Pp. 996–1006, 2008.

9.        W. H. Wang, X. Y. Liu, and Y. Sun, “Contact detection in microrobotic Manipulation,” Int. J. Robot. Res., vol. 26, pp. 821–828, 2007.

10.     R. H. Taylor and D. Stoianovic, “Medical robotics in computer-integrated Surgery,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 765–781, Oct.2003, 2010.

11.     I. W. Park, B. J. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. D. Hong, and J. H. Kim,“Laser-based kinematic calibration of robot manipulator using differential kinematics,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, pp. 1–9, 2011.

12.     W. K. Veitschegger and C. H.Wu, “Robot calibration and compensation,”IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, vol. 4,No. 6, pp. 643–656, 1988.

13.     Y. Sun and J. M. Hollerbach, “Active robot calibration algorithm,”In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference onRobotics and Automation (ICRA ’08), pp. 1276–1281, May 2008.

14.     I. W. Park, B. J. Lee, S. H. Cho, Y. D. Hong, and J. H. Kim,“Laser-based kinematic calibration of robot manipulator Using differential kinematics,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, pp. 1–9, 2011.

15.     F. Salewski and A. Taylor, “Fault handling in fpgas and microcontrollers In safety-critical embedded applications: A comparative Survey,” in Proc. IEEE 10th Euromicro Conf. Digital System Design (DSD’07), H. Kubatova, Ed., Aug. 2007, pp. 124–131.

16.     U.Wappler and C. Fetzer, “Software encoded processing: Building dependable Systems with commodity hardware,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Computer Safety, Reliability and Security (SAFECOMP’07), Sep. 2007, vol.4680/2007, LNCS, pp. 356–369, Springer

17.     Takahiro Endo, Haruhisa Kawasaki, Tetsuya Mouri, Yasuhiko Ishigure, Hisayuki Shimomura, Masato Matsumura, and Kazumi Koketsu, (2011)‟Five-Fingered Haptic Interface Robot:HIRO III,‟ IEEE Transactions on haptics, volume. 4, no. 1.

18.     Kawasaki .H ,Ohtuka .Y, Alhalabi .M.O and Mouri .T, (2006) „Haptic Rendering and Perception of Frictional Moment,‟ Proc. Euro- Haptics Conference., pp. 201-206

19.     M.A.Mazidi,J.C.Mazidi,R.D.McKinaly,”The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems”,Pearson Education,2006

20.     Kawasaki .H ,Ohtuka .Y, Alhalabi .M.O and Mouri .T, (2006) „Haptic Rendering and Perception of Frictional Moment,‟ Proc. Euro- Haptics Conference., pp. 201-206


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58.

Authors:

John Major. J, Shajin Prince, Akuluri Rakesh

Paper Title:

Secure Data Aggregation and Data Recovery in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:    several data aggregation schemes based on privacy homomorphism encryption have been designed and reviewed on wireless sensor networks. Cluster heads can exactly aggregate the cipher texts without decryption; thus, transmission overhead is reduced. Though, the base station only fetches the aggregated result, which origin two problems. First, the usage of aggregation function is obliged. Second, the base station cannot confirm the data integrity and authenticity. This paper go to overcome the above two drawbacks. In the design, the base station can recover all the sensing data even the data has been aggregated. Besides, the design has been concluded and adopted on both homogeneous and heterogeneous wireless sensor networks.

Keywords:
   Data aggregation; Wireless sensor networks; Privacy homomorphism encryption.


References:

1.        R. Rajagopalan and P. Varshney, “Data-Aggregation Techniques Sensor Networks: A Survey,” IEEE Comm. Surveys Tutorials, vol. 8, no.4, pp. 48-63, Oct.-Nov. 2006.
2.        S. Madden, M.J. Franklin, J.M. Hellerstein, and W. Hong, “TAG: A Tiny Aggregation Service for Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks,” Proc. Fifth Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation, 2002G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics (Book style with paper title and editor),”  in Plastics, 2nd ed. vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64.

3.        J.-Y. Chen, G. Pandurangan, and D. Xu, “Robust Computation of Aggregates in Wireless Sensor Networks: Distributed Randomized Algorithms and Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distributed Systems, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 987-1000, Sept. 2006W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems (Book style).  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123–135.

4.        H. C¸ am, S. O ¨ zdemir, P. Nair, D. Muthuavinashiappan, and H. Ozgur Sanli, “Energy-Efficient Secure Pattern Based Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Networks,” J. Computer Comm., vol. 29, pp. 446-455, 2006.

5.        H. Sanli, S. Ozdemir, and H. Cam, “SRDA: Secure Reference- Based Data Aggregation Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE 60th Int’l Conf. Vehicular Technology (VTC ’04-Fall), vol. 7, pp. 4650-4654, Sept. 2004. 

6.        D. Westhoff, J. Girao, and M. Acharya, “Concealed Data Aggregation for Reverse Multicast Traffic in Sensor Networks: Encryption, Key  Distribution, and Routing Adaptation,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1417-1431, Oct. 2006.

7.        C. Castelluccia, E. Mykletun, and G. Tsudik, “Efficient Aggregation of Encrypted Data in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Second Ann. Int’l Conf. Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems, pp. 109-117, July 2005.

8.        E. Mykletun, J. Girao, and D. Westhoff, “Public Key Based Cryptoschemes for Data Concealment in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Comm., vol. 5, pp. 2288-2295, June 2006.

9.        D. Boneh, C. Gentry, B. Lynn, and H. Shacham, “Aggregate and Verifiably Encrypted Signatures from Bilinear Maps,” Proc. 22nd Int’l Conf. Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques (Eurocrypt), pp. 416-432, 2003.

10.      Chien-Ming Chen, Yue-Hsun Lin, Ya-Ching Lin, and Hung-Min Sun "RCDA: Recoverable Concealed Data Aggregation for Data Integrity in Wireless Sensor Networks" IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed computing, VOL. 23, NO. 4, APRIL 2012


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59.

Authors:

Vijoy Kumar Peddiny, P.Swaminathan

Paper Title:

Improved Natural Balancing Of Ripple Rejection LC-Filter with Modified Phase-Shifted PWM for Single-Leg Five-Level Flying-Capacitor Converters

Abstract:    Multilevel power electronic converters are the converter of choice in medium-voltage applications due to their reduced switch voltage stress, better harmonic performance, and Lower switching losses. Flying-capacitor multilevel converter has a distinct advantage in terms of its ease of capacitor voltage balancing. This paper analyses the natural voltage-balancing characteristic of a flying capacitor multilevel converter when it is operated under the spectrally modified Phase Shifted-pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy. Filter network connection is proposed that significantly improves the natural balancing response of a flying capacitor converter for either PWM strategy. This is most significantly done by simulation.

Keywords:
   Multilevel inverter, Phase shifted-PWM, Single leg five level Flying capacitor converter, self pre-charging.


References:

1.        Shukla, A. Ghosh, and A. Joshi, “Hysteresis modulation of multilevel inverters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1396–1409, May 2011.
2.        K. Sadigh, S. H. Hosseini, M. Sabahi, and G. Gharehpetian, “Double flying-capacitor multicell converter based on modified phase-shifted pulse width modulation,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1517–1526, Jun. 2010.

3.        F. Defay, A. M. Llor, and M. Fadel, “Direct control strategy for a four level three-phase flying-capacitor inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2240–2248, Jul. 2010.

4.        M. Khazraei, H. Sepahvand, K. Corzine, and M. Ferdowsi, “A generalized capacitor voltage balancing scheme for flying-capacitor multilevel converters,” in Proc. 25th Annu. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo., Feb. 2010, pp. 58–62.

5.        P.McGrath and D.G.Holmes, “Enhanced voltage balancing of a flying capacitor multilevel converter using phase disposition (PD) modulation,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1933–1942, Jul. 2011

6.        Vahid Dargahi, Arash Khoshkbar Sadigh, “Flying Capacitors Reduction in an Improved Double Flying Capacitor Multicell Converter Controlled by a Modified Modulation Method,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, NO. 9, Sep. 2012.

7.        Ruderman and B. Reznikov, “Five-level single-leg flying-capacitor converter voltage balance dynamics analysis,” in Proc. IEEE 35th Annu. Conf. Proc. Ind. Electron., Nov. 2009, pp. 486–491.

8.        S. Thielemans, A. Ruderman, B. Reznikov, and J. Melkebeek, “Self-precharge for single-leg odd-level multilevel converter,” in Proc. IET 5th Int. Conf. Proc. Power Electron., Mach. Drives, Apr. 2010, pp.     1–6.

9.        R. H.Wilkinson, T. A. Meynard, and H. du Toit Mouton, “Natural balance of multicell converters: The general case,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1658–1666, Nov. 2006.

10.     Thielemans, A. Ruderman, and J. Melkebeek “Flying capacitor multilevel converter voltage balance dynamics for pure resistive load” in Proc. IET 5th Int. Conf. Proc. Power Electron., Mach. Drives, Apr. 2010.


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60.

Authors:

Keta Raval, Rajni Bhoomarker, Sameena Zafar

Paper Title:

Implementation of Digital Watermarking For Image Security with EBCOT Algorithm and Error Correcting Codes

Abstract:    In the cutting edge of technology, secured communication media becomes the essential need of multimedia broadcasting. In the reference of multimedia broadcasting, digital audio, video, internet data needs copyright authentication to prevent unauthorized access of data. Digital Watermarking by DWT-DCT with secrete key provides robustness as well as securing information. Digital Watermarking is processed by some way before it reaches to the receiver. The uncompressed digital image has lots of problems related to bandwidth. We can do effective image compression by EBCOT Algorithm. Error correcting codes reduces the effect of noises and attacks on communication channel.  Digital watermarking provides cost effective solution for image security and communication.

Keywords:   Discrete Cosine Transform, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Embedded Block Coding With Optimal Truncation.

References:

1.        J. Cox, M. L. Miller, J. A. Bloom, “Digital Watermarking”, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2001.
2.        A.M.Kothari, A.C.Suthar, R.S.Gajre. “Performance Analysis of  Digital Image Watermarking Technique –Combined DWT–DCT over individual DWT”, Published in International Journal of Advanced Engineering & Applications, Jan. 2010.

3.        K. J. Raval & S.Zafar, “Image Communication For Digital  Watermarking ’’,Published in International Journal of  Engineering and Research,IJESR,2012

4.        K. J. Raval & S.  Zafar, “Digital Watermarking With Copyright Authentication for Image Communication’’, International Conference   On Signal and Image Processing, ISSP-2013.

5.        K. J.  Raval & S. Zafar, “Implementation of Digital Watermarking by Combined Transform Domain Algorithm for Error Correcting Codes’’, Published in International Journal for Research, Paripex,  2012.

6.        S. AI Zahir & W .Islam, ‘‘A New Wavelet Based Image Watermarking Techniques’’, International Conference Consumer Electronics, IEEE, 2010.

7.        Feng Liu & Yongtao Qian , “A Novel Robust Watermarking Based on Levels  DCT and Two levels SVD”, International   Conference On Measuring Technology & Mechatronics, IEEE, 2011.


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61.

Authors:

Solmaz Ghanbarnezhad, Ali Nemati, Maryam Abolfazli

Paper Title:

Effect of Calcination Temperatures on Synthesis of Zinc Titanate Nano-Crystal Powders via Combustion Technique

Abstract:    Zinc titanate (ZnTiO3; ZT) powders were successfully prepared by a combustion technique. ZT powders were heated at various calcination temperatures, ranging from 500 to 850 ºC, for 2 h at a heating/cooling rate of 5 ºC/min. Powder samples were characterized using thermogravimetric (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffractrometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analyzer (LPSA). The second phases such as ZnO and TiO2 were detected in the powders calcined below 800 ºC. A single perovskite of the ZT powders was found with calcination temperatures at 800 ºC. The TGA-DTA results corresponded to the XRD investigation. The shape of crystalline will be changed as increasing the time of calcination temperature.  According to SEM and LPSA analysis ultra-fine powders of ZT were obtained.

Keywords:
   Combustion Technique, Calcination, Zinc titanate, Perovskite, Ultra-fine


References:

1.        F.H. Dulin, D.E. Rase, Phase equilibria in the system ZnO–TiO2, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 43 (1960) 125–131.
2.        S.F. Bartram, R.A. Slepetys, Compound formation and crystal structure in the system ZnO-TiO2, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 1961, 44, 493–499.

3.        H.T. Kim, S. Nahm, J.D. Byun, Low-fired (Zn, Mg) TiO3 microwave dielectrics, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82 (12) (1999) 3476–3480.

4.        H. Obayashi, Y. Sakurai, T. Gejo, Perovskite-type oxide as ethanol sensors. J. Solid State Chem. (1976), 17, 299–303.

5.        A.T. McCord, H.F. Saunder, Preparation of pigmentary materials. US Patent 2379019, 1945.

6.        O. Yamaguchi, M. Morimi, H. Kawabata, K. Shimizu, Formation and transformation of ZnTiO3, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 70 (1987) c97–c98.

7.        Y.S. Chang, Y.H. Chang, I.G. Chen, G.J. Chen, Y.L Chai, Synthesis and characterization of zinc titanate nano-crystal powders by sol-gel technique. J. Cryst. Growth 2002, 243, 319–326.

8.        J.H. Swisher, J. Yang, R.P. Gupta, Attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbent for Sulfur. Ind. Eng. Chem. 1995, 34, 4463–4471.

9.        U. Steinike, B. Wallis, Formation and Strusture of Ti-Zn-Oxides. Cryst. Res. Technol. 1997, 32, 187–193.

10.     H. Idrissi, A. Aboujalil, J. P. Deloume, G. Fantozzi. Molten salt prepared lead titanate. Journal of the European Ceramic Society,19(11), 1997-2004.

11.     K. C. Patil., S. T.Aruna, and S. Ekambaram,  Combustion synthesis. Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science, (1997),  2(2), 156-l 65.

12.     E. Hosono, S. Fujihara, M. Onuki, T. Kimura, Low-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline zinc titanate materials with high specific surface area. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2004), 87, 1785–1788.

13.     H.Kagata, T. Inoue, J. Kato, I. Kameyama, T. Ishizaki, Low-fire microwave dielectric ceramics. Ceram. Trans. (1993), 32, 81–90.

14.     B.D. Cullity, Elements of X-ray diffraction, 2nd Edition, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, MA, 1978.

15.     N. Vittayakorn, G. Rujijangul, T. Tunkasiri, X. Tan, and D.P Cann.. Influence of processing conditions on the phase transition and ferroelectric properties of PZNPZT ceramics. Material Science and Engineering B.,(2004) 108(3), 258-265.


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62.

Authors:

T.S. Starlin, D. Jasmine David

Paper Title:

Routing Analysis in Wireless Mesh Network with Bandwidth Allocation

Abstract:    Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is an important network to provide Internet access to remote areas and wireless connections in a metropolitan scale. As part of the Internet, WMN has to support diversified multimedia applications to all its users. It is essential to provide efficient Quality-of-Service (QoS) support to the networks. Searching the path with the maximum available bandwidth is one of the fundamental issues for supporting QoS in the WMN. The available path bandwidth is defined as the maximum additional rate a flow can push through saturating its path. Therefore, if the rate of traffic in a new flow on a path is no greater than the available bandwidth of this path, accepting the new traffic will not exit the bandwidth guaranteed of the existing flows. Due to interference among channel links, the bandwidth is  a bottleneck metric in wired networks, is neither a defect nor additive in wireless networks. In this paper a computing path weight which captures the available path bandwidth information is proposed. This paper also show that the efficient routing protocol based on the new path weight which provides the consistency and loop-freeness to the network. The consistency property guarantees that each node makes an appropriate packet forwarding decision, so that a data packet does traverse through the exact path. The simulation experiments also show that the proposed path weight gives high-throughput paths.

Keywords:
   Wireless mesh networks, routing, efficient routing proactive hop-by-hop routing, distributed algorithm.


References:

1.        Q. Zhang and Y.-Q. Zhang, “Cross-Layer Design for QoS Support in      Multihop Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 234-244, Jan. 2008.
2.        T. Salonidis, M. Garetto, A. Saha, and E. Knightly, “Identifying High  Throughput Paths in 802.11 Mesh Networks: A Model-Based Approach,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP ’07), pp. 21-30, Oct. 2007.

3.        C.-Y. Chiu, Y.-L. Kuo, E. Wu, and G.-H. Chen, “Bandwidth- Constrained Routing Problem in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 4-14, Jan. 2008.

4.        J. Tang, G. Xue, and W. Zhang, “Interference-Aware Topology Control and QoS Routing in Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 68-77, May 2005.

5.        Y. Yang and R. Kravets, “Contention-Aware Admission Control for Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 363-377, Apr. 2009.

6.        H. Li, Y. Cheng, C. Zhou, and W. Zhuang, “Minimizing End-to- End Delay: A Novel Routing Metric for Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 46-53, Apr. 2009.

7.        Y. Yang and J. Wang, “Design Guidelines for Routing Metrics in Multihop Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2288- 2296, Apr. 2008.

8.        J.L. Sobrinho, “Algebra and Algorithms for QoS Path Computation and Hop-by-Hop Routing in the Internet,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 727-735, Apr. 2001.

9.        R. Draves, J. Padhye, and B. Zill, “Comparison of Routing Metrics for Static Multi-Hop Wireless Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 133-144, Sept. 2004.

10.      D. Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, and R. Morris, “A High- Throughput Path Metric for Multi-Hop Wireless Routing,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 134-146, Sept. 2003.

11.      M. Campista, D. Passos, P. Esposito, I. Moraes, C. Albuquerque, D. Saade, M. Rubinstein, L. Costa, and O. Duarte, “Routing Metrics and Protocols for Wireless Mesh Networks,” IEEE Network, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 6-12, Jan. 2002.

12.      R. Draves, J. Padhye, and B. Zill, “Routing in Multi-Radio, Multi- Hop Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 114- 128, Oct. 2004.

13.      A.P. Subramanian, M.M. Buddkihot, and S. Miller, “Interference Aware Routing in Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proc. Second IEEE Workshop Wireless Mesh Networks (WiMesh ’06), pp. 55- 63, Sept. 2006.

14.      Y. Yang, J. Wang, and R. Kravets, “Designing Routing Metrics for Mesh Networks,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Wireless Mesh Networks (WiMesh ’05), Sept. 2005.

15.      M. Genetzakis and V.A. Siris, “A Contention-Aware Routing Metric for Multi-Rate Multi-Radio Mesh Networks,” Proc. Fifth Ann. IEEE Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Comm. And Networks (SECON ’08), pp. 242-250, 2008.

16.      H. Li, Y. Cheng, and C. Zhou, “Multi-Hop Effective Bandwidth Based Routing in Multi-Radio Wireless Mesh Networks,” Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GlobeCom ’08), pp. 1-5, Nov. 2008.

17.      T. Liu and W. Liao, “Interference-Aware QoS Routing for Multi- Rate Multi-Radio Multi-Channel IEEE 802.11 Wireless Mesh Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Networks, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 166- 175, Jan. 2009.

18.      L. Chen and W.B. Heinzelman, “QoS-Aware Routing Based on Bandwidth Estimation for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 561-572, Mar. 2005.

19.      Q. Xue and A. Ganz, “Ad Hoc QoS On-Demand Routing (AQOR) in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 63, pp. 154-165, 2003.

20.      W. Liao, Y. Tseng, and K. Shih, “A TDMA-Based Bandwidth Reservation Protocol for QoS Routing in a Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Comm. (ICC ’02), pp. 3186-3190, Apr. 2002.

21.      K. Shih, C. Chang, Y. Chen, and T. Chuang, “Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for QoS Routing on TDMA-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Computer Comm., vol. 29, pp. 1316-1329, 2006

22.      C. Zhu and M.S. Corson, “QoS Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 958-967, June 2002.

23.      H. Zhai and Y. Fang, “Impact of Routing Metrics on Path Capacity in Multirate and Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. 14th

24.      IEEE Int’l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP ’06), pp. 86-95, Nov. 2006.


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63.

Authors:

Preeti Chopra, Md. Ataullah

Paper Title:

A Survey on Improving the Efficiency of Different Web Structure Mining Algorithms

Abstract:    With the rapid increase in internet technology, users get easily confused in large hyper text structure. Providing the relevant information to user is primary goal of the website owner. In order to achieve this goal, they use the concept of web mining. Web mining is used to categorize users and pages by analyzing the users’ behavior, the content of the pages, and the order of the URLs that tend to be accessed in order [1]. Web structure mining plays very important role in this approach. It’s defined as the process of analyzing the structure of hyperlink using graph theory. There are many proposed algorithms for web structure mining such as Pagerank Algorithm, HITS, Weighted pagerank Algorithm, Topic Sensitive Pagerank Algorithm (TSPR), weighted page content rank Algorithm (WPCR ) etc. In this paper, we have described the outline of all the algorithms and identify their strengths and limitations.

Keywords:
   HITS, Pagerank algorithm, TSPR, Web mining weighted pagerank algorithm, WPCR etc.


References:

1.        R. Kosala and H. Blockeel, “Web Mining Research: A survey”, In ACM SIGKDD Explorations,           
2.        Q. Lu and L. Getoor. Link-based classification. In Proceedings of ICML-03, 2003.

3.        L. Page, S. Brin, R. Motwani, and T. Winograd. The pagerank citation ranking: Bringing order to the web. Technical report  Stanford Digital Libraries SIDL-WP-1999-0120, 1999.

4.        S. Pal, V. Talwar, and P. Mitra. Web mining in  soft computing framework: Relevance, state of the art and future directions IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 13(5):1163–1177 2002.

5.        Mishra Shesh Narayan et al (2012), “An Effective algorithm for web mining based on Topic sensitive pagerank algorithm”, International journal of computer science and software engineering.

6.        Wenpu Xing and Ali Ghorbani, “Weighted Pagerank Algorithm”, In   proceedings of the 2rd Annual   Conference on Communication  Networks & Services Research, PP. 305-314, 2004.

7.        Bhatia Tamanna (2011), “Link analysis algorithm for web mining”, International journal of computer science and software engineering.(0976-8491)

8.        Munibalaji T and , Balamurugan C (2012), “Analysis of Link Algorithms for Web Mining”, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1, Issue 2,

9.        Mukhopadhyay et al.(2006),” A Syntactic Classification based Web Page Ranking Algorithm”, 6th International Workshop on MSPT Proceedings

10.     http://www.csbdu.in/econtent/Data%20Mining%20&%20 Warehousing/Unit%20III.pdf

11.     http://www.ieee.org.ar/downloads/Srivastava-tut-pres.pdf


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64.

Authors:

Mohammed Shareef Mahmoud Shareef, R.K. Pandey

Paper Title:

Study of Management of Risk and Loss Control Program in Civil Engineering Projects

Abstract:    Most of the construction projects are having their own risks and loss factors involved, and hence in order to control such damages we have use strategies to control those risk and loss factors related to project. In this article we are presenting the study over techniques for management of risk and loss control in construction projects. For construction projects, there are many risk and loss facets as well as complicated relations, which will influence it. The complicated relations include direct, indirect, obvious, implicit or unpredictable, What's more, the various risk factors will cause different severity of the consequences. If you do not consider these risk factors, or ignore the major factors, they all will cause damage because of decision-making errors. Quality targets, time targets, cost targets are the three objectives of project management. In the construction project, the time objective is closely and inseparably related to the cost objective. Hence risk and loss management of construction period is a key part in the risk management of construction.

Keywords:
   Quality targets, time targets, cost targets are the three objectives of project management. In


References:

1.        Jaafari, A. (2001). Management of risks, uncertainties and opportunities on projects: time for a fundamental shift. International Journal of Project Management, 19(2), 89-101.
2.        Azinim, M. & Edum-Fotwe, F. T. (2006, 18-20 October). Risk management practices of construction project staff: Preliminary lessons. Paper presented at the Construction in the XXI Century- Local and global challenges, Rome.

3.        L.P. Gragg and J.M. Cassell, Progress in Management Engineering,pp. 173 - 197.2009 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

4.        CarL.Pritchard, risk management ,concepts and guidance pp28-54,2005 third edition. printed in the United states of America

5.        R.max wideman fellow,PMI, risk management - a guide to managing project risks and opportunities, 1992,project management insitiute .inc.

6.        Kajsa Simu, The Construction Site Manager’s Impact on Risk Management Performance, doctoral thesis, 2009,Lulea, Sweden

7.        Aalto, P., Järvinen, P., Tuovinen, M, 2003, Riskijatkumot projektiliiketoimintaverkostossa: teoriaa ja käytäntöä, Teknillinen korkeakoulu, TAI tutkimuslaitos, Espoo.

8.        Artto, K., Kähkönen, K., Management of Uncertainty, yet unpublished Artto, K., Kähkönen, K., Pitkänen P.J., 2000, Unknown Soldier Revisited: A Story of risk Management, Project Management Association Finland, Helsinki.

9.        Artto, K., Kujala, J., Martinsuo, M., 2005, Projektiliiketoiminta, Tuotantotalouden osasto, Teknillinen korkeakoulu, Espoo.

10.     Axelsson, B., 1994, Corporate strategy models and networks – diverging perspectives, in Axelsson, B., and Easton, G., (eds.) Industrial Networks: A new View of Reality, Routledge, London.

11.     Baccarini, D., Archer, R., The risk ranking of projects: a methodology, International Journal of Project Management, 2001.

12.     Baloi, D., Price, A.D.F., Modelling global risk factors affecting construction cost performance, International Journal of Project Management, 2003.

13.    Beach, R., Webster, M., Campbell, K.M., An evaluation of partnership development in the construction industry, International Journal of Project Management, 2005.


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65.

Authors:

Anusuya Venkatesan, Latha Parthiban

Paper Title:

Hybridized Algorithms for Medical Image Segmentation

Abstract:    Clustering  analysisis a unsupervised pattern recognition and  groups similar data items  into same cluster while dissimilar data item will be moved into different clusters.The purpose of data clustering is to reveal the data patterns and gain some initial insights regarding data distribution.Similarly Image segmentation groups pixels of an image into multiple segments with respect to intensities. This in turn helps to segment objects of interest from the images. In this paper we discuss various segmentation algorithms such as Fuzzyc-means, Maximum Entropy optimized with Particle swarm Optimization to detect abnormalities present in the image. We apply these algorithms on MRI image and Ultra sound images. In order to improve the visibility of ultra sound images, we apply morphological filtering before segmentation. The results section of this paper show the outcome of the algorithms.

Keywords:
   FCM, Maximum Entropy, PSO, MRI and Ultra sound image.


References:

1.        Robust non-local fuzzy c-means algorithm with edge preservation for SAR image segmentation Signal Processing, Volume 93, Issue 2, February 2013, Pages 487-499 JieFeng, L.C. Jiao, Xiangrong Zhang, Maoguo Gong, Tao Sun
2.        Fuzzy c-means clustering with weighted image patch for image segmentation Applied Soft Computing, Volume 12, Issue 6, June 2012, Pages 1659-1667 ZexuanJi, Yong Xia, Qiang Chen, Quansen Sun, Deshen Xia, David Dagan Feng

3.        Single point iterative weighted fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm for remote sensing image segmentation Pattern Recognition, Volume 42, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 2527-2540 Jianchao Fan, Min Han, Jun Wang

4.        Yuhua G, Lawrence OH. Kernel based fuzzy ant clustering with partition validity. In: IEEE international conference on fuzzy systems. Vancouver (BC, Canada): Sheraton Vancouver WallCentre Hotel; 2006. p. 16–21.

5.        J. C. Dunn, “A Fuzzy Relative of the ISODATA Process and its Use in Detecting Compact Well-Separated Clusters”, J. Cybernetics, vol. 3,No. 3, pp. 32-57, 1973.

6.        J. C. Bezdek, “Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Function Algorithms”, New York, Plenum, 1981

7.        Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R.C.: “Particle Swarm Optimization”, Proceedings of IEEE International conference on Neural Networks, Piscataway, New Jersey, pp. 1942-1948, 1995.

8.        Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R.C.: “Particle Swarm Optimization”, Proceedings of IEEE International conference on Neural Networks, Piscataway, New Jersey, pp. 1942-1948, 1995

9.        M. Clerc, and J. Kennedy.: “The particle swarm - explosion, stability, and convergence in a multidimensional complex space”, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, vol. 6(1), pp. 58-73, 2002.

10.      J. Kennedy.: “Some issues and practices for particle swarms”, in IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, pp. 162-9, 2007.

11.      AnusuyaVenkatesan, LathaParthiban ,Improving Visibility of Gall Stones from Gall Bladder in Ultrasound Images Using Clustering, International Journal of Science and Applied Information Technology,pp.117-121 ISSN 2278-3083.

12.      Du Feng,Shi, Wenkang,Chen, Liangzhou,Deng and Yong,ZhuZhenfu. 2005. Infrared image segmentation with 2-D maximum entropy method based on particle swarm optimization (PSO).Pattern Recognition LettersVolume 26, Issue 5,  597–603.

13.      Di Zhou, Jun Sun, Choi-Hong Lai, WenboXu and Xiaoguang Lee. 2011. An improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization and its application to medical image registration. International Journal of Computer Mathematics Volume 88, Issue 6.

14.      Shannon, C.E. and  Weaver, W. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Univ. of  Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.


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66.

Authors:

Bilal Abdullah Nasir

Paper Title:

Design of High Efficiency Cross-Flow Turbine for Hydro-Power Plant

Abstract:    The cross-flow hydraulic turbine was gaining popularity in low head and small water flow rate, in establishment of small hydro-power plant, due to its simple structure and ease of manufacturing in the site of the power plant. To obtain a cross-flow turbine with maximum efficiency, the turbine parameters must be included in the design. In this paper all design parameters of cross-flow turbine were calculated at maximum efficiency. These parameters include runner diameter, runner length, runner speed, turbine power, water jet thickness, blade spacing, number of blades, radius of blade curvature, attack angle and the blade and exit angles.

Keywords:
   Cross-flow turbine, hydro-power plant, design parameters, maximum efficiency.


References:

1.        http:// www.ossberger.de / cms /en / hydro / the ossberger-turbine |# C152.
2.        Mockmore, C. A. and Merryfield, F.: "The Banki water turbine", Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin Series, No. 25, February, 1949.

3.        Javed, A. C. et al: "Design of a cross-flow turbine for micro-hydro power application", proceeding of ASME 2010 Power Conference, July, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2010.

4.        Durgin, W. W. and Fay, W. K.: "Some fluid flow characteristic of cross-flow type turbine", The Winter Annual Meeting of ASME, New Orleans, pp. 77-83, Dec., 1984.

5.        Nadim, M. A. and Desia, V. R.: "An experiment study of the effect of some design parameters in cross-flow turbine efficiency", Engineering report, Department of Civil Engineering, Clemson University, 1991.

6.        Hayati, O.: "Effect of interior guide tubes in cross-flow turbine runner on turbine performance", International Journal of Energy Research, pp. 953-964, John Wiley and Sons, 2000.

7.        Costa Pereira, N. H. and Borges, J. E.: "Study of the nozzle flow in cross-flow turbine",  International Journal of Mechanical Science, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 283-302, 1996.

8.        Wakati, R.: "Development of cross-flow turbine for local manufacturing", M. Sc. Thesis, University of Dar Es Salaam, 2010.

9.        CelsoPenche: "layman's Guide book on how to develop a small hydro site", Published by ESHA, Second Edition, Belgium, June, 1998.


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67.

Authors:

Lavanya Pamulaparty, C.V. Guru Rao

Paper Title:

A   Novel Approach to Perform Document Clustering Using Effectiveness and Efficiency of Simhash

Abstract:    Similarity is the most important feature of document clustering as the amount of web documents and the need of integrating documents from the huge multiple repositories, one of the challenging issues is to perform clustering of similar documents efficiently. . A measure of the similarity between two patterns drawn from the same feature space is essential to most clustering procedures. From huge repositories, similar document identification for clustering is costly both in terms of space and time duration, and specially when finding near documents where documents could be added or deleted. In this paper, we try to find the effectiveness of Simhash based similarity measurement technique for detecting the similar documents which are used to perform clustering of documents using novel based K-means clustering method.

Keywords:
   document clustering, Simhash similarity measure, k-means clustering, near documents, fingerprints.


References:

1.        C. Gong., Y. Huang., X. Cheng. and S. Bai., “Detecting Near-Duplicates in Large-Scale  Short Text Databases,” Proc. of PAKDD 2008, LNAI, vol. 5012, pp. 877-883. Springer, Heidelberg
2.        G.S. Manku, A. Jain. and A.D. Sarma, “Detecting Near-Duplicates for Web Crawling,” Proc. of 16th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW), 2007.

3.        Xiao, C., Wang, W., Lin, X., Yu, J. X., Wang, G. 2011. “Efficient Similarity Joins for Near Duplicate Detection”. ACM Trans. Database System.

4.        M. Charikar, “Similarity Estimation Techniques from Rounding Algorithm,” Proc. of 34th Annual Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC), 2008, pp 380-388.

5.        M.R. Henzinger, “Finding near-duplicate web documents: a large-scale evaluation of algorithms,” Proc. of ACM SIGIR, 2006, pp 284-291.

6.        S.Brin, J.Davis and H.Garcia-Molina, “Copy detection mechanisms for digital documents,” Proc. of the ACM SIGMOD Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA, 1995.

7.        M.Zini, M.Fabbri and M.Mongelia. “Plagiarism detection through multilevel text comparison,” Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Automated Production of Cross Media Content for Multi-Channel Distribution, Leeds, U.K., 2006.

8.        Z.P.Tian, H.J.Lu and W.Y.Ji, “An n-gram-based approach for detecting approximately duplicate data records,” International Journal on Digital Libraries, 5(3):325-331, 2001.

9.        K.Muthmann, W.M.Barczynski, F.Brauer and A.Loser,”Near-duplicate detection for web-forums,”, 142- 152, International Database Engineering and Applications Symposium(IDEAS), 2009.

10.     J. Dean and S.Ghemawat, “MapReduce: Simplified data processing on large cluster,” Proc.  of 6th Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation (OSDI), 2004.

11.     N.Shivakumar and H.Garcia-Molina, “SCAM : A copy detection mechanism for digital documents, ” Proc. of 2nd International Conference in Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries, Austin, Texas, 1995.

12.     N.Shivakumar and H.Garnia-Molina, “Finding nearreplicas of documents on the web,” Proc. of Workshop on Web Databases, Valencia, Spain, 1998.

13.     Jiawei Han and Micheline Kamber, “Data Mining – concepts and techniques”, second edition, Morgon Kaufmann publishers
14.     Z.P.Tian, H.J.Lu and W.Y.Ji, “An n-gram-based approach for detecting approximately duplicate data records,” International Journal on Digital Libraries, 5(3):325-331, 2001.

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68.

Authors:

S. L. Bangare, A. D. Kadam, P. S. Bangare, P. V. Katariya, C. A. Khot, N. R. Kankure

Paper Title:

Solutions Concerning Information Systems for Real Time Bus Arrival

Abstract:    In today’s world public transport systems plays an important role in the development of the country. Many factors such as mobility, environmental and energy objectives place demands on public transport systems. Current systems which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, improve efficiency and increase service frequency to serve these demands of the public travelling through the improved transportation system. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovation