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Volume-2 Issue-6 Published on August 30, 2013
23
Volume-2 Issue-6 Published on August 30, 2013
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Volume-2 Issue-6, August 2013, ISSN:  2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Negarullah Naseebullah Khan, Nitesh P. Yelve

Paper Title:

Analysis of Crack Propagation in Thin Metal Sheet, Three Point Bend Specimen, and Double Cantilever Beam

Abstract:    Fracture Mechanics provides a theory background for failure of material and structures containing cracks. Stress intensity factor (SIF) is a key parameter in crack analysis. Because of the importance of SIF, its solutions for crack under different types of loading have been paid considerable attention. In the present study the SIF is calculated for thin metal sheet and three point bend specimen using finite element (FE) method. For the side crack in thin metal sheet, 2-D model is created in FE to calculate the SIF and this SIF is compared with that obtained by analytical method. For three point bend specimen, 3-D model is created in FE to calculate the SIF and this SIF is then compared with that obtained through experiments in the literature. The effect of thickness on the SIF is also estimated for three point bend specimen. It is also attempted here to understand crack propagation in layered materials such as composite materials, coated materials, etc. where the individual layers of materials are bonded together. For this purpose, an experiment is conducted on aluminium double cantilever beam (DCB) and results are plotted for load versus displacement. Also the simulation is carried out in FE using cohesive zone modeling (CZM) for the similar aluminium DCB, and the results are compared with these obtained through experiment.

Keywords:
  Stress intensity factor, three point bend specimen, double cantilever beam, traction separation law, cohesive zone modeling.


References:

1.       Prashant Kumar, “Elements of fracture Mechanics”, Wheeler Publishers, New Delhi, 1999.
2.       J. Goodman, “Mechanics applied to Engineering”, Longmans green, London, 1899.

3.       A. A. Griffith, “The Phenomena of Rupture and Flows in Solids”, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A221, pp.163-197, 1921.

4.       A. A. Griffith, “The Theory of Rupture”, Proceeding of the first International Conference of Applied Mechanics, Delft, 1924.

5.       G. R. Irwin, “Fracture Dynamics, Fracture of Material”, American Society for Metals, Cleveland, 1948, pp. 147 – 166.

6.       A. A. Wells, “Unstable crack Propagation in Metals: Cleavage and Fracture”, Proceeding of the Crack Propagation Symposium, college of Aeronautics, Cranfeild, 1, 1961, pp. 210 – 230.

7.       J. R. Rice, “A Path Independent Integral and the Approximate Analysis of Strain Concentration by Notches and Cracks”, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions of ASME, 35, pp. 379 - 386, 1968.

8.       A.J. Kinloch, “Adhesion and Adhesives,” Science and Technology, Chap. & Hall, London 1986.

9.       M. Alfano, F. Furgiuele, L. Leonardi, C. Maletta, G. H. Paulino, “Fracture analysis of adhesive Joints using intrinsic cohesive zone models”, Key Eng Mat 348, 2007, pp.13-16.

10.     J.G.Williams, “Fracture Mechanics of Polymers,” Halsted Press, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1984.

11.     H. Tada, P. C. Paris and G. R. Irwin, “The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook”, ASME Press, New York, 2000.

12.     W. D. Pilkey, “Analysis of stress, strain and structure matrices”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,   2005.

13.     ANSYS© Reference Manual [M]. ANASY Company, 1999.

14.     ASTM Standard E399-83, “Standard test method for plane strain fracture toughness of metallic materials”, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 592-622, Philadelphia, 1984.

15.     Asım Ozdemir, “Ceramic Materials Fracture Toughness Three-Dimensional Finite Element Method For Determining The Values Of Theoretical”, Master of Science Thesis Dokuz Eylul University, 2006.

16.     D. Broek., “Elementary Engineering Fracture Mechanics”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1986.


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2.

Authors:

Rekha S.M, Manoj P.B

Paper Title:

Comparing the BER Performance of WiMAX System by Using Different Concatenated Channel Coding Techniques under AWGN, Rayleigh and Rician Fading Channels

Abstract:    WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) has the capability to transmit the data to a greater extent with very high speed. Application of forward error correction codes (Reed-Solomon (RS), convolution codes (CC) and Low Density Parity Check codes (LDPC)) with WiMAX system ensures the reliability and efficiency of the system. Concatenated RS-LDPC and RS-CC codes will help to improve the performance of the WiMAX system. In this paper the system performance evaluation is performed by transmitting an image under different fading channels (Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Rayleigh and Rician). Comparison of two concatenated coding techniques is done by calculating the probability of Bit Error Rate (BER) for various values of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). The simulation results show that use of RS-LDPC with WiMAX gives better performance than RS-CC.

Keywords:
   WiMAX, RS, CC, LDPC, AWGN, Rayleigh, Ricean.


References:

1.       A. Ali mohammad, S.F. Fard, .F. Cockbum and C. Schlegal, “Compact Rayleigh and Rician fading simulation based on random walk processes” IET Communications, 2009, Vol. 3, Issue 8, pp 1333-1342.
2.       Yahong Rosa Zheng, “Simulation models with correct statistical properties for Rayleigh fading channels”, IEEE Transactions on communications, Vol. 51, No. 6, June 2003.

3.       Bhavin Sedani, Ved Vyas Dwivedi “Simulation & Performance Analysis of DVB-T System Using Efficient Wireless Channels”, 2011 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks, October 07-09, Gwalior- India. IEEE Xplore- ISBN: 978-0-7695-4587-5.

4.       C. Berrou, “Near Shannon Limit Error-Correcting Coding and Decoding: Turbo codes”, ICC’ 93, Conference Record, Geneva, pp. 1064–1070, 1993.E. H. Miller, “A note on reflector arrays (Periodical style—Accepted for publication),” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., to be published.

5.       P. Mukunthan “Modified PTS Combined with Interleaving Technique for PAPR Reduction in MIMO-OFDM system with Different Sub blocks and Subcarriers”, IAENG International Journal of Computer science, 39:4, IJCS_39_4_02.

6.       G.D Forney, “Concatenated codes”,MIT press,Cambridge, 1966.

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3.

Authors:

Er. Satwant Kaur, Er.Varinderjit Kaur, Er.Gurpreet Singh

Paper Title:

Activity Based Data Management in Mobile Environment Using CART and ID3 Data Mining Techniques

Abstract:    Mobile clients feature increasingly sophisticated wirelessnetworking support that enables real-time information exchange with remote databases. Location-dependent queries, such as determining the proximity of stationary objects (e.g., restaurants and gas stations) are an important class of inquiries. We present a novel approach to support nearestneighbor queries from mobile hosts by leveraging the sharing capabilities of wireless ad-hoc networks. We illustrate how previous query results cached in the local storage of neighboring mobile peers can be leveraged to either fully or partially compute and verify spatial queries at a local host. The feasibility and appeal of our technique is illustrated through extensive simulation results that indicate a considerable reduction of the query load on the remote database. Furthermore, the scalability of our approach is excellent because a higher density of mobile hosts increases its effectiveness. Most users in a mobile environment are moving and accessing wireless services for the activities they are currently engaged in. We propose the idea of complex activity for characterizing the continuously [1] changing complex behavior patterns of mobile users. For the purpose of data management, a complex activity is modeled as a sequence of location movement, service requests, the co-occurrence of location and service, or the interleaving of all above. An activity may be composed of subactivities. Different activities may exhibit dependencies that affect user behaviors. We argue that the complex activity concept provides a more precise, rich, and detail description of user behavioral patterns which are invaluable for data management in mobile environments. Proper exploration of user activities has the potential of providing much higher quality and personalized services to individual user at the right place on the right time.

Keywords:
   mobile environments, CART, ID3, proactive data management, prefetching, pushing


References:

1.        R. Agrawal and R. Srikant, "Fast Algorithms for Mining Association Rules in Large Databases," Proc. Int'l Conf. Very Large Databases (VLDB), pp. 487-499, 1994.
2.        W.-C.P. Jiun-Long Huang and M.-S. Chen, "Exploring Group Mobility for Replica Data Allocation in a Mobile Environment," Proc. 12th Int'l Conf. Information and Knowledge Management, pp. 161-168, 2003.

3.        J.-L. Huang and M.-S. Chen, "On the Effect of Group Mobility to Data Replication in Ad-Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 492-507, May 2006.

4.        W. Ma, Y. Fang, and P. Lin, "Mobility Management Strategy Based on User Mobility Patterns in Wireless Networks," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 322-330, Jan. 2007.

5.        W.-C. Peng and M.S. Chen, "Allocation of Shared Data Based on Mobile User Movement," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Mobile Data Management, pp. 105-112, 2002.

6.        M. Sricharan, V. Vaidehi, and P. Arun, "An Activity Based Mobility Prediction Strategy for Next Generation Wireless Networks

7.        V.S. Tseng and K.W. Lin, "Mining Sequential Mobile Access Patterns Efficiently in Mobile Web Systems," Proc. 19th Int'l Conf. Advanced Information Networking and Applications, vol. 2, pp. 762- 767, Mar. 2005.

8.        H. Cao, N. Mamoulis, and D. Cheung, "Mining Frequent Spatio-Temporal Sequential Patterns," Proc. Fifth IEEE Int'l Conf. Data Mining, 2005.

9.        V.S. Tseng, H.-C.Lu, and C.-H. Huang, "Mining Temporal Mobile Sequential Patterns in Location-Based Service Environments," Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel and
Distributed Systems, vol. 1, pp. 1-8, 2007.

10.     W.-C. Peng and M.-S. Chen, "Shared Data Allocation in a Mobile Computing System-Exploring Local and Global Optimization," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 374- 384, Apr. 2005.

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4.

Authors:

Vinay Kumar.S.B, Mahendra Kumar M.D

Paper Title:

Testing of Diameter- Based Protocol in the IP Multimedia Subsystem

Abstract:    The Diameter protocol was initially developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as an Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) framework intended for applications such as remote network access and IP mobility. Diameter was further embraced by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as the key protocol for AAA and mobility management in 3G networks [7]. The paper discusses the use of Diameter in the scope of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) as specified by 3GPP.In this paper, we present a solution for the problem of how to provide authentication, horization and accounting (AAA) for multi-domain interacting service and also the unit testing is used to test the AAA protocol Diameter. We have studied the case of ‘FoneFreez’, a service that provides interaction between different basic services, like telephony and television. Because the involvement of several parties like television provider, telephony provider etc., secure interaction between multiple domains must be assured. A part of this security issue can be resolved using AAA [7].

Keywords:
   Diameter protocol, IP Multimedia Subsystem,   AAA,Testing.


References:

1.        Vinay Kumar.S.B,Manjula N harihar, Diameter-based Protocol in the IP Multimedia Subsystem:IJSCE,2012
2.        G. Camarillo, M. A. García-Martín, The 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem: Merging the Internet and the Cellular Worlds, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., England, UK, 2004.

3.        P. Calhoun, J. Loughney, E. Guttman, G. Zorn, J. Arkko, Diameter Base Protocol, IETF RFC 3588, September 2003.

4.        IP Multimedia (IM) Subsystem Cx and Dx interfaces; Signaling flows and message contents, The 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Core Network and Terminals; TS 29.228, 2005.

5.        Cx and Dx interfaces based on the Diameter protocol; Protocol details, The 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Core Network and Terminals; TS 29.229, 2005.

6.        J. Loughney, Diameter Command Codes for Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 5, IETF RFC 3589, September 2003.

7.        http://www.fer.unizg.hr/images/50010415/Mipro_2006.pdf

8.        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diameter(protocol).

9.        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_Multimedia_Subsystem.


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5.

Authors:

S. K. Mangal, Mukul Kataria, Ashwani Kumar

Paper Title:

Synthesis of Magneto Rheological Fluid

Abstract:    Simplicity and more intelligence in its functionality are key features of the Magneto Rheological Fluid (MRF) technology. This technology is an old “newcomers” coming up rapidly on the research and commercial front. In this paper, Magneto Rheological fluid samples are prepared. In this, silicone oil is used as a carrier fluid and is mixed with micron sized iron particles. In order to reduce the sedimentation, white lithium grease is also mixed as an additive in the fluid sample. An experimental setup consisting of an electrical stirrer with speed control unit is designed and developed and fabricated for preparation of the fluid samples. The observations of the surface morphology of iron particles were carried out using digital scanning electron microscope (SEM). The sedimentation properties are studied by visual inspection. The off-state rheological properties e.g. viscosity and shear stress variation with respect to shear rate of the fluid samples are investigated and are measured with a rotational rheometer.

Keywords:
   Off-State Rheology, Magneto Rheological Fluid, Sedimentation, SEM


References:

1.       Rabinow J., “Magnetic Fluid Torque and Force Transmitting”, Device, U.S. Patent 1951, USA.
2.       M. R. Jolly, J. W. Bender and J. D. Carlson, “Properties and Applications of Commercial Magneto Rheological Fluids”, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1999, 5-13

3.       http://www.lord.com/Portals/0/MR/Commercial_MR_Fluid_Devices.pdf.

4.       Seval Genç, “Synthesis and Properties of Magneto Rheological (M R) Fluids”, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, University of Pittsburgh, 2002.

5.       M. A. Golden, J. C. Ulicny, K. S. Snavely and A. L. Smith, “Magneto Rheological Fluids”, US Patent 6932917, 2005.

6.       P. P. Phulé, “Magneto Rheological Fluid”, US Patent 5985168, 1999.

7.       J. D. Carlson and K. D. Weiss, “Magneto Rheological Materials Based on Alloy Particles”, US Patent 5382373, 1995.

8.       R. T. Foister, “Magneto Rheological Fluids”, US Patent 5667715, 1997.

9.       A. A. Zaman and C. S. Dutcher, “Viscosity of Electrostatically Stabilized Dispersions of Monodispersed, Bimodal, and Trimodal Silica Particles”, Journal of the
American Ceramic Society, Vol. 89, No. 2, 2006, 422-430.

10.     N. M. Wereley, A. Chaudhuri, J. -H. Yoo, S. John, S. Kotha, A. Suggs, R. Radhakrisnan, B. J. Love and T. S. Sudarshan, “Bidisperse Magneto Rheological Fluids using Fe Particles at Nanometer and Micron Scale”, Journal of Intelligent Material and Structures, Vol. 17, 2006, 393-401.

11.     M.R. Jolly, J.W. Bender, and J.D. Carlson., “Properties and Applications of Commercial Magneto Rheological Fluids”, In Proceedings of SPIE 5th International Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials, San Diego, California, 1998

12.     S. Elizabeth Premalatha, R. Chokkalingam, M. Mahendran, “Magneto Mechanical Properties of Iron Based M R Fluids”, American Journal of Polymer Science 2012.

13.     Stuart W. Charles, “The Preparation of Magnetic Fluids”, Department of Chemistry, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, UK

14.     Siaful Amri Bin Mazlan, “The Behavior of Magneto Rheological Fluids in Squeeze Mode”, Doctor of Philosophy, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University August 2008.


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6.

Authors:

A. PushpaLatha,P. KrishnaChaithanya

Paper Title:

Binary Morphology Operator To Extract Binary Edge Of An Image

Abstract:    Mathematical morphology (MM) is a theory and technique for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures, based on set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. MM is most commonly applied to digital images, but it can be employed as well on graphs, surface meshes, solids, and many other spatial structures. If this mathematical morphology is applied to the binary image or itself a gray scale image then that is called the binary morphology. Digital image Processing is one of the basic and important tool in the image processing and computer vision. In this paper we discuss about the extraction of a digital image edge using different digital image processing techniques. Edge detection is the most common technique for detecting discontinuities in intensity values. The input image or actual image may have some noise that may cause the quality of the digital image. Firstly, wavelet transform is used to remove noises from the image collected. Secondly, some edge detection operators such as Differential edge detection, Log edge detection, canny edge detection and Binary morphology are analyzed. And then according to the simulation results, the advantages and disadvantages of these edge detection operators are compared. It is shown that the Binary morphology operator can obtain better edge feature. Finally, in order to gain clear and integral image profile, the method of ordering closed is given. After experimentation, edge detection method proposed in this paper is feasible.

Keywords:
   DigitalImageEdge detection, wavelet de-noising, differential operators, and binary morphology.


References:

1.       Lei Lichen, Discussion of digital image edge detection method, mappingavis, 2006, 3:40-42.
2.       Lai Hague, etc, “Image processing and analysis based on MATLAB”, Beijing: Defense Industry Publication, 2007, 4.

3.       Ma Yan, and Zhang Zhou, Several edge detection operators’compilation, Industry and mining automation, 2004, (1): 54-56.

4.       Ago Cheng, and Lai Zhiguoetc, Image analysis and application based on MATLAB, Beijing: Publishing House of National defense industry, 2007, 4: 133-175.

5.       Wang Zhengyao, Edge detection of digital image [Master paper], Xi’an: Xi’an Jiao tong University, 2003.

6.       Heung-So Kim and Jung-Hwan Kim. A two-step detection algorithm from the intersecting chords. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2001, 22:787-798.

7.       Canny J F. A computational approach to edge detection [J]. IEEE Trans on PAMI, 1985, 8(6): 679-698.

8.       Nick Efford. Digital Image Processing: A Practical Introduction Using JavaTM. Pearson Education, 2000.


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7.

Authors:

R.Mahalakshmi, V.Lakshmi Praba

Paper Title:

A Relative Study on Search Results Clustering Algorithms - K-means, Suffix Tree and LINGO

Abstract:    The   performance of the web search engines could be improved by properly clustering the search result documents.. Most  of the users are not able to give the appropriate query to get what exactly they wanted  to retrieve. So the search engine will retrieve a massive list of data , which are ranked by the page rank algorithm(7) or relevancy algorithm or human judgment algorithm. The user will always  find himself  with the unrelated  information related to the search due to the ambiguity in the query  by the user. Evaluating the performance of a clustering algorithm is not as trivial as counting the number of errors or the precision and recall of a supervised classification algorithm In this paper a comparative   analysis is done on three common search results of clustering algorithms  to study the performance enhancement in the web search engine. If we effectively organize the web documents through the proper means of clustering techniques, we could definitely increase the performance of the search engines .. A  systematic evaluation of the three clustering algorithms viz., Suffix tree clustering  Lingo, and K-Means  using multiple test collections and evaluation measures . It turns out that STC works well, when one wants to get a quick overview of documents relevant to distinct subtopics, whereas clustering is more useful when one is interested in retrieving multiple documents relevant to each subtopic.

Keywords:
   Keywords: Information retrieval,Search engines, clustering, STC, Lingo, K-Means.


References:

1.       Oren Zamir and Oren Etzioni. Document Clustering: A Feasibility Demonstration.Proceedings of the 19th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and
Development of Information Retrieval, 1998, pp 46-54.

2.       Oren Zamir and Oren Etzioni. Grouper: A Dynamic Clustering Interface to Web Search Results. WWW8/Computer Networks, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1999.

3.       Oren E. Zamir. Clustering Web Documents: A Phrase-Based Method for Grouping Search Engine Results. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Washington, 1999

4.       Scatter/gather a cluster based approach to browsing  large document collections.Douglassr cutting,David R.Karger ,Jan O Pederson,15 annual International SIGIR 92,ACM 0-89791-542-0912/0006/0318

5.       Antonio Di Marco and Roberto Navigli,   Clustering Web Search Results with Maximum Spanning Trees   other publication details

6.       Ke,W., Sugimoto, C.R., Mostafa, J.: Dynamicity vs. effectiveness: studying online clustering for scatter/gather. In: Proc. of SIGIR 2009, MA, USA, 2009, pp. 19–26 7.Carpineto, C., Osinski, S., Romano, G.,Weiss, D.: A survey of web clustering engines. ACM Computing Surveys 41(3), 2009, pp. 1–38

8.       Kamvar, M., Baluja, S.: A large scale study of wireless search behavior: Google mobile search. In: Proc. of CHI 2006, New York, NY, USA, 2006,  pp. 701–709

9.       Osinski, S., Weiss, D.: A concept-driven algorithm for clustering search results. IEEE Intelligent Systems 20(3), 2005, 48–54

10.     Sanderson, M.: Ambiguous queries: test collections need more sense. In: Proc. of SIGIR 2008, Singapore, 2008, pp. 499–506

35.     Schutze, H.: Automatic word sense discrimination. Computational Linguistics 24(1), 1998,p. 97–124

11.     Chen, J., Za¨ıane, O.R., Goebel, R.: An unsupervised approach to cluster web search results based on word sense communities. In: Proc. ofWI-IAT 2008, Sydney, Australia, (2008),.  pp. 725–729

12.     Zhang, X., Hu, X., Zhou, X.: A comparative evaluation of different link types on enhancing document clustering. In: Proc. of SIGIR 2008, Singapore, 2008,. pp. 555–562 

13.     iBoogie – meta search engine with automatic document clustering. http://www.iboogie.tv/.14. Inducing word senses to improve web search result clustering [2] Robert Navigli and Giuseppe Crisafulli department of Informatics,Rome,Proceedings osf the 2012 Conference on EMpherical Methods in Natural Language Processing,Pg 116-126 MIT,USA OCT9-11 2010 @)ACL

15.     Incremental document clustering for webpage classification: In this paper they.Proposed a new feature extraction mechanism,and introduced  a tree structure called DC Tree for incremental and hierarchical web document clustering.Which is less sensitive to the document insertion order.[5]

16.     Incremental document clustering for webpage classification,Wai-Chiu Wong and Ada Wai-Chee Fu,Dept of Computer science and Engineering,The Chineese University Hong Kong July 1,2000.

17.     A New algorithm for clustering search results Giansalvatore Mecca, Salvartore Raunich Alessandro Papppalardo Department of Mathematics and Informatics ,university of Basilicata,Potenza,ItalyApril 3,2007[6]

18.     Clustering and Diversifying Web Search Results with Graph-Based Word Sense Induction Antonio Di Marco_Sapienza University of Rome Roberto Navigli Dipartimento di Informatica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Via Salaria, 113, 00198 Roma Italy.

19.     ClusteringWeb-Search Results Using Transduction-Based Relevance ModelLurong Xiao and Edward Hung Department of Computing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong fcslxiao,csehungg@comp.polyu.edu.hk

20.     Design Trade-Offs for Search Engine Caching RICARDO BAEZA-YATES, ARISTIDES GIONIS, FLAVIO P. JUNQUEIRA, VANESSA MURDOCK, and VASSILIS PLACHOURAS Yahoo! Research and FABRIZIO SILVESTRI ISTI – CNRACM Transactions on the Web, Vol. 2, No. 4, Article 20, Publication date: October 2008.

21.     Navigli, R., Crisafulli, G.: Inducing word senses to improve web search result clustering. In:Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP), Boston, USA, (2010), pp. 116–126

22.     Ngo, C.L., Nguyen, H.S.: A method of web search result clustering based on rough sets. In: Proc. of WI 2005, Compi`egne, France, (2005), pp. 673–679


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8.

Authors:

M. A. Fouad, T. M. Zewail, N. K. Amine, Y.A. El-Taweel

Paper Title:

Mass Transfer Study of a Single Phase Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) in 90° Copper Elbow

Abstract:    Single phase FAC of 90° copper elbow in acidified dichromate has been investigated in relation to the following parameters: acid concentration, solution velocity, temperature and elbow radius to pipe diameter ratio. The rate of FAC was expressed in terms of mass transfer coefficient. The results showed that the mass transfer coefficient increases as solution velocity increases. Whereas the mass transfer coefficient decreases as the elbow radius to pipe diameter ratio increases. The effect of the acid concentration on the mass transfer coefficient varies according to the range of acid concentration considered. Activation energy calculation revealed partial controlled reaction kinetics at high acid concentration. The present mass transfer data for flow inside 90° copper elbows has been correlated by the equations:
The importance of these equations in the prediction of mass transfer coefficient in 900 copper elbows is highlighted.


Keywords:
   erosion corrosion, Flow accelerated corrosion, mass transfer coefficient, stainless steel, 90° copper elbow.


References:

1.        M. G. Fontana," Corrosion Engineering", second ed., McGraw Hill, N. Y, 1988.
2.        M. El-Gammal, H. Mazhar, J.S. Cotton, C.Shefski, J. Pietralik, C.Y. Ching, The hydrodynamic effects of single-phase flow on flow accelerated corrosion in a 90-degree elbow, International Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Design 240 (2010) 1589-1598.

3.        B. Poulson, Complexities in predicting erosion corrosion, International Journal of Wear 200 (1999) 479- 504.

4.        LI. Xiao, LU. Tao, Analysis of corrosion failure of petrochemical pipe elbow, International Journal of Nuclear Material 12 (2005) 119- 123.

5.        W. H. Ahmed, Evaluation of the proximity effect on flow accelerated corrosion, International Journal of Annals of Nuclear Energy 37 (2010) 598- 605.

6.        B. Poulson, R. Robinson, The local measurement of mass transfer at 1800 bends, International Journal of Nuclear Engineering andDesign 31 (1988) 1289- 1297.

7.        J. Wang, Mass Transfer in Elbows, Ph.D. thesis, Tulsa University, United states, 1997.

8.        J. Wang, S. A. Shirazi, A CFD based correlation for mass transfer coefficient in elbows, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001) 1817- 1822.

9.        B. Poulson, Measuring and modeling mass transfer at bends in annular two phase flow, International Journal of Corrosion Science 46(1991)1069-1082.

10.     J. Pollert, R.H. Sellin, Drag reduction in fluid flows. InternationalJournal of Electrochemical Science (1989), pp. 179.

11.     A. J. Madden and D. G. Nelson, Effect of drag reducing polymer on the rate of induced corrosion of metals, A.I.Ch.E. (1964) 415- 421.

12.     I. Vogel , Text Book of Quantitative Analysis. Longman, London, 1961, pp. 200- 315.

13.     G.H.Jeffery, J.Bassett and R.C.Denney, Vogles, 5th ed. Longman, New York, 1989.

14.     M.H. Abdel-Aziz, I.A.S. Mansour, G.H. Sedahmed ,Study of the rate of liquid-solid mass transfer controlled processes in helical tubes under turbulent flow conditions, International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Process. 49 (2010) 643-648.

15.     G.H Sedahmed, M.S.E Abdo, M.Amer and G.Abdelatif, Mass transfer at a pipe inlet zone in relation to impingement corrosion, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 25 (1998) 443-451.

16.     Poulson, Eelectrochemical measurements in flowing solutions Corrosion science 23(1983) 391-430.

17.     E. L. Cussler, Diffusion Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems, 2nd ed., Cambridge university press, 1997.

18.     G.H. Sedahmed, M.S.E. Abdo, M. Amer and G Abd El-Latif, effect of drag reducing polymer on the rate of mass transfer controlled corrosion in pipelines under developing flow, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 26 (1999) 531- 538.

19.     Poulson and R. Robinson, The use of a corrosion process to obtain mass transfer data, International Journal of Corrosion science 26 (1986) 265- 280.

20.     J.R.Welty, C.E.Wicks , R.E.Wilson and G.L.Rorrer, Fundamentals of momentum, heat and mass transfer. John Wiley &sons, N.Y.2007.

21.     R. Malka and D.A. Gulino, Erosion corrosion and synergistic effects in disturbed liquid particle flow, International Journal of Wear 262(2007) 791-799.


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9.

Authors:

Ritu Aggarwal

Paper Title:

Security on Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Using Onion Routing Encryption

Abstract:    Security in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is difficult to achieve, notably because of the vulnerability of wireless links, the limited physical protection of nodes, the dynamically changing topology, the absence of a certification authority, and the lack of a centralized monitoring or management point. In this paper, we embed an efficient asymmetric encryption strategy to protect and ensure anonymity for source routes when employing a source routing protocol. The base protocol used for source routing is DSR and to prevent DoS attack which occurs by modifying source route an onion based asymmetric key approach is embedded.

Keywords:
   DSR, DOS Attack, MANET, Onion.


References:

1.        Jeoren Hoebeke, Ingrid Moerman, Bart Dhoedt and Piet Demester “An Overview of    Mobile ad hoc Networks: Applications & Challenges.
2.        Josh Broch, David B. Johnson, and David A. Maltz. The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for   Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-03.txt, October 1999. Work in   progress.

3.        M. Backes, I. Goldberg, A. Kate, and E. Mohammadi,“Provably secure and practical onion routing,” IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2011/308, 2012.

4.        W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practices, 3rd ed., Pearson Education Inc., 2003.

5.        D. B. Johnson and D. A. Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks,” in Mobile Computing, T. Imielinski and H. Korth, Eds. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, 1996,vol. 353, ch. 5, pp. 153–181.

6.        Quan Jia, Kun Sun, Angelos Stavrou, “CapMan: Capability-based Defense against Multi-   Path Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks in MANET”, Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN),Maui, HI, USA, 2011, July 31-August 4, 2011, pp.1-6.

7.        D. B. Johnson, D. A. Maltz, Y.-C. Hu, and J. G. Jetcheva, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (DSR),” http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-manet-dsr-09.txt, Apr. 2003.

8.        Charles E. Perkins, Ad Hoc Networking", 2001.

9.        Perrig, A., Canetti, R., Song, D., and J. Tyger, "Efficient and Secure Source Authentication for Multicast", Network and Distributed System Security mposium, NDSS 2001, pp. 35-46, February 2001.

10.     Deshpande Vivek S,” Security in Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols” Pune, Maharashtra, India 1999.


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10.

Authors:

Ajita Singh, Jayesh Gangrade

Paper Title:

An Iris Feature Extraction Using 2D-Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform

Abstract:    This paper presents an iris recognition system consists of an automatic segmentation system that is based on the 2D-Dual tree complex wavelet transform(2D-CWT), and is able to localize the circular iris and pupil region, occluding eyelids and eyelashes, and reflections. The extracted  iris region was then normalized into a rectangular block with constant dimensions to account for imaging inconsistencies. Finally, the data was extracted and quantized to four levels to encode the unique pattern of the iris into a bit-wise biometric template. The K-nearest neighbor technique was employed for classification of iris templates. The obtained experimental results showed that the proposed approach enhanced the classification accuracy. Iris verification is shown to be a reliable and accurate biometric technology.

Keywords:
   iris recognition; Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform ; biometrics.


References:

1.        K. Jain, L. Hong and S. Pankanti, Biometrics: Promising Frontiers for Emerging Identification Market, Comm. ACM ,pp. 91-98, Feb. 2000.
2.        A. Ross, D. Nandakumar, A.K. Jain, Handbook of Multibiometrics, . Springer, Heidelberg (2006).

3.        J. Daugman , How iris recognition works, IEEE Trans. onCircuits and Systems for Video Technology., Vol. 14, No. 1,pp. 21-30, January 2004.

4.        L. Flom, A. Safir, Iris recognition system, US Patent 4641394, 1987.

5.        K.W. Bowyer, K. Hollingsworth, P. J. Flynn, Image Understanding for Iris Biometrics: A Survey, Computer vision and Image Understanding, Vol. 110, Issue 2, pp. 281-307, 2008.

6.        J. Daugman, High Confidence Visual Recognition of Persons by a Test of Statistical Independence, IEEE Trans.on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 15, No.11, pp.1148-1161, 1993.

7.        J. Daugman, C.Downing, Epigenetic randomness, complexityand singularity of human iris patterns, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B268, pp. 1737-1740, 2001.

8.        J. Daugman , How iris recognition works, IEEE Trans. onCircuits and Systems for Video Technology., Vol. 14, No. 1,pp. 21-30, January 2004.

9.        Center for Biometrics and Security Research, CASIA Iris Image Database:

10.     L. Ma, T. Tan, Y. Wang, and D. Zhang, Efficient Iris Recognition by Characterizing Key Local Variations, IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 739-750, June 2004.

11.     MATLAB help, version R2008b.

12.     J. Daugman, "High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol.15, No.11, pp.1148-1160, November, 1993.

13.     J. Daugman, " How iris recognition works", IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, Vol.14, No.1, pp.21-30, January, 2004.

14.     L. Masek, "Recognition of human iris patterns for biometric identification", M.S. thesis, University of Western Australia, 2003.

15.     R. Wildes, " Iris recognition: an emerging biometric technology", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 85, No. 9, pp.1348-1363, September, 1997.

16.     J. Daugman, Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis. United States Patent, Patent Number: 5,291,560,1994.

17.     Online free encyclopedia, Wikipedia:http://www.wikipedia.org

18.     Chung-Chih Tsai, Heng-Yi Lin, Jinshiuh Taur and Chin-Wang Tao, "A New Matching Approach for Local Feature Based Iris Recognition System," Fifth IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, pp. 387-392, July 2010


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11.

Authors:

Jianguo Liang, Hiroyuki Narahara, Hiroshi Koresawa, Hiroshi Suzuki

Paper Title:

Automatic Design of Cooling Channels for Block Laminated Molds: A Resolution Study

Abstract:    This study discusses a method for the automatic design of injection-mold cooling channels using genetic algorithms (GA), the finite element method (FEM), and an evaluation function based on unsteady state heat transfer and linear static deformation. The uniformity of cooling and the deformation effect of the automatically designed cooling channel in the injection mold were examined through case studies based on numerical analysis. The genetic algorithm was applied in the following steps: generation of finite elements of individuals expressing different cooling channel shapes, the definition of the fitness function to evaluate individuals, the genetic operation for individuals, and modification to the automatically generated cooling channel shape. Finally, the automatically generated shape of the cooling channel is discussed and compared with manually designed cooling channels.

Keywords:
   Cooling channel, Automatic design, Block laminated mold, Rapid prototyping, Laser sintering


References:

1.        Park, S. J., and Kwon, T. H. (1998). Thermal and Design Sensitivity Analyses for Cooling system of Injection Mold, Part 1: Thermal Analysis, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 120, 5,  287-295.
2.        Sachs, E., Wylonis, E., Allen, S., Cima, M., and  Guo, H. (2000). Production of Injection Molding Tooling with Conformal Cooling Channels Using the Three Dimensional Printing Process, Polymer Engineering and Science, 40, 5, 1232-1247.

3.        Koresawa, H., Sakashita, M., and Suzuki, H.  (2001). Automatic design for parting line on injection mold. ANTEC, 937-941.

4.        Matsumoto, T., Tanaka, M., and Yamamura, A.  (2000). Optimization of cooling channels of injection mold using GA and BEM, Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (A), 66, 641, 14-19.

5.        YAO, D. (2002). Development of Rapid Heating and Cooling Systems for Injection Molding Applications, polymer engineering and science, 42, 12 , 2471-2481.

6.        Matsumori, T., and Yamazaki, K. (2008). A study on Optimal Layout Design of Cooling Channel for Plastic Injection Molding Die, Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (C), 74, 3, 239-246.

7.        Yoneyama, T., Kagawa, H., Ito, T., Iwane, A., Kuramoto, Y., Nishimoto, K., and Yan, C. (2001). Effective Cooling and Accuracy Improvement in Injection Molding Using a Metal Mold with Cooling Channels Composed by Laser Sintering (1st Report): Fabrication of a Mold with Cooling Channel and Verification of a Basic Effect, Journal of the Japan Society for Precision Engineers, 67, 12, 1991-1995.

8.        Takafuji, A., Tamura, K., and Yokoyama, A. (2003). Optimum Design Method for Injection Molding Die by Genetic Algorithm, Seikei-Kakou, 15, 5, 357-362.

9.        GALANTE, M. (1996). Genetic Algorithms as an Approach to Optimize Real-world Trusses, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 39,  361-382.

10.     Chen, T. Y., and Chen, C. J. ( 1997). Improvements of Simple Genetic Algorithm in Structural Design, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 40, 1323-1334.

11.     Jensen, E., Topological Structural Design Using Genetic Algorithms, Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, Purdue University, November.


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12.

Authors:

Dwarka Prasad, H.C.Sharma

Paper Title:

Design of Grounding System for High Voltage Substations

Abstract:   The design of grounding system for high voltage substation is a challenging task.  In any substation, a well designed grounding system plays an extremely vital role. Grounding system must be safe as it is directly concerned with safety of persons working within the substation. The ground resistance, grid resistance, ground potential rise, step and touch voltage criteria for safety, maximum grid current, minimum conductor size, electrode size, maximum fault current level and soil resistivity are the basic design quantities of the grounding grid system. In this paper the design of grounding system for 220 KV high voltage substations and simulation for calculation of required parameters has been presented. A careful analysis was carried out in order to obtain the magnitude of total fault current that may occur in the substation. Soil resistivity is a major factor influencing substation grid design. Therefore, a resistivity investigation and analysis was carried out in order to obtain accurate design results. All necessary parameters were computed and assumptions were made using the relevant formulas. It has also been tried to reduce the grid resistance as well as ground potential rise by selecting the proper horizontal conductor size and addition of ground rods. A step by step procedure for the essential design considerations has been considered. Finally, simulations were carried out using software known as ETAP Software for verification of the design. The method proposed for substation grounding is in accordance with IEEE Std 80-2000.

Keywords:
   Etap Software, Grounding Grid, Substation Design, Step and Touch Voltage.


References:

1.       F. Dawalibi, D. Mukhedkar, “Optimum Design of Substation Grounding in a Two Layer Earth Structure, Part I: Analytical Study “, IEEE Trans, Power Apparatus and System, Vol. PAS-94, March,1975, pp. 252 – 261.
2.       F. Dawalibi, D.Mukhedkar, “Optimum Design of Substation Grounding in a Two Layer Earth Structure, Part II: Analytical Study”, IEEE Trans, Power Apparatus and System, Vol. PAS-94, March,1975, pp. 262 – 266.

3.       F. Dawalibi, D. Mukhedkar, “Optimum Design of Substation Grounding in a Two Layer Earth Structure, Part III: Analytical Study “, IEEE Trans, Power Apparatus and System, Vol. PAS-94, April 1975, pp. 267 – 272.

4.       J. L. He, Y. Q. Gao, R. Zeng, W. M. Sun, J. Zou, and Z. C. Guan,"Optimal Design of Grounding System Considering the Influence of Seasonal Frozen Soil Layer”, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, Jan. 2005, pp. 107-115.

5.       E. Bendito, A. Carmona, A. M. Encinas, and M. J. Jimenez, "The Extremal Charges Method in Grounding Grid Design” , IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 19, Jan. 2004, pp. 118-123.

6.       IEEE Std. 80-2000, “IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding”, IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc. New York, 2000.

7.       L. Huang , X. Chen , and H. Yan ,“Study of Unequally Spaced Grounding Grids”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 10, No.2, April 1995, pp. 716- 722.

8.       Ghoneim Sherif, Hirsch Holger, Elmorshedy Ahdab, and Amer Rabah, “Optimum   Grounding Grid Design by Using an Evolutionary Algorithm”, IEEE Power
Engineering Society General Meeting, 2007, 24-28 June 2007, pp1-7.

9.       Research Project of PEA’s Ground Grid in Substation and Grounding in HV and LV Distribution System, Thailand, 2006.

10.     Z. He, X. Wen, and J. Wang, “Optimization Design of Substation Grounding Grid Based on Genetic Algorithm”, IEEE Third International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC 2007), Vol. 4, pp. 140-144, Aug. 2007.

11.     A.F. Otero, J. Cidrbs and C. Garrido, “Genetic Algorithm Based Method for Grounding Grid Design”, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, pp.120-123, May 1998.

12.     Ahdab Elmorshedy, Rabah Amer, Sherif Ghoneim, and Holger Hirsch,” Surface potential calculation for grounding grids”, First International Power and Energy Conference, Nov.2006, pp.501- 505.

13.     F.P. Dawalibi, and D. Mukhedkar, “Influence of Ground Rods on Grounding Grids”, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-98, (6), 1979, pp.2089- 2098.

14.     B. Thapar, V.Gerez, A. Balakrishnan, and D.A. Blank, “Evaluation of Grounding Resistance of a Grounding Grid of Any Shape”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 6, No. 2, April 1991, pp. 640-647.


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13.

Authors:

Aparna.P

Paper Title:

Leakage Reduction in WDR Image Sensors with Halftone Pixels

Abstract:    Leakage reduction plays an important role in power consumption in many of the systems like image sensors. Adaptive bulk biasing control scheme is used to reduce the leakage during the standby mode of operation in the systems. Advanced WDR image sensors used to take images especially in situations where the light enters a premise from different angles, i.e. where both the dark and bright areas are there in the camera field of view that provides continuous tone images. Every pixel is to be converted in to halftone pixels in any of the conventional press, in order to print the image. Here a halftone pixel is generated using Floyd-Steinberg algorithm. The adaptive bulk biasing control scheme provides 21% power reduction as compared to any other standard systems.

Keywords:
   Continuous Tone Image, Halftoning, WDR image sensors, Adaptive Bulk Biasing Control, Leakage Reduction, Halftone Pixels 


References:

1.        Adam Teman, Orly Yadid-Pecht and Alexander Fish “ Leakage Reduction in Advanced Image Sensors Using an Improved AB^2 C Scheme,” IEEE   J. Sensors, vol.20,2012
2.        K. von Arnim, E. Borinski, P. Seegebrecht, H. Fiedler, R. Brederlow,R. Thewes, J. Berthold, and C. Pacha, “Efficiency of body biasing in90 nm CMOS for low power digital circuits,” in Proc. 30th Eur. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ESSCIRC 2004), 2004, pp. 175–178.

3.        B. H. Calhoun, A. Wang, and A. Chandrakasan, “Modeling and sizing for minimum energy operation in sub threshold circuits,” IEEE J. Solid-Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 1778–1786, 2005.

4.        K. Cho, D. Lee, J. Lee, and G. Han, “Sub-1-V CMOS image sensor using time-based readout circuit,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol.57, pp. 222–227, 2010

5.        M. Elgebaly and M. Sachdev, “Variation-aware adaptive voltage scaling system,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale (VLSI) Integr. Syst.,vol. 15, pp. 560–571, 2007.

6.        A. Fish and O. Yadid-Pecht, “Low-power “Smart” CMOS image sensors,”in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2008), 2008, pp. 1408–1411.

7.        Fish, T. Rothschild, A. Hodes, Y. Shoshan, and O. Yadid-Pecht,“Low power CMOS image sensors employing adaptive bulk biasing control (AB2C) approach,” in
Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems ISCAS 2007), 2007, pp. 2834–2837.

8.        V. Gruev, Y. Zheng, and J. Van der Spiegel, “Low power linear current mode imager with 1.5 transistors per pixel,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2008), 2008, pp. 2142–2145.

9.        A. Hokazono, S. Balasubramanian, K. Ishimaru, H. Ishiuchi, C. Hu and T.-K. Liu, “Forward body biasing  as a bulk-Si CMOS technology scaling strategy, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 55, pp.2657–2664, 2008.[10]  K. Ito, B. Tongprasit, and T. Shibata, “A computational digital pixel sensor featuring block-readout architecture for on-chip image processing,” IEEE Trans. CircuitsSyst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 56, pp.114–123, 2009.

10.     Khajeh, A. M. Eltawil, and F. J. Kurdahi, “Effect of body biasingon embedded SRAM failure,” in Proc. 2010 IEEE Int. Symp. Circuitsand Systems (ISCAS), 2010, pp. 2350–2353

11.     H. Kim, J. J. Kim, S. Mukhopadhyay, and K. Roy, “A forward body-biased low-leakage SRAM cache: Device, circuit and architecture considerations,” IEEE Trans.
ery Large Scale (VLSI) Integr. Syst.,vol. 13, pp. 349–357, 2005

12.     Q. Lin, W. Miao, and N. Wu, “A high-speed target tracking CMOS image sensor,” in Proc. IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conf. (ASSCC2006), 2006, pp. 139–142.

13.     S. Mukhopadhyay, Q. Chen, and K. Roy, “Memories in scaled technologies: A review of process induced failures, test methodologies, and fault tolerance,” in Proc. IEEE Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems (DDECS ’07), 2007, pp. 1–6.

14.     S. Mukhopadhyay, K. Kang, H. Mahmoodi, and K. Roy, “Reliableand self-repairing SRAM in nano-scale technologies using leakage and delay monitoring,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Test Conf. (ITC 2005), 2005, pp.10–1135

15.     S. Narendra, D. Antoniadis, and V. De, “Impact of using adaptive body bias to compensate die-to-die_ variation on within-die  variation,”in Proc. Int. Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design, 1999,pp. 229–232.

16.     Neau and K. Roy, “Optimal body bias selection for leakage improvement and process compensation over different technology generations, ”in Proc Proc2003 Int.
Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED ’03), 2003, pp. 116–121. [18] J. M. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan, and B. Nikolic´, Digital IntegratedCircuits: A Design Perspective, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2003, p. 761.

17.     K. Roy, S. Mukhopadhyay, and H. Mahmoodi-Meimand, “Leakage current mechanisms and leakage reduction techniques in deep-submicrometer CMOS circuits,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 91, pp. 305–327, 2003.

18.     F. Tang and A. Bermak, “A 4T low-power linear-output current-mediated CMOS image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale (VLSI) Integr.Syst., to be published.

19.     A. Teman, S. Fisher, L. Sudakov, A. Fish, and O. Yadid-Pecht, Autonomous CMOS image sensor for real time target detection and tracking,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems (ISCAS2008), 2008, pp. 2138–2141..

20.     J. W. Tschanz, J. T. Kao, S. G. Narendra, R. Nair, D. A. Antoniadis,A. P. Chandrakasan, and V. De, microprocessor frequency and leakage,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37,1396–1402, 2002.

21.     L. Wei, Z. Chen, M. Johnson, K. Roy, and V. De, “Design and optimizationof low voltage high performance dual threshold CMOS circuits,”in Proc. Design Automation Conf., 1998, pp. 489–494.

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14.

Authors:

Anjali Sharma, Alpna Singh

Paper Title:

Performance Based Survey of Routing Protocol in MANET

Abstract:    Ad hoc network communication is one of the popular areas of research area in these days. The Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) is an infrastructure less network consisting of mobile nodes. MANET is a self configuring network and the topology of the network keeps on changing as the nodes move randomly and organize themselves in an arbitrarily manner.  Routing is the one of the important factor to recognize the network performance. Routing mechanism will adaptively select routes using minimum cost routing and reputation routing schemes based on network condition to keep the network lifetime and maintain the ratio of successfully delivered packets. Many of the routing protocols are be present in MANET but which one is best for routing are measurable by many authors that has work on to measure the performance of routing protocol. In this paper we presents the survey of routing protocol to identified which kind of work is done in this field to improve and the performance of routing protocol.

Keywords:
   Mobile ad hoc networks, survey, routing protocols.


References:

1.       http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/wirelessfaqs/f/adhocwireless.htm.
2.       P. Misra,. “Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks”, 14 May 2006.

3.       DSR,http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dmaltz/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-manet-dsr-09.txt, 2006.

4.       AODV, http://moment.cs.ucsb.edu/AODV/aodv.html, accessed March, 2006

5.       S. Giannoulis, C. Antonopoulos, E. Topalis, and S. Koubias, "ZRP versus DSR and TORA: A comprehensive survey on ZRP performance," presented at the 1 0th
IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA ' 05),  pp. 1-8, 2005.

6.       C.S.R. Murthy and B.S. Manoj. Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols. Pearson Education, pp. 207-208,304, 2004.

7.       U. Jonsson, F. Alriksson, T. Larsson, P. Johansson, and G. Q. Maguire Jr. MIPMANET - Mobile IP for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Proceedings of the 1 st Workshop on Mobile Ad hoc Network and Computing (MobiHOC'00), August 2000.

8.       Sree Ranga Raju, Kiran Runkana, Jitendranath Mungara," ZRP versus AODV and DSR: A comprehensive study on ZRP performance”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 1– No12, 2010.

9.       Ayyaswamy Kathirvel, and Rengaramanujam Srinivasan “Analysis of Propagation Model using Mobile Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols”, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science (IJRRCS), Vol. 1, No. 1,2007.

10.     Syed Basha Shaik, Prof. S. P. Setty,” Performance Comparison of AODV, DSR and ANODR for Grid Placement Model”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 11– No.12, December 2010.

11.     Anuj K. Gupta, Anil K. Verma, Harsh Sadawarti (2010) IACSIT International Journal of Emerging and Technology, 2(2).

12.     Kapang Lego, Pranav Kumar Singh, Depankar Sutradhar, (2004) Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering, 1(4), 364-371.

13.     Azizol Abdullah, Norlida Ramly, Abdullah Muhammed, Mohd Noor Derahman: Performance Comparison Study of Routing Protocols for Mobile Grid Environment, pp
82-88, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.8 No.2, February 2008.

14.     Altman E, and Jimenez T., (2003). NS Simulator for Beginners. Lecture notes. Univ.de Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela and ESSI.Sophia-Antipolis, France.

15.     C.E. Perkins & E.M. Royer, Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing, Proceedings of the February 1999, pp. 90-100

16.     Runcai Huang; Yiwen Zhuang; Qiying Cao, “Simulation and Analysis of Protocols in Ad Hoc Network” in Electronic Computer Technology, 2009 International conference on Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ICECT.2009.66 Publication Year: 2009, Page(s): 169 – 173

17.     Tuteja, Asma; Gujral, Rajneesh; Thalia, Sunil; “Comparative Performance Analysis of DSDV, AODV and DSR Routing Protocols in MANET Using NS2” Advances in Computer Engineering (ACE), 2010 International Conference on Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/ACT.2010.16 Publication Year: 2010, Page(s): 330-333

18.     Lu Han, (October 8, 2004), “Wireless Ad-hoc Networks”.

19.     Humayun Bakht, (October 2011), “Survey of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Network” International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research Volume-1 No. 6, 2011.

20.     Mrs. Razan Al-Ani, (February 2011), “Simulation and Performance Analysis Evaluation for Variant MANET Routing Protocols”, International Journal of Advancements in Computing Technology, Volume 3, Number 1.

21.     M.Sreerama Murty, M.Venkat Das, (March 2011) “Performance Evaluation of MANET Routing Protocols using Reference Point Group Mobility and Random Way Point Models " International Journal of Ad hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing (IJASUC) Vol.2, No.1,2011.

22.     [2] J. khan, s. I. Hyder and S. M. Fakar “Modeling and simulation of dynamic intermediate nodes nnd performance analysis in MANETS reactive routing protocols”, International Journal of Grid and Distributed Computing Vol. 4, No. 1, March 2011.

23.     H. S. Bindra1, S. K. Maakar, A. L. Sangal, “Performance evaluation of two reactive routing protocols of MANET using group mobility model”, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 3, No 10, May 2010 ISSN (Online): 1694-0784

24.     S. Barakovic, S. Kasapovic, and J. Barakovic, “Comparison of MANET routing protocols in different traffic and mobility models”, Telfor Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2010

25.     S. Sathish, K. Thangavel and S. Boopathi, “Performance analysis of DSR, AODV, FSR and ZRP routing protocols in MANET”, MES Journal of Technology and
Management, 2011.

26.     S. Kaushik, P.R.Deshmukh, “Comparision of effectiveness of AODV, DSDV AND DSR routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks”, International Journal of Information Technology and Knowledge Management July-December 2009, Volume 2, No. 2, pp. 499-502.

27.     W.R. S. Jeyaseelan and Sh. Hariharan, “Investigation on routing protocols in MANET”, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Information Sciences (IJRRIS), Vol. 1, No. 2, June 2011,ISSN: 2046-6439.

28.     S. Shah, A. Khandre, M. Shirole and G. Bhole, “Performance evaluation of sd hoc routing protocols using NS2 simulation”, National Conference on Mobile and Pervasive Computing (CoMPC-2008).

29.     R. Al-Ani, “Simulation and performance analysis evaluation for variant MANET routing protocols”, International Journal of Advancements in Computing Technology, Volume 3, Number 1, February 2011.

30.     M.S. Murty and M.V. Das, “Performance evalution of MANET routing protocols using reference point group mobility and random waypoint models”, International Journal of Ad hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing (IJASUC) Vol.2, No.1, March 2011.

31.     A. Kumar Sharman and N. Bhatia, “Behavioral study of MANET routing protocols by using NS-2”, IJCEM International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, Vol. 12, April 2011 ISSN (Online): 2230-7893.

32.     A. Al-Maashri, M. Ould-Khaoua, “Performance analysis of MANET routing protocols in the presence of self-similar traffic”, In Proceedings of the 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, 2006, 14-16 November 2006, pages pp. 801-807, Tampa, Florida, USA.

33.     N. Usop, A. Abdullah, and A. Abidin, “Performance evaluation of AODV, DSDV & DSR routing protocol in grid environment” International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security IJCSNS, vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 261-268, July 2009.

34.     S. Kumari, S. Maakar , S. Kumar and R. K. Rathy, “Traffic pattern based performance comparison of AODV, DSDV & OLSR MANET routing protocols using freeway mobility model”, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 2 (4), 2011, 1606-1611.

35.     V. Singla and P. Kakkar, “Traffic pattern based performance comparison of reactive and proactive protocols of mobile ad-hoc networks”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 5– No.10, August 2010.


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15.

Authors:

Achal Badgujar, Swati Nikam

Paper Title:

A Novel Channel Assignment Protocol for Uncoordinated WLANS

Abstract:    Nowadays due to easily available hardware and availability of unlicensed frequency spectrum the use of WLANS has increased tremendously. Such WLANS are set up by untrained system administrators with no topology planning. The Access Points are also placed haphazardly. The performance of such Uncoordinated WLANs is greatly affected due to availability of limited number of non-overlapping channels. The cognitive radio provides the clients to make use of free channels from licensed spectrum when they are not in use by primary users. Thus in cognitive environment more channels are available to the clients. This paper describes a novel channel assignment scheme for cognitive radios.

Keywords:
   Uncoordinated WLANS, Channel Assignment, Cognitive Radio, Throughput.


References:

1.        Hills, “Large-Scale Wireless Lan Design,” IEEE Comm.Magazine, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 98-107, Nov. 2001.
2.        K.K. Leung and B.-J.J. Kim, “Frequency Assignment for IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf.,2003.

3.        Y. Lee, K. Kim, and Y. Choi, “Optimization of AP Placement and Channel Assignment in Wireless LANs,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Local Computer Networks, 2002.

4.        I. Broustis, K. Papagiannaki, S.V. Krishnamurthy, M. Faloutsos,and V. Mhatre, “Mdg: Measurement-Driven Guidelines for 802.11 WLAN Design,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2007.

5.        R. Murty, J. Padhye, R. Chandra, A. Wolman, and B. Zill,“Designing High Performance Enterprise Wi-Fi Networks,” Proc. Symp. Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), 2008.

6.        A. Mishra, V. Brik, S. Banerjee, A. Srinivasan, and W. Arbaugh, “A Client-Driven Approach for Channel Management in Wireless LANs,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2006.

7.        N. Ahmed and S. Keshav, “A Successive Refinement Approach to Wireless Infrastructure Network Deployment,” Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., 2006.

8.        Xiaonan Yue, Chi-Fai Michael Wong, and shueng-Han Gary Chan,” CACAO: Distributed Client Assisted Channel Assignment Optimization for Uncoordinated WLANs”, vol 22, NO 9, September 2011.

9.        A. Mishra, V. Shrivastava, D. Agrawal, S. Banerjee, and S.Ganguly, “Distributed Channel Management in Uncoordinated Wireless Environments,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2006.

10.     M. Achanta, “Method and Apparatus for Least Congested Channel Scan for Wireless Access Points,” US Patent No. 20060072602, Apr. 2006.


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16.

Authors:

K.S.Jeen Marseline, C.Meena

Paper Title:

Enhanced Image Fusion Algorithm with Neural Networks for Sonar Images

Abstract:    This paper proposes a   simple neural network based image fusion algorithm. Image fusion is defined as a process where a new image is constructed by integrating complementary, multi-temporal or multi-view information from a set of source images.  Particle swarm Optimization (PSO) is used to find out the optimal size of the blocks to be fused. A detailed experimentation is done with different performance metrics for different set of images. We have compared the results and the proposed method outperforms the existing methods visually as well as quantitatively.

Keywords:
   PSO, optimal, multi-temporal, multi-view.


References:

1.        Madhavi.R, K.Ashok babu  “An all Approach for Multi-Focus Image Fusion Using NeuralNetwork” in international journal of computer science and telecommunications vol 2 , Issue 8, Nov 2011.
2.        Abdul Basit Siddiqui, M.Arfan Jaffar, Ayyaz Hussain and Anwar “Block-Based Pixel Level Multi-Focus Image Fusion Using Particle Swarm Optimization” in Innovative journal of innovative computing, information and control vol 7, no. 7A, July 2011. 

3.        I. De and B. Chanda, A simple and efficient algorithm for multifocus image fusion using morpho-logical wavelets, Signal Processing, pp.924-936, 2006.

4.        G. Pajares and J. M. Cruz, A wavelet-based image fusion tutorial, Pattern Recognition, vol.37, no.9, pp.1855-1872, 2004.

5.        A. Toet, Image fusion by a ratio of low pass pyramid, Pattern Recognition Letters, vol.9, no.4, pp.245-253, 1989.

6.        V. P. S. Naidu and J. R. Raol, Pixel-level image fusion using wavelets and principal component analysis, Defence Science Journal, vol.58, no.3, pp.338-352, 2008.

7.        J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, Particle swarm optimization, IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, Perth, Australia, 1995.

8.        H. J. Heijmans and J. Goutsias, Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes, Part 2: Morphological wavelets, IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol.9, pp.1897-1913, 2000.

9.        A. M. Eskicioglu and P. S. Fisher, Image quality measures and their performance, IEEE Trans.Commu., vol.43, no.12, pp.2959-2965, 1995.

10.     C.-W. Wang, P.-P. Sui and W.-Y. Liu, Improved particle swarm optimization algorithm based on double mutation, ICIC Express Letters, vol.3, no.4(B), pp.1417-1422, 2009.

11.     J. Nagashima, A. Utani and H. Yamamoto, Efficient ooding method using discrete particle swarm optimization for long-term operation of sensor networks, ICIC Express Letters, vol.3, no.3(B), pp.833-840, 2009.

12.     H.Li, S. Manjunath and S.K. Mitra, “Multi-sensor image fusion using the wavelet transform” in Graphical Models and Image Processing, vol. 57, no.3, pp. 235-245, 1995.

13.     A. Toet, “ Image fusion by a ratio of low pass pyramid” in Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 245-253, 1989.

14.     Ishita De and Bhabatosh Chanda, “A simple and efficient algorithm for multifocus image fusion using morphological wavelets” in Signal Processing. pp. 924-936, 2006.

15.     Gonzalo Pajares and Jesus Manuel de la Cruz, “ A wavelet-based Image Fusion Tutorial” in Pattern Recognition, vol 37, no. 9, pp. 1855-1872,2004.
16 V.P.S. Naidu and J.R.Raol, “Pixel-level Image Fusion using Wavelets and Principal Component Analysis” in Defence Science Journal, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 338-352, May 2008.


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17.

Authors:

Aatish Kumar, R.K. Pandey, C.S. Mishra

Paper Title:

Wind Effects on Overhead Tank under Different Soil Parameters

Abstract:    Large capacity elevated Intze tanks are used to store a variety of liquids, e.g. water for drinking and fire fighting, petroleum, chemicals, and liquefied natural gas.  A water tank is used to store to tide over the daily requirements.  Intze tank is a type of elevated water tank supported on staging. Intze tank is defined as bottom portion of circular tank is provided in flat shape, so in flat bottom, the thickness and reinforcement is found to be heavy.  It is found in analysis that  the bearing capacity increases for the same wind speed volume of concrete and quantity of steel both are decreased. Also, We have seen that in case of bearing capacity of soil 5 t/m2 and 10 t/m2 volume of concrete and quantity of steel are so high as compared to other.

Keywords:
   C++ programs, Intze tank, Over Head Tank, Soil Parameter, Wind Effect


References:

1.        IS: 875 (2002) “Code of Practice for Design Load" Bureau of  Indian Standard, New Delhi.
2.        IS: 3370 (1965) (Part I) “Code of Practice for Concrete Structures for The Storage of Liquids” General Requirements, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

3.        IS: 3370 (1965) (Part II) “Code of Practice for Concrete Structures for the Storage of Liquids” Reinforced Concrete  Structures, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

4.        IS: 3370 (1967) (Part IV) “Code of Practice for Concrete Structures for the Storage of Liquids” Design Tables, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi. 

5.        IS: 456 (2000) “Plain and Reinforced Concrete – Code for Practice” Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

6.        J. Krishna, and O. P. Jain (2000) “Plain and Reinforcement Concrete” Nem Chand and Bros, Vol.1and Vol.2.

7.        B. C. Punmia,  A. K. Jain, and A.K. Jain, (2001) “R.C.C. Design”, Laxmi Publications (P) LTD, New Delhi.

8.        J. Krishna, and Jain O. P. (2000) “Plain and Reinforcement Concrete” Nem Chand and Bros, Vol.1and Vol.2. 116

9.        N. Krishna Raju, “Advanced Reinforced Design” CBS Publishers and Distributers, New Delhi.

10.     S. Ramamrutham and R. Narayan  “Design of reinforced Concrete Structure” Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company (P) LTD, New Delhi PVT. LTD.

11.     IS: 456 (2000) “Plain and Reinforced Concrete – Code for Practice” Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.

12.     J. Krishna, and O. P. Jain (2000) “Plain and Reinforcement Concrete” Nem Chand and Bros, Vol.1and Vol.2.

13.     J. Krishna, and Jain O. P. (2000) “Plain and Reinforcement Concrete” Nem Chand and Bros, Vol.1and Vol.2. 116

14.     Luis A. Godoy, “Damage Due To Buckling In Above Ground Storage Tank”, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00681 – 9041, Puerto Rico.

15.     Meen-Wah Gui and Balasingam Muhuthan, (2006), “Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Sand Using The Method of Slip Line”, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 1 - 14


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18.

Authors:

Tharinda Nishantha Vidanagama, Hidenori Nakazato

Paper Title:

Mobility in Name-Based Home Ad Hoc Networks

Abstract:   Wireless mobile ad hoc networks can be used as a means to ease and support life in an ordinary house. As future home appliances will have many useful built-in functions, a communication net¬work that allows a user to access these built-in functions and to control the appliances is highly desirable. This paper proposes algorithms for clustering and message routing to manage mobility in a name-based home ad hoc network. The nodes are given names such as “living room TV”, “kitchen oven”, etc. for identification. This paper discusses the performance of three routing schemes for communication of nodes with mobility. The proposed algorithms handle mobility efficiently while ensuring a high accuracy on message delivery with a low number of control messages.

Keywords:
   Ad hoc network, Name-Based addressing and routing, clus¬ter, routing cache, mobility.


References:

1.       Jiang M.; et al; Cluster based routing protocol, (CBRP). draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-01.txt, Internet draft, August 1999.
2.       Johnson, D.B.;, "Routing in ad hoc networks of mobile hosts," Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA), pp.158-163, 8-9 Dec. 1994.

3.       P. Krishna, N.H. Vaidya, M. Chatterjee and D.K. Pradhan; “A cluster-based approach for routing in dynamic networks”. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication
Review 27:49-65, 1997.

4.       Petrovic, M.; Muthusamy, V.; Jacobsen, H.-A., "Content-based routing in mobile ad hoc networks," Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services (MobiQuitous), The Second Annual International Conference on, pp.45,55, 17-21 July 2005.

5.       M. Meisel, V. Pappas and L. Zhang; “Ad hoc networking via named-data” MobiArch '10, Proc. of the 5th ACM intl. work¬shop, pp 3-8, 978-1-4503-0143-5.

6.       M. Gerla, J. Tzu-Chieh Tsai,; “Multicluster, mobile, multimedia radio network”. ACM- Baltzer Journal of Wireless Networks, 1: 255-265, 1995.

7.       Shah, R.C.; Rabaey, J.M., "Energy aware routing for low energy ad hoc sensor networks," Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), IEEE , vol.1, no., pp.350,355 vol.1, 17-21 Mar 2002.

8.       Vidanagama, T.N.; Nakazato, H.; “Description based routing and addressing in cluster based ad hoc network” IEICE Gen¬eral Conference, Mar 2009.

9.       Vidanagama, T.N.; Nakazato, H., "Reduction of Message Misdirection in Description Based Clustered Ad Hoc Networks," Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), 7th IEEE, vol., no., pp.1-5, 9-12 Jan. 2010.

10.     Vidanagama, T.N.; Nakazato, H., "Name-based message forwarding for home ad hoc networks”, submitted for publication.

11.     A. Ephremides, J.E. Wieselthier, D.J. Baker,; A design concept for reliable mobile radio networks with frequency hopping signal-ing, in Proc. of IEEE, 75(1) (1987), pp.56~73.

12.     A. K. Prakah, “Selecting routers in ad-hoc wireless networks, Proc. of SBT/IEEE ITS (1994).

13.     C. -C. Chiang, H. K. Wu, W. Liu, and M. Gerla, “Routing in Clustered Multihop, Mobile Wireless Networks with Fading Chan-nel,” Proc. of IEEE SICON’97, pp. 197-211, April 1997.

14.     Vidanagama, T.N.; Nakazato, H., "Mobility in a description based clustered ad hoc network," GLOBECOM Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2010 IEEE, vol., no., pp.148-152, 6-10 Dec. 2010.

15.     Mznah A. Al-Rodhaan, L. Mackenzie, M. Ould-Khaoua, “Improve¬ment to Blocking Expanding Ring Search for MANETs”, DCS Technical Report Series, Dept. of Computing Sci-ence, University of Glasgow, 2008.

16.     Su, W., Lee, S.-J. and Gerla, M. (2001), “Mobility prediction and routing in ad hoc wireless networks”. Int. J. Network Mgmt., 11: 3–30. doi: 10.1002/nem.386.

17.     William Su; Gerla, M., "IPv6 flow handoff in ad hoc wireless networks using mobility prediction," Global Telecommunications Conference '99, vol.1A, no., pp.271-275 vol.1a, 1999.


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19.

Authors:

Rupan Preet Kaur, Ravinder Singh Sawhney, Harpinder Kaur

Paper Title:

Anatomizing Quantum Transport in Molecular Junctions with Cyanide and its Isomer as Anchors

Abstract:    The electrical properties of SAMs on gold surface with different alligator clips at each ends were explored for an anthracene molecule. We probed charge transport characteristics of anthracene with two different anchor groups- Cyanide and its isomer Isocyanide attached to anthracene at each side and sandwiched between two gold electrodes. Through I-V Curves, conductance-voltage curves, differential conductance-voltage curves and transmission spectrum, we found that anthracene-cyanol-isocyanol (ACI) exhibited highest current, conductance and transmissions whereas anthracenedisocyanol (ADC) exhibited least current, conductance and transmissions. This highest conduction of ACI was on account of very strong bonding between gold electrodes and corresponding –CN anchor group whereas lowest conduction of ADC was because of weaker bonding between gold electrodes and –NC anchor group.  The conduction exhibited by gold-CN bond and gold-S bond was found to be similar hence concluding that both these bonds (Au-CN and Au-S) have approximately similar strength.

Keywords:
   Nanoscale, Alligator Clips, HOMO, LUMO, Isomer.


References:

1.        Nitzan, A.; Ratner, M. A., Science 2003, 300, (5624), 1384-1389; (b) Joachim, C.; Ratner, M. A., PNAS 2005, 102, (25), 8801-8808.
2.        Venkataraman, L.; Klare, J. E.; Tam, I. W.; Nuckolls, C.; Hybertsen, M. S.; Steigerwald, M. L., Nano Lett. 2006, 6, (3), 458 - 462; (b) Chen, F.; Li, X. L.; Hihath, J.; Huang, Z. F.; Tao, N. J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, (49), 15874- 15881; (c) Park, Y. S.; Whalley, A. C.; Kamenetska, M.; Steigerwald, M. L.; Hybertsen, M. S.; Nuckolls, C.; Venkataraman, L., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, (51), 15768-15769; (d) Kiguchi, M.; Tal, O.; Wohlthat, S.; Pauly, F.; Krieger, M.; Djukic, D.; Cuevas, J. C.; van Ruitenbeek, J. M., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 101, (4), 046801; (e) Martin, C. A.; Ding, D.; Sorensen, J. K.; Bjornholm, T.; van Ruitenbeek, J. M.; van der Zantt, H. S. J., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, (40), 13198-13199; (f) Schneebeli, S. T.; Kamenetska, M.; Cheng, Z.; Skouta, R.; Friesner, R. A.; Venkataraman, L.; Breslow, R., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, (7), 2136-2139; (g)Mishchenko, A.; Zotti, L. A.; Vonlanthen, D.; Burkle, M.; Pauly, F.; Cuevas, J. C.; Mayor, M.; Wandlowski, T., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, (2), 184-187; (h) Kosov, D. S.; Li, Z. Y., J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, (20), 9893-9898; (i) von Wrochem, F.; Gao, D. Q.; Scholz, F.; Nothofer, H. G.; Nelles, G.; Wessels, J. M., Nat. Nano. 2010, 5, (8), 618-624.

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7.        E. G. Emberly, G. Kirczenow, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1999, 11, 6911.

8.        T. S. Elicker, J. S. Binette, D. G. Evans, J. Phys. Chem. B 2001, 105, 370.

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10.     S. N. Yaliraki, M. A. Ratner, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2002, 960, 153.

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22.     G. C. Solomon, D. Q. Andrews, T. Hansen, R. H. Goldsmith, M. R. Wasielewski,R. P. Van Duyne, M. A. Ratner, J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 054701.

23.     S.-H. Ke, W. Yang, H. U. Baranger, Nano Lett. 2008, 8, 3257.

24.     G. C. Solomon, D. Q. Andrews, R. P. Van Duyne, M. A. Ratner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 7788.

25.     D. Q. Andrews, G. C. Solomon, R. H. Goldsmith, T. Hansen, M. R. Wasielewski, R. P. V. Duyne, M. A. Ratner, J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112, 16991.

26.     Nitzan, A.; Ratner, M. A. Science 2003, 300 (5624), 1384–1389.

27.     Pecchia, A.; Di Carlo, A. Rep. Prog. Phys. 2004, 67 (8), 1497–1561.

28.     Manabu Kiguchi, Shinichi Miura, Kenji Hara, Masaya Sawamura, Kei Murakoshi, Conductance of a single molecule anchored by an isocyanide substituent to gold electrodes, Division of Chemistry, Sapporo, 060-0810, Japan(2008).

29.     Ravinder Singh Sawhney, Derick Engles, Geometry Related Quantum Interference for Stress and Conductance of an Organic Molecule, Conf. Proceedings Nanocon 2012, BVU, pp.1219-1224.

30.     Atomistic Toolkit Manual, Quantumwise Inc.

31.     Yong-Hoon Kim ,Seung Soon Jang and William A. Goddard, Conformations and charge transport characteristics of biphenyldithiol self-assembled-monolayer molecular electronic devices: A multiscale computational study, The Journal of  Chemical Physics 122, 244703 (2005).

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20.

Authors:

Vaishali V.Ingle, Mahendra A. Gaikwad

Paper Title:

Mesh Topology of NoC Architecture Using Source Routing Algorithm

Abstract:    NoC i.e. Network –on- Chip is one of today’s emerging technology which has spread very fast to meet today’s need of fast communication. Few years back the communication was based on the bus addressing but as the number of components increased to gain and achieve higher improving or modified techniques; System –on-Board (SoB) transformed to System –on-Chip (SoC)  which was further transformed  to NoC. In this paper, we have used West-First routing algorithm as strategy of Source routing in 2D Mesh Topology of NoC Architecture using NIRGAM Simulator with Bursty Traffic.

Keywords:
   Bursty traffic, Mesh Topology, Network-on-Chip, Source Routing Algorithm, West-First Routing Algorithm


References:

1.       G. O. Young, “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics (Book style with paper title and editor),” in Plastics, 2nd ed. vol. 3, J. Peters, Ed.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp. 15–64.
2.       W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems (Book style).              Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123–135.

3.       H. Poor, An Introduction to Signal Detection and Estimation.   New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985, ch. 4.

4.       B. Smith, “An approach to graphs of linear forms (Unpublished work style),” unpublished.

5.       E. H. Miller, “A note on reflector arrays (Periodical style—Accepted for publication),” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., to be published.

6.       J. Wang, “Fundamentals of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers arrays (Periodical style—Submitted for publication),” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., submitted for publication.

7.       C. J. Kaufman, Rocky Mountain Research Lab., Boulder, CO, private communication, May 1995.

8.       Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, “Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate interfaces (Translation Journals style),” IEEE Transl. J. Magn.Jpn., vol. 2, Aug. 1987, pp. 740–741 [Dig. 9th Annu. Conf. Magnetics Japan, 1982, p. 301].

9.       M. Young, The Techincal Writers Handbook.  Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.

10.     (Basic Book/Monograph Online Sources) J. K. Author. (year, month, day). Title (edition) [Type of medium]. Volume(issue).    Available: http://www.(URL)

11.     J. Jones. (1991, May 10). Networks (2nd ed.) [Online]. Available: http://www.atm.com

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13.     R. J. Vidmar. (1992, August). On the use of atmospheric plasmas as electromagnetic reflectors. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. [Online]. 21(3). pp. 876—880.   Available:


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21.

Authors:

Ganapathi Bhat, Y.S.Sidde Gowda

Paper Title:

Safety Management System of Construction Activities in AUE Infrastructure Project

Abstract:    Accidents are a major public health concern, resulting in an estimated 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries worldwide each year. UAE in particular experiences a high rate of such accidents. Research on road safety has been conducted for several years, yet many issues still remain undisclosed and unsolved. Specifically, the relationships between drivers' characteristics and road accidents are not fully understood. In this work, we started by collecting a dataset between 2011 and 2013 for construction sites. The accident occurs in the period of 2011 to 2013 cause more equipment damage in the construction site or in store/workshop. The comparison data from 2011 to 2013 shows that the incident rate decrease from 80% to 10 % due to the proper monitory from the higher authorities of the concern department in UAE.

Keywords:
   Accident, Health, Safety, Construction sites, workshop.


References:

1.       Al-Humaidi H.M., et al. Construction Safety in Kuwait. J. Perf. Constr. Fac. 2010. 24; 70-77.
2.       Davis V., et al., 1990: Construction Site Safety. Internal Publications. Thomas Telford, London.

3.       Kartam N.A., et al. Fatalities and Injuries in the Kuwaiti Construction Industry. Accident Analysis and Prevention.1998. 30; 805-814.

4.       Teo E.A.L., et al. Framework for Project Managers to Manage Construction Safety. Int. J. Proj. Manage. 2005. 23; 329-341.

5.       Mc Grath E., 2009: The Construction Industry’s own Health, Safety, and Welfare Initiative.

6.       7th Annual GCC Occupational Health and Safety Conference, Dubai, UAE.

7.       U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2001: Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. U.S. Department of Labor, NE Washington, D.C.

8.       Barss P., et al. Occupational Injury in the United Arab Emirates: Epidemiology and Prevention. Occupational Medicine. 2009. 59; 493-498.

9.       ENR, 2001: Construction Leads in Deaths Despite Lower Fatality Rate. Engineering News Record, USA.

10.     Sawacha E., et al. Factors Affecting Safety Performance On Construction Sites. Int. J. Proj. Manage. 1999. 17; 309-315.

11.     Coleman V., 1991: Guideline for Management of Major Construction Projects-Section 8 Health and Safety. HMSO Report, London, 127.

12.     Helledi U., 1999: Development and Implementation of an Occupational Safety and Health Management System on Construction Sites- Experiences from Twelve Small and Medium Sized Contractors. Implementation of Safety and Health on Construction Sites, Balkema Publishers, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

13.     O’Toole M. The Relationship between Employees’ Perceptions of Safety and Organizational Levitt R.E., et al. 1993: Construction Safety Management. 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York, 216.

14.     Hinze J., et al., 1988: Subcontractor Safety As Influenced By General Contractors on Small And Medium Sized Projects. CII Report-2, Dept. of Civil Engineering,
Univ. of Washington, Seattle.

15.     Hinze J., et al. 1988: Subcontractor Safety As Influenced By General Contractors on Large Projects. CII Research Report-1, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., USA.

16.     Weinstein M., et al. Can Design Improve Construction Safety? Assessing the impact of a Collaborative Safety-In-Design Process. J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 2005. 131; 1125-1134.

17.     Wadick P., 2005: Challenges for OHS Implementation in Building and Construction. The 13th Annual International Conference on Post-Compulsory Education and Training, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

18.     Quinlan M., 2003: Flexible Work and Organisational Arrangements – Regulatory Problems and Responses. OHS Regulation for the 21st Century, National Research Centre of Occupational Health and Safety Regulation and National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, Gold Coast, Australia.

19.     Lin J., et al. Measuring the Occupational Health and Safety Performance of Construction Companies in Australia. Facilities. 2001; 19; 131-139.

20.     Dawson S., et al., 1988: Safety at Work: The Limits of Self-Regulations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

21.     Holmes N., et al. Narratives of Risk in Occupational Health and Safety: Why the “Good” Boss Blames His Tradesman and the “Good” Tradesman Blames His Tools. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 1997. 21; 11-16.

22.     Manuele F.A., 1997: On the Practice of Safety. Wiley, New York.

23.     European Foundation, 1991: From Drawing Board to Building Site. HMSO Books, London.

24.     Gibb A., et al., 2004: The Role of Design in Accident Causality. Designing for Safety and Health in Construction: Proc., Research and Practice Symp. UO Press, Eugene, Ore., USA.

25.     Behm M., 2004: Establishing the Link between Construction Fatalities and Disabling Injuries And The Design for Construction Safety Concept. PhD. Dissertation, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

26.     Smallwood J.J., 1996: The Influence of Designers on Occupational Safety and Health. 1st International Conf. of CIB Working Commission W99, Implementation of Safety and Health on Construction Sites, Lisbon, Portugal.

27.     UK CDM, 2007: The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007.

28.     Gambatese J.A., et al. Viability of Designing for Construction Worker Safety. J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 2005. 131 (9) 1029-1036

29.     Neal A., et al. The Impact of Organizational Climate on Safety Climate and Individual Behavior. Safety Sci. 2000. 34; 99-109.

30.     Hallowell M.R., et al. Construction Safety Risk Mitigation. J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 2009. 135; 1316-1323.

31.     Molenaar K.R., et al. Framework for Measuring Corporate Safety Culture and Its Impact on Construction Safety Performance. J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 2009. 135; 488-496.

32.     Kleiner B.M., et al. Design, Development, and Deployment of a Rapid Universal Safety and Health System for Construction. J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 2008. 134; 273-279.

33.     Hofmann D.A., et al. Safety-Related Behavior as a Social Exchange: The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-Member Exchange. Applied Psychology. 1999. 84; 286-296.

34.     Kath L.M., et al. Safety Climate Dimensions, Leader–Member Exchange, and Organizational Support as Predictors of Upward Safety Communication in a Sample
of Rail Industry Workers. Safety Sci. 2010. 48; 643-650.

35.     Mearns K.J., et al. Organizational Support and Safety Outcomes: An Un-Investigated Relationship. Safety Sci. 2008, 46 (3), 388-397.

36.     Hinze J., 1997: Construction Safety, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

37.     Toole T.M. Construction Site Safety Roles. J. Constr. Eng. Manage. 2002. 128; 203-210.

38.     Liska R.W., et al., 1993: Zero Accident Techniques. Construction Industry Institute, the Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex., 86.

39.     Levitt R.E., et al., 1981: Improving Construction Safety Performance: The User’s Role. Technical Report-260. Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.


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22.

Authors:

Naoufel Kraiem, Imen Boudich, Zuhoor Al  Khanjari, Yassine Jamoussi

Paper Title:

Managing Variability in Model Transformations for Model-Driven Product Lines

Abstract:   The model-driven engineering is a theme in full expansion in both the academic and industrial world. It is a generative form of engineering in which all or part of an application is generated from templates. In this article, we studied the contribution of Model Driven Engineering (MDE) in the field of management of variability in Software Product Lines (SLPs). Indeed, the goal of software product lines is to minimize the cost of developing software in a particular application domain. This minimization is due to the design of reusable elements and not to the development of each program separately. We consider an approach to model-driven engineering and engineering fields (Product Lines) as two generative approaches that aim to automate the software development. Our goal is to create an approach for handling product lines using MDE.

Keywords:
   Model Driven Engineering, Software Product Line, Variability.


References:

1.       Northrop, L. M. A framework for software product line practice. London : in Proceedings of the Workshop on Object-OrientedTechnology, pp. 365–376, Springer, UK, 1999.
2.       Linden, F. van der. Software product families in Europe., : the esaps & cafe projects,IEEE Software, vol. 19, no. 4,” , pp. pp. 41– 49, 2002.

3.       Poh, G. Halmans and K .Communicating the variability of a software product family to customers.. Software and System Modeling, pp. pp. 15–36, 2003.

4.       Jézéquel, Jean-Marc .Model-Driven Engineering for Software Product Lin. 2012, International Scholarly Research Network, p. 24 pages.

5.       Klaus Pohl Andreas Metzger.Variability Management in Software Product Line. Engineering,

6.       Sijtema, Marten. Managing variability in model transformations for model-driven product lines : extending the ATL model transformation language with variability management capabilities. 2010.

7.       Clements P., Northrop L .Software Product Lines. 2001, Practices and Patterns.

8.       Svahnberg M., Bosch J .Issues Conserning Variability in Software Product Lines. In Development and Evolution of Software Architectures for Product Families, Proceedings of International Workshop IW-SAPF- 3, pp. Vol 1429 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, .

9.       Czarnecki., W.U. Eisenecker and K.  Generative Programming: Methods, Tools, and Applications. 2000., Addison-Wesley,.

10.     Bass.L, P. Clements, and R. Kazman .Software Architecture in Practices. .Addison-Wesley, p. 1998.

11.     Clements, F. Bachmann and P .Variability in software product lines.. 2005, Tech. Rep. cmu/sei-tr-012, Software Engineering Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, .

12.     M. Svahnberg, J. van Gurp, and J. Bosch .A taxonomy of variability realization techniques: research articles. 2005, SoftwarePractice and Experience, pp. pp. 705–754.

13.     D. C. Schmidt, r .Guest editor’s introduction : Model-driven engineering, IEEE Compute. . 2006, p. 39.

14.     FAVRE.J-M. oundations of Model (Driven) (Reverse) Engineering: Models.. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Language Engineering for Model-Driven Software Development.

15.     Groher, [M. Völter and I.Product line implementation using aspect-oriented and model-drivensoftware development. 2007. , 11th International Software Product Line Conference (Kyoto, Japan).

16.     Oster, Sebastian .Feature Model-based Software Product Line Testing.. 2012, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt [Ph.D. Thesis].

17.     Mathieu ACHER, Raphaël MICHEL, Patrick HEYMANS, Philippe COLLET, Philippe LAHIRE. Languages and Tools for Managing Feature Models.. 2012, in Proceedings
of the 3rd International Workshop on Product LinE Approaches in Software Engineering co-located with ICSE’12.

18.     Ziadi.T. Manipulation de Lignes de Produits en UML. s.l. : Rennes: Université de Rennes, 2004.

19.     Tessier, Patrick, Servat, David and Gérard, Sébastien Variability Management on Behavioral Models.2008.

20.     S.Deelstra, M.Sinnema, J.vanGurp and J.Bosch. Model Driven Architecture as Approach to Manage Variability in Software Product Families. 2003, Proceedings of the Workshop on Model Driven Architecture: Foundations and Applications.

21.     Snirc, Valentino Vranic and Jan. Integrating Feature Modeling into UML. 2006, Proceedings of the NODe/GSEM, . Institute of Informatics and Software Engineering.Faculty of Informatics and Information Technology .Slovak University of Technology .

22.     PV. Pure systems. 2011.

23.     Pasetti, Rohlik and A. XFeature Modeling Tool. 2011, Automatic Control Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Accessed.

24.     K.Czarnecki., and M.Antkiewicz .FeaturePlugin: Feature modeling plug-in for Eclipse. 2004, In OOPSLA’04 Eclipse Technology eXchange (ETX).

25.     RWTH Aachen. Lichter., T.von der Maßen and H.RequiLine. 2005.


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23.

Authors:

Anupam Kumar Yadav, V.K Pandey, Shubhi Agarwal

Paper Title:

Slotted Dumbbell Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wi-Max Frequency Band of 3.4-3.69 GHZ

Abstract:    This article presents a design for Rectangular microstrip patch antenna by cutting dumbbell shaped slot in the rectanglar patch.Using probe feeding technique we have found the optimum feed point giving desired results.The electromagnetic simulation of the proposed  antenna has been carried out using IE3D  software which work on principle of Method of Moment. Return loss, VSWR, antenna efficiency and radiation pattern etc can be evaluated for given design.

Keywords:
   Dumbell slotted microstrip patch antenna for wimax, return loss,  VSWR, antenna efficiency.


References:

1.        M. K. Verma, Sapna Verma, and D. C. Dhubkarya, “Analysis and Designing of E-Shape Microstrip Patch Antenna for the Wireless Communication Systems”, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electronic and Photonic Devices & Systems (ELECTRO-2009), 2009.
2.        Arny Adila Salwa Ali and Sharlene Thiagarajah, “A Review on MIMO Antennas Employing Diversity Techniques”.Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia June 17-19, 2007.

3.        Ramesh Gerg, Prakash Bhartia, Indar Bhal & Apisak Ittipiboon, “Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook”, Artech House, London, 2001.

4.        Jitesh kumar, Sarthak singh , Sakshi singh, , “ Multiple nonagon void slotted micro strip patch antenna” International Journal of engineering and advance technology. (IJEAT) Volume 2, Issue 5,  june 2013 ISSN 2249-8958.

5.        Nasimuddin and Z. N. Chen, “Wideband multilayered microstrip antennas fed by coplanar waveguide-loop with and without via combinations,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag., vol. 3, pp. 85–91, 2009.

6.        J. S. Colburn and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “Patch antennas on externally perforated high dielectric constant Substrates IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.,, vol. 47, no. 12, pp 1785–1794, 1999.

7.        Kuo, Y. L. and K. L. Wong, Printed double- T monopole antenna for 2.4/5.2 GHz dual-band WLAN operations," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 51, No. 9, 2187-2192.

8.        Balanis, C.A., Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989.

9.        Zeland Software Inc. IE3D: MoM-Based EM Simulator. Web: http://www.zeland.com/

10.     C. A. Balanis, “Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997.


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24.

Authors:

Annasaro Vijendran, N.R.Suganya

Paper Title:

Automated Test Case Generation Based on Event-Oriented and Aspect-Oriented Programming Sequence with Error Detection Technique

Abstract:   Error Detection holds a very important role in software testing process. By the test case runs it provides developers by means to quantify of how well their source code is being exercised. By detecting errors/bugs in the code it estimates the effectiveness of the test. We must implement a methodical way and support the theoretical bases for testing the programs with the purpose of performing effective software testing and error detection. In our study we use the crossword application where we automatically make test cases and systematically discover the impact of context, as captured by criterion functions which we described in our source code. Our studying demonstrates that by increasing the event combinations tested and by organizing the comparative positions of events defined by the new criteria, we can become aware of a large number of faults that were undetectable by earlier techniques. In this paper we are implementing the event based test case generation and aspect oriented test case generation. The experimental result shows that our proposed work test case generation process providing better error detection when compared with the existing work. In this paper we are implementing the event based and aspect based test case generation.

Keywords:
   Aspect Oriented Testing, Automated Testing, Error Detection, Event Oriented Testing, Test Case Generation, Testing Process.


References:

1.        A.M. Memon and Q. Xie, "Studying the Fault-Detection Effectiveness of  GUI Test Cases for Rapidly Evolving Software," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 884-896, Oct. 2005.
2.        X. Yuan and A.M. Memon, "Using GUI Run-Time State as Feedback to Generate Test Cases," Proc. 29th Int'l Conf. Software Eng., pp. 396-405, May 2007.

3.        M. d'Amorim, C. Pacheco, T. Xie, D. Marinov, and M.D. Ernst, "An Empirical Comparison of Automated Generation and Classification Techniques for Object-Oriented Unit Testing," Proc. 21st IEEE/ACM Int'l Conf. Automated Software Eng., 2006.

4.        T. Xie and D. Notkin, "Tool-Assisted Unit-Test Generation and Selection Based on Operational Abstractions.

5.        C. Pacheco, S.K. Lahiri, M.D. Ernst, and T. Ball, "Feedback- Directed Random Test Generation," Proc. 29th Int'l Conf. Software Eng., pp. 396-405, May 2007.

6.        F. Belli, C.J. Budnik, and L. White, "Event-Based Modelling, Analysis and Testing of User Interactions: Approach and Case Study: Research Articles," Software Testing, Verification, and Reliability, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 3-32, 2006.

7.        M. Auguston, J.B. Michael, and M.-T. Shing, "Environment Behavior Models for Scenario Generation and Testing Automation," Proc. First Int'l Workshop Advances in
Model-Based Testing, pp. 1-6, 2005.

8.        A.M. Memon, M.E. Pollack, and M.L. Soffa, "Hierarchical GUI Test Case Generation Using Automated Planning," IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 144-155, Feb. 2001.

9.        F. Ipate and M. Holcombe, "Complete Testing from a Stream XMachine Specification," Fundamenta Informaticae, vol. 64, nos. 1-4, pp. 205-216, 2004.

10.     M. Barnett, W. Grieskamp, L. Nachmanson, W. Schulte, N. Tillmann, and M. Veanes, "Towards a Tool Environment for Model-Based Testing with AsmL," Proc. Int'l Workshop Formal Approach to Software Testing, pp. 252-266, 2003.

11.     E. Farchi, A. Hartman, and S.S. Pinter, "Using a Model-Based Test Generator to Test for Standard Conformance," IBM Systems J., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 89-110, 2002.


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25.

Authors:

Nishit Bedi

Paper Title:

Heat Transfer at Microscales – Accomplishments and Oppurtunities

Abstract:   The need for high removal of heat transfer rates yet lowering the dimensions demands for development of micro cooling techniques. In this regard many papers have been published in the recent past covering understanding the boiling mechanism, the effects of dimensions on flow boiling and attempt to enhance heat transfer. This paper presents the roadmap to cooling, difference between the conventional and the microchannels and the considerations which can affect the results significantly.  Suggestions for efforts in specific areas in this field are also provided

Keywords:
   Heat transfer, Scaling effects, Boiling, Microchannel.


References:

1.        S.G.Kandlikar, “Scale effects on flow boiling heat transfer in microchannels: A fundamental perspective” International Journal of Thermal Science, vol. 49, pp. 1073 – 1085, 2010.
2.        Ali Kosar, “Effect of substrate thickness and material on heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks” International Journal of Thermal Science, vol. 49, pp. 635 – 642, 2010.

3.        Naphon P and Khonseur O, “Study on convective heat transfer and pressure drop in micro – channel heat sink” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer vol. 36, pp 39 – 44, 2010.

4.        Guo Z.Y. and Li Z.X., “Size effect on microscale single – phase flow and heat transfer” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer vol. 46, pp 149 – 159., 2003

5.        Ashish Asthana, Igor Zinovik, Christian Weinmueller, Dimos Poulikakos., “Significant Nusselt number increase in microchannels with a segmented flow of two immiscible liquids: An experimental study” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer vol. 54, pp 1456 – 1464, 2011.

6.        Hetsroni G, A Mosyak, Z Segal, G Ziskind, “A uniform temperature heat sink for cooling of electronic devices” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 45, pp. 3275 – 3286, 2002.

7.        H. Herwig, O.Housner, Critical view on “New results in micro fluid mechanics”: an example, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer vol. 46, pp 935 – 937, 2003. 

8.        H. Herwig, “Flow and heat transfer in micro systems: is everything different or just smaller?” in: Proc.GAMM 2001, Zurich Switzerland, February 2001.pp 579- 586.

9.        R.R. Bhide, S.G. Singh, Arunkumar Sridharan, S.P. Duttagupta, Amit Agarwal “Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of boiling water in sub hundred micron channel” Experimental Thermal and fluid science vol. 33, pp. 963 – 975, 2009.

10.     Kevin D. Cole, Barbaros Cetin, “The effect of axial conduction on heat transfer in a liquid microchannel flow” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer vol. 54, pp. 2542 – 2549, 2011.

11.     K. Hooman, F. Hooman, M. Famouri, “Scaling effects for flow in microchannels: Variable property, viscous heating, velocity slip, temperature jump” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer vol. 36, pp 192 – 196, 2009.

12.     Satish G. Kandlikar, Srinivas Garimella, Dongqing Li, Stephane Colin, Michael R. King, Heat transfer and fluid flow in minichannels and microchannels, 1st ed., Elsevier, 2006.

13.     J. van Rij, T. Ameel, T. Harman, “An evaluation of secondary effects in microchannel friction and convective heat transfer characteristics” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 52, pp. 2792 – 2801, 2009.

14.     Y. Sui, C.J.Teo, P.S Lee, Y.T. Chew, C.Shu, “Fluid flow and heat transfer in wavy microchannels” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 53, pp. 2760 – 2772, 2010.

15.     P. Rosa, T.G.Karayiannis, M.W.Collins, “Single phase heat transfer in microchannels: The importance of scaling effects” Applied Thermal Engineering, vol. 29, pp. 3447 – 3468, 2009.

16.     Guodong Wang, Liang Hao, Ping Cheng, “An experimental and numerical study of forced convection in a microchannel with negligible axial heat conduction” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer vol. 52, 1070 – 1074, 2009.

17.     T.Harirchian and S.V. Garimella, “The critical role of channel cross sectional area in microchannel flow boiling heat transfer” International Journal of multiphase flow vol. 35, pp. 904 – 913, 2009.

18.     Satish G. Kandlikar, “Fundamental issues related to flow boiling in minichannels and microchannels” Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science vol. 26, pp. 389 – 407, 2002.

19.     Mark E. Steinke and Satish G. Kandlikar, “An experimental investigation of flow boiling characteristics of water in parallel microchannels” ASME J.of Heat transfer, vol. 126, pp. 518–526, 2004.

20.     Hetsroni G, A Mosyak, Z Segal, E Pogrebnyak, “Heat transfer of gas liquid mixture in microchannel heat sink” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer vol. 52, pp. 3963 – 3971, 2009.

21.     Amy Rachel Betz and Daniel Attinger, “Can segmented flow enhance heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks?” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 53, 3683–3691, 2010.

22.     Kwang-Il Choi, A.S. Pamitran, Chun – Young Oh, Jong-Taek Oh, “Boiling heat transfer of R-22, R-134a and CO2 in horizontal smooth minichannels” International Journal of Refrigeration, vol. 30, pp. 1336 – 1346, 2007.

23.     Chang K. H, Chain Pan, “2 Phase flow instability for boiling in a microchannel heat sink” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer vol. 50, pp. 2078 – 2088, 2007.

24.     Ashok K. Satapathy, “Slip flow heat transfer in an infinite microtube with axial conduction” International Journal of Thermal Science vol. 49, pp. 153 – 160, 2010.

25.     D. Brutin, Jacqueline Barber, K. Safiane, J.L. Gardarein, L. Tadrist, “Unsteady-state fluctuations analysis during bubble growth in a rectangular microchannel”
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 54, pp. 4784 – 4795, 2011.

26.     R.J. Moffat, “Do’s and Don’ts in thermal management” 2nd IEEE International Conference on Thermal Issues in Emerging Technologies, Theory and Applications, Cairo, Egypt Dec 17th – 20th 2008, 125-132.

27.     W. Owhaib, B. Palm, “Experimental investigation of single – phase convective heat transferin circular microchannels” Experimental Thermal and fluid Science vol. 28, pp. 105 – 110, 2004.

28.     S. A. Solovitz, L. D. Stevanovic, R. A. Beaupre, “Micro-channel thermal management of high power devices” IEEE conference on Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 19 – 23, March 2006, pp. 885 – 891.

29.     W. Li, Z Wu, “A general criteria for evaporative heat transfer in micro/mini channels,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.53, pp. 1967- 1976, 2010.


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26.

Authors:

Lakshmi.B, P.Srinivasulu

Paper Title:

Mems 3-Axis Accelerometer Based Black Box for Fragile Package Damage Identification

Abstract:    The main aim of this project is to develop a MEMS 3-AXIS ACCELEROMETER BASED BLACK BOX for fragile package damage identification monitoring. The system consists of cooperative components of an accelerometer, micro controller unit and Gps module .in the time of crash, at user end when the package is found damaged due to transport the details of its damage can be determined using this black box. The system is compact and easy to install in the package and consume low power. The system has been tested in real world cargo applications. The test results show that it can display the UTC Time, latitude and longitude with high accuracy.

Keywords:
  3-Axis Accelerometer, Black box, fragile package, GPS tracking system, Micro Electro Mechanical Systems,


References:

1.        D.Malan,T.R.F.FulfordJones,M.Welsh,S.Moultn CodeBlue: an Ad-hoc sensor network infrastructure for emergency medical care, in:Proceedings of the Moby-Sys 2004 Work shop on Applications of Mobile.
2.        M. Lu, W. chen, X. Shen, H.C. Lam and J. Liu, "Positioning andTracking construction vehicle in highly dense urban areas and buildingConstruction sites," Automation in Construction, vol. 16, issue5.pp.647-656,August 2007.

3.        Kevin King, S.W. Yoon, N.C. Perkins, K. Najafi, “Wireless MEMS inertial sensor system for golf swing dynamics”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol.141, 2, 2008.

4.        John H. Wall and David M. Bevly, “Characterization of Inertial Sensor Measurements for Navigation Performance Analysis, “Proceedings of the 19th Interna- tional Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of 993 the Institute of Navigation ION GNSS 2006), Fort Worth, TX, Sep. 2006

5.        Chung-ChengChiu, Min-YuKu, Hung-Tsung, Chen Nat, "Motorcycle Detection and Tracking System with Occlusion Segmentation,” Image Analysis for Multimedia Interactive Services. Santorini, vol. 2, pp. 32-32, June 2007.


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27.

Authors:

Asma Abd Elhameed Hussein, Nasir Shafiq, Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin

Paper Title:

A Comprehensive Experimental Study on the Performance of Fly Ash concrete

Abstract:    In this study, the effect of fly ash on concrete workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and bond strength was investigated. The ordinary Portland cement was replaced with 5 to 50% fly ash, it was observed that 10 % fly ash showed the highest compressive strength at all ages, use of 15%-30% fly ash significantly increased the compressive strength at 90 and 180 days. The fly ash improved the bond strength of concrete at all replacement levels. It was concluded that 10%FA and 15%FA were the optimum replacement levels for all the investigated properties.

Keywords:
   Fly Ash, workability, Compressive Strength, Splitting Tensile Strength, Bond strength, Pull out test.


References:

1.        N. Shafiq, M. F Nuruddin and I. Kamaruddin, “Comparison of engineering and durability properties of fly ash blended cement concrete made in UK and Malaysia,” journal of Advances in Applied Ceramics Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 314–318, 2007.
2.        N. Shafiq, “Effects of Fly Ash on chloride migration in concrete and calculation of cover depth required against the corrosion of embedded reinforcement,” Structural Concrete, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 5–9, 2004.

3.        E. M. R. Fairbairn, B. B. Americano, G. C. Cordeiro, T. P. Paula, R. D. Toledo Filho, and M. M. Silvoso, “Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.,” Journal of environmental management, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 1864–71, Sep. 2010.

4.        A M Neville, “Properties of concrete,” New York, Longman, 1995.

5.        A.A. Ramezanianpour and V. M. Malhotra, “Effect of curing on the compressive strength, resistance to chloride-ion penetration and porosity of concretes
incorporating slag, fly ash or silica fume,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 125–133, Jan. 1995.

6.        M.N. Haque and O. Kayali, “PROPERTIES OF HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE USING A FINE FLY ASH,” vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1445–1452, 1998.

7.        V. G. Papadakis, “Effect of supplementary cementing materials on concrete resistance against carbonation and chloride ingress,” Cement and Concrete
Research, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 291–299, Feb. 2000.

8.        C. S. Poon, L. Lam, and Y. L. Wong, “A study on high strength concrete prepared with large volumes of low calcium fly ash,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 447–455, Mar. 2000.

9.        N Bouzoubaâ M Lachemi, “Self-compacting concrete incorporating high volumes of class F fly ash Preliminary results,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, pp. 413–420, 2001.

10.     J. Yin, S. Zhou, Y. Xie, Y. Chen, and Q. Yan, “Investigation on compounding and application of C80–C100 high-performance concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 173–177, Feb. 2002.

11.     R. Siddique, “Performance characteristics of high-volume Class F fly ash concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 37–42, Mar. 2004.

12.     M. N. S. Hadi, “Bond of High Strength Concrete with High Strength Reinforcing Steel,” no. 3, pp. 143–147, 2008.

13.     A. C. A. Emre Sancak, Osman Simsek, “A comparative study on the bond performance between rebar and structural lightweight pumice concrete with/without admixture,” international journal of the physical sciences, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 3437–3454, 2011.

14.     K. Ahmed, Z. A. Siddiqi, and M. Yousaf, “S l i p p a g e o f S t e e l i n H i g h a n d N o r m a l S t r e n g t h C o n c r e t e,” Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci., vol. 1, 2007.

15.     L. Jiang, “The interfacial zone and bond strength between aggregates and cement pastes incorporating high volumes of fly ash,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 313–316, Aug. 1999.

16.     “BS 12-Specifications for Portland Cement,” British Standards Institute, London, 1996.

17.     MS, “522: Part 4 Specification for Portland Cement (Ordinary and Rapid hardening),” Malaysian Standards, 1989.

18.     “BS 812-103.2 Testing Aggregates. Methods for Determination of Particle Size Distribution. Sedimentation Test.,” British Standards Institute, London, 1989.

19.     ASTM, “C 618-Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in concrete,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 2009.

20.     “BS 1881-125 Testing Concrete: Methods of Mixing and Sampling Fresh Concrete in the Laboratory,” British Standards Institute, London, 1986.

21.     “BS 1881: Part 102 Testing Fresh Concrete: Method for determination of Slump,” British Standards Institute, London, 1983.

22.     “BS 1881: Part 111 Method for Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete,” British Standards Institute, London, 1983.

23.     “BS 1881: Part 117: Testing Concrete method for determination of tensile splitting strength,” British Standards Institute, London, 1983.

24.     “ASTM C 234-91a, Test methods for comparing concretes on the basis of the bond developed with reinforcing steel,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1999.

25.     B. A. Mict, “Properties of Concrete for use in Eurocode 2 Properties of concrete for use in.”

26.     J. J. Brooks, M. A. M. Johari, and M. Mazloom, “Effect of admixtures on the setting times of high-strength,” Cement & Concrete Composites, vol. 22, pp. 293–301, 2000.

27.     C. Duran Atiş, “Strength properties of high-volume fly ash roller compacted and workable concrete, and influence of curing condition,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1112–1121, Jun. 2005.

28.     C. Jaturapitakkul, K. Kiattikomol, V. Sata, and T. Leekeeratikul, “Use of ground coarse fly ash as a replacement of condensed silica fume in producing high-strength concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 549–555, Apr. 2004.

29.     H. Bin Mahmud, M. F. A. Malik, R. A. Kahar, M. F. M. Zain, and S. N. Raman, “Mechanical Properties and Durability of Normal and Water Reduced High Strength Grade 60 Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash,” Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 21–30, 2009.


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28.

Authors:

Anurag Sharma

Paper Title:

Retreading of Tyres

Abstract:    Tyre is made up of natural rubber or synthetic rubber.natural rubber is present as milky liquid or latex in the bark of rubber tree, HEVEA BRASILIENSIS. Natural rubber combines with carbon, oil, sulfur and the chemicals under goes a number of stages of processes. synthetic rubber polymers found in crude oil by retreading tyre we are doing a good job which is in favor of Natural resources. We are also reducing our dependency on Natural rubber trees. It also gives good utility an opportunity for the growing of small scale and large scale retreading units or workshops. In India mostly commercial vehicles tyres are retreaded. State Govt. , Delhi Govt., Central Govt. Bus services departments etc. also retreaded their vehicles tyres. Pvt. tour operators and commercial vehicles also retreaded tyres. if one wants to set his own retreading unit then it is also profitable business activity. This paper presents all these aspects.

Keywords:
   Retreading, buffing, vulcanization, curing


References:

1.       Chary.S.N.,Production and operation management (III edition) chapter-4, pages-4.3, 4.4, Tata McGraw ill.
2.       N.S.I.C Okhla Phase-III, New Delhi, consultation

3.       Central Workshop-II, Okhla (DTC) apperentice ship Training

4.       Revision of rates of preparation Small industries service Institute (Sikkim) December-2002.

5.       www.aryanmachinery.com

6.       www.madehow.com/volume


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29.

Authors:

Rakhi A. Kalantri, D.K. Chitre

Paper Title:

Automatic Wheelchair using Gesture Recognition

Abstract:    The needs of many individuals with disabilities can be satisfied with traditional manual or powered wheelchairs, a segment of the disabled community finds it difficult or impossible to use wheelchairs. There is extensive research on computer-controlled chairs where sensors and intelligent control algorithms have been used to minimize the level of human intervention. This project describes a wheelchair for physically disabled people. Our goal is to design and develop a system that allows the user to robustly interact with the wheelchair at different levels of the control and sensing.  A dependent-user recognition using Head movements and infrared sensor integrated with wheelchair. A wheelchair can be driven using acceleration sensor and Head Movements with the possibility of avoiding obstacles. Our project Automatic wheelchair basically works on the principle of acceleration, one acceleration sensor, provides two axis, acceleration sensors whose output varies according to acceleration applied to it, by applying simple formula we calculate the amount of tilt & output of tilt will decide to move in which direction. Sensor gives x-axis & y-axis o/p independently which is fed to ADC & then µC & depending on the pulse width it decides to move or not. On chair Obstacle sensors will be installed. Total 4 sensors will be installed for detection of wall/obstacle in the forward, backward, left & right direction. We are trying to build a controlled wheelchair; the system will understand and obeys natural language motion commands such as “Take a right.”  Various technologies are used for developing such a system.                                                     

Keywords:
   AT89C51 microcontroller MAX232 for protocol conversion, acceleration sensor L293D driver IC, 12v DC power supply, Serial cable, Kiel uv3 for Embedded ‘C’ programming


References:

1.        Bourhis G, Moumen K, Pino P, Rohmer S, Pruski A. Assisted navigation for a powered wheelchair. Systems Engineering in the Service of Humans: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics; 1993 Oct 17-20; Le Touquet, France. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE; 1993. p. 553-58.
2.        Boy ES, Teo CL, Burdet E. Collaborative wheelchair assistant. Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS); 2002 Sep 30-Oct 5; Lausanne, Switzerland. Piscataway (NJ):IEEE; 2002. p. 1511-16.[3]B. Rebsamen, C. L. Teo, Q.

3.        Zeng, M. H. Ang Jr., E. Burdet, C. Guan, H. Zhang, and C. Laugier. Controlling a wheelchair indoors using thought. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 22(2):18-24, 2007.

4.        Keating D, Warwick K. Robotic trainer for powered wheelchair users. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics; 1993 Oct 17-20; Le Touquet, France. Piscataway (NJ): IEEE; 1993. p. 489-93.

5.        Masato Nishimori, Takeshi Saitoh and Ryosuke Konishi, "Voice controlled intelligent wheelchair,"

6.        SICE Annual Conference 2007, International  onference on Instrumentation, Control and Information Technology, 2007, pp.336-340.

7.        Moon, M. Lee, J. Chu, and M. Mun, "Wearable EMG-based HCI for Electric-Powered Wheelchair Users with Motor Disabilities," Proc. of the 2005 IEEE Int. Conf. on
Robotics and Automation, pp. 2649-2654, 2005.

8.        R. Simpson, D. Poirot, and M. F. Baxter. Evaluation of the Hephaestus smart wheelchair system. In Intemational Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, 1999.

9.        S.I.Roumeliotis, G.S.Sukhatime, and G.A.Bekey, "Fault Detection and Identification in a Mobile Robot using Multiple-Model Estimation," Proc. of 1998 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation(ICRA), 1998, pp.2223-2228.


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30.

Authors:

G.Yedukondalu, J.Suresh Kumar, A.Srinath, V. Naga Venkatesh

Paper Title:

Dynamic Analysis and Optimization of Delta Parallel Robot for Chest Compression Task

Abstract:    Chest compression task in the process of Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been a very important requirement for the purpose of rescue of patients in emergency. Resuscitation (CPR) is presented in this paper. According to the requirements of CPR action from medical viewpoints, a new parallel manipulator employing the architecture of Delta parallel robot is designed, which utilizes an optimization methodology for such applications. In this paper, the dynamic analysis and optimization of Delta parallel manipulator is carried out in details. The results clearly illustrate the optimization of the delta parallel robot to assist in CPR operation.

Keywords:
   Chest Compression, Medical Robot, Parallel Manipulator, Dynamic Analysis, Optimization.


References:

1.        Kouwenhoven W, Jude J, Knickerbocker G: Closed-chest cardiac massage. JAMA 1960, 173:1064-7.
2.        Abella BS, et al: Chest compression rates during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are suboptimal: a prospective study during in-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 2005, 111(4):428-34.

3.       
http://www.health.harvard.edu.
4.        J.-P. Merlet, Parallel Robots. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.

5.        G. Brandt, A. Zimolong, L. Carrat, P. Merloz, H.-W. Staudte, S. Lavall´ee, K. Radermacher, and G. Rau, “CRIGOS: A compact robot for imageguided orthopedic surgery,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Technol. Biomed., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 252–260, 1999.

6.        M. Shoham, E. Zehavi, L. Joskowicz, E. Batkilin, and Y. Kunicher, “Bone-mounted miniature robot for surgical procedures: Concept and clinical applications,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Automat., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 893–901, 2003.

7.        H. Takanobu, T. Maruyama, A. Takanishi, K. Ohtsuki, and M. Ohnishi, “Mouth opening and closing training with 6-DOF parallel robot,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, San Francisco, CA, 2000, pp. 1384–1389.

8.        K. Homma, O. Fukuda, J. Sugawara, Y. Nagata, and M. Usuba, “A wiredriven leg rehabilitatoin system: Development of a 4-DOF experimental system,” in Proc. of IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. on Advanced  Intelligent Mechatronics, 2003, pp. 908–913.

9.        T. Arai, K. Takayama, K. Inoue, Y. Mae, and Y. Kosek, “Parallel mechanisms with adjustable link parameters,” in Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2000, pp. 671–676.

10.     Christophe A. Wyss, Julia Fox, FabianFranzeck, Marco Moccettia, AlfonsScherrer, Jens P. Hellermann,Thomas F. Lüscher, “Mechanical versus manual chest compressionduring CPR in a cardiac catherisation setting”, Cardiovascular Medicine 2010;13(3):92–96.

11.     Yangmin Li and Qingsong Xu. Ha, “Dynamic Analysis of a Modified DELTA Parallel Robot for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation”, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on intelligent Robots and systems, 2005, pp. 233-238.

12.    
http://www.resus.org.uk/siteindx.htm
13.    
www.heart.org
14.     G.Yedukondalu, Dr. A.Srinath, and Dr. J.Suresh Kumar, “Design and Development of Different Delta Parallel Robots for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Application”, International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 6, No.6, 2013.


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31.

Authors:

Ankur Chourasia, Akhilesh Singh Thakur, Vibha Tiwari

Paper Title:

A Watershed Segmentation Process based on Progressive Median Filtering & Gradient Map

Abstract:    In this paper, we present a digital image segmentation algorithm that is effective and offers robustness while minimizing the over segmentation issues.  The proposed algorithm is designed to use the combination of Median-filtering, soft thresholding and watershed segmentation method, and sobel gradient map was used to perform image segmentation and edge detection tasks. In brief, median filter is performed on the image to limit the problem of undesirable over-segmentation results produced by the watershed algorithm. Soft thresholding is carried based on the region’s maximum value to obtain binary segments of various classes to boast the watershed algorithm performance. The gradient map is created based on the edge strength of the image using sobel operators. In addition, the simulations results reveal that the proposed system offers improved segmentation results in comparison with the regular watershed algorithms.  

Keywords:
   Watershed algorithm, segmentation, media filter, sobel operator, morphological operation.


References:

1.       R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey 2008.
2.       D. Comaniciu and P. Meer, “Mean shift: a robust approach toward feature space Analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.
24, no. 5, pp. 603-619, May 2002

3.       N. R. Pal and S. K. Pal, "A review on image segmentation techniques," Pattern Recognition, vol. 26, pp. 1277-1294, 1993.

4.       R. Adams, and L. Bischof, “Seeded region growing,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 641-647, June, 1994.

5.       J. J. Ding, C. J. Kuo, and W. C. Hong, “An efficient image segmentation technique by fast scanning and adaptive merging,” CVGIP, Aug. 2009.

6.       Lei Li, Jin-Yan Li and Wen-Yan Ding, “A new method for color image segmentation based on FSVM,” IEEE proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Qingdao, pp. 664-668, July 2010

7.       Wenbing Tao, Hai Jin, and Yimin Zhang, “Color image segmentation based on mean shift and normalized cuts,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part B: Cybernetics, Vol. 37, No. 5, Oct 2007

8.       Cheng-Wan An, Gui-Zhi Li, Guo-Sheng Yang, and Min Tan, “Color image adaptive segmentation based on rival penalized competitive learning,” IEEE Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Shanghai, pp.2558-2662, Aug 2004

9.       Ming-Xin Zhang, Cai-Yun Zhao, Zhao-Wei Shang, Hua Li and Jin-Long Zheng, “An algorithm based on rough-set theory for color image segmentation,” IEEE Proceedings of the International Conference on Wavelet Analysis and Pattern Recognition, Qingdao, July 2010.

10.     Chunming Li, ChenyangXu, ChangfengGui and Martin D. Fox, “Distance regularized level set evolution and its application to image segmentation,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 19, No. 12, pp.3243-3253

11.     Luc Vincent and Pierre Soille, "Watersheds in Digital Spaces: An Efficient Algorithm Based on Immersion Simulations," IEEE Transactions of Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1991, pp. 583-598.

12.     A. Saurabh, Yadav J. S, and Ravindranath C. C, “A novel weighted median switching filter for denoising corrupted images” International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 64, No.21, pp:5-11, 2013.

13.     XiaoJun Du, “Image segmentation and its applications based on Mumford-Shah model,” Ph.D Doctoral Thesis, Concordia University, Canada, April 2011

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32.

Authors:

Vikas Kumar

Paper Title:

Survey Paper on Cloud Computing

Abstract:    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a new paradigm for hosting and delivering services over the Inter- net. Cloud computing is attractive to business owners as it eliminates the requirement for users to plan ahead for provisioning, and allows enterprises to start from the small and increase resources only when there is a rise in service demand. However, despite the fact that cloud computing offers huge opportunities to the IT industry, the development of cloud computing technology is currently at its infancy, with many issues still to be addressed. In this paper, we present a survey of cloud computing, highlighting its key concepts, architectural principles, and state of the art implementation as well as research challenges. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the design challenges of cloud computing and identify important research directions in this increasingly important area.

Keywords:
 despite the fact that cloud computing offers huge opportunities to the IT industry


References:

1.        Phaphoom.N, Wang. X, Abrahamson.P." Foundations and Technological Landscape of Cloud Computing" (ISRN Software Engineering Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 782174, 31 pages)
2.        Dhiman.G, Marchetti.G, Rosing.T "v: Green: a system for energy efficient computing in virtualized environments" (Proceedings of the 14th ACM/IEEE international symposium on Low power electronics and design, page 243-248, published in ACM, 2009)

3.        D. Ramesh, A. Krishnan "An Analysis on Energy Efficient System Design in Grid Computing"( Second International Conference, CCSIT 2012, Bangalore, India, January 2-4, 2012. Proceedings, pp 421-428)

4.        Barroso, L.A. Holzle, U. "The Case for Energy-Proportional Computing" (IEEE computer society, Volume: 40, Issue: 12, Dec. 2007 Page:33 - 37, ISSN :0018-9162)

5.        Kansa.A, Zhao.F. "Fine-Grained Energy Profiling for Power-Aware Application Design" (http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/zhao/pubs/hotmetrics08joulemeter.pdf)

6.        Arjamaa.H, "Energy Consumption Estimates of Information and Communication Technology: synthesis and analysis"

7.        Christopher K. Lennard A. Richard Newton," An Estimation Technique to Guide Low Power Resynthesis"
(http://pdf.aminer.org/000/436/871/an_estimation_technique_to_guide_low_power_resynthesis_algorithms.pdf)

8.        E. Pinheiro, R. Bianchini, E. V. Carrera, and T. Heath, "Load Balancing and Unbalancing for Power and Performance in Cluster-Based Systems" (Workshop on Compilers and Operating Systems for Low Power, pp: 182-195, 2009. ) 

9.        S. Srikantaiah, A. Kansal, and F. Zhao, "Energy Aware Consolidation for Cloud Computing", (Cluster Computing, Vol. 12, pp: 1-15, 2009.)

10.     E. Elnozahy, M. Kistler, R. Rajamony, "Energy-Efficient Server Clusters" (Power-Aware Computer Systems, pp: 179-197, 2003)

11.     R. Nathuji and K. Schwan, "Virtualpower: Coordinated Power Management in Virtualized Enterprise Systems" (ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, Vol. 41, pp: 256-278, 2007.)

12.     E. Dodonov, R. de Mell, "A Novel Approach for Distributed Application Scheduling Based on Prediction of Communication Events" (Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 5, pp: 740-752, 2010.)

13.     C. Guo, G. Lu, H. Wang, S. Yang, C. Kong, P. Sun, W. Wu,Y. Zhang, "Secondnet: A Data  Center Network Virtualization Architecture with Bandwidth Guarantees", (6th International Conference on emerging Networking Experiments and Technologies, USA, 2010.)

14.     J. L. Berral, R. Nou, F. Julia, "Towards Energy-Aware Scheduling in Data Centers using Machine Learning" (1st International Conference on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, Passau, Germany, 2010.)

15.     Y. Song, H. Wang, Y. Li, B. Feng,  Y. Sun, "Multi-Tiered On-Demand Resource Scheduling for VM-Based Data Center"( 9th  IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, China, pp: 148-155, 2009.)

16.     Jie Liu, Michel Goraczko, Sean James, Christian Belady "The Data Furnace: Heating Up with Cloud Computing"

17.     A. Sahai and B. Waters. Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. In Proc. of EUROCRYPT'05, Aarhus, Denmark, 2005.

18.     D. Boneh and M. Franklin. Identity-Based Encryption from The Weil Pairing. In Proc. of CRYPTO'01, Santa Barbara, California, USA, 2001.

19.     M. Pirretti, P. Traynor, P. McDaniel, and B. Waters. Secure Atrribute-Based Systems. In Proc. of CCS'06, New York, NY, USA, 2006.

20.     V. Goyal, O. Pandey, A. Sahai, and B. Waters. Attribute-Based Encryption for Fine-grained Access Control of Encrypted Data. In Proc. of CCS'06, Alexandria, Virginia, USA, 2006.  

21.     R. Ostrovsky, A. Sahai, and B. Waters. "Attribute-based encryption with non-monotonic access structures". In Proc. of CCS'06, New York, NY, 2007.

22.     M. Chase. "Multi-authority attribute based encryption". In Proc. of TCC'07, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2007.

23.     J. Bethencourt, A. Sahai, and B. Waters. Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption. In Proc. of SP'07, Washington, DC, USA, 2007.

24.     L. Cheung and C. Newport. Provably Secure Ciphertext Policy ABE. In Proc. of CCS'07, New York, NY, USA, 2007.

25.     B. Waters, "Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption: An Expressive, E?cient, and Provably Secure Realization", http://eprint.iacr.org/2008/290.

26.     V. Goyal, A. Jain, O. Pandey and A. Sahai, "Bounded Ciphertext-Policy Attribute based Encryption", In Proc. of ICALP'08, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2008

27.     M. J. Hinek, S. Jiang, R. Safavi-Naini, and S. F. Shahandashti, "Attribute-Based Encryption with Key Cloning Protection", http://eprint.iacr.org/2008/478

28.     Jin Li, Qian Wang, Cong Wang, and Kui Ren, "Enhancing Attribute-based Encryption with Attribute Hierarchy," In Proc. of ChinaCom'09, Xi'an, China, 2009.


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33.

Authors:

Onur Yemenici, Ali Sakin

Paper Title:

Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer for Laminar and Turbulent Flow over Ribbed Walls

Abstract:    A numerical investigation is conducted flows over heated ribbed walls under the effect of the Reynolds number and rib height. Laminar and turbulent flow with constant thermophysical properties is assumed for air at two values of the initial streamwise Reynolds number of 2.7x105 and 3.4x106. The finite- volume-method is employed to solve the governing equations, coupled with the k─ turbulence model with near-wall treatment. The results indicate that the presence of the ribs can effectively enhance the heat transfer. The heat transfer enhancement increased rib height and become more pronounced in laminar than that of turbulent flows.

Keywords:
   Heat transfer enhancement, flow separation, ribbed wall, laminar flow, turbulent flow 


References:
1.        Y.-L. Tsay, J.-C. Cheng, Analysis of convective heat transfer characteristics for a channel containing short multi-boards mounted with heat generating blocks, Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans. 51 (2008) 145–154.
2.        H. Braun, H. Neumann, N.K. Mitra, Experimental and numerical investigation of turbulent heat transfer in a channel with periodically arranged rib roughness elements, Exp. Thermal Fluid Sci. 19 (1999) 67-76.

3.        D.N. Ryu, D.H. Choi, V.C. Patel, Analysis of turbulent flow in channels roughened by two-dimensional ribs and three-dimensional blocks. Part II: Heat transfer, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 28 (2007) 1112–1124.

4.        S.-W. Perng, H.-W. Wu, Numerical investigation of mixed convective heat transfer for unsteady turbulent flow over heated blocks in a horizontal channel, Int. J. Thermal Sci. 47 (2008) 620-632.

5.        K.S. Mushatet, Simulation of turbulent flow and heat transfer over a backward-facing step with ribs turbulators, Thermal Sci. 15 (2011) 245–255.

6.        G. Iaccarino, A. Ooi, P.A. Durbin, Conjugate heat transfer predictions in two-dimensional ribbed passages, Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23 (2002) 340–345.

7.        D.D. Luo, C.W. Leung, T.L. Chan, W.O. Wong, Flow and forced-convection characteristics of turbulent flow through parallel plates with periodic transverse rib, Num. Heat Transfer Part A 48 (2005) 43–58.

8.        A. Korichi, L. Oufer, Heat transfer enhancement in oscillatory flow in channel with periodically upper and lower walls mounted obstacles, , Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 52 (2006) 1138-1148.

9.        H. Iacovides, M. Raisee, Computation of flow and heat transfer in two dimensional rib-roughened passages, using low-Reynolds-number turbulence models, Int. J. Num. Methods Heat &Fluid Flow 11 (2000)  138–155.

10.     Z.X. Yuan, Numerical study of periodically turbulent flow and heat transfer in a channel with transverse fin array, Int. J. Num. Methods Heat &Fluid Flow 10 (2000) 842-861.

11.     Y. Zeng, K. Vafai, An investigation of convective cooling of an array of channel-mounted obstacles, Num. Heat Trans., Part A, 55 (2009) 967–982.

12.     M. Nakajima, H. Yanaoka, H. Yoshikawa, T. Ota, Numerical simulation of three-dimensional separated flow and heat transfer around staggered surface-mounted rectangular blocks in a channel, Num. Heat Trans., Part A, 47 (2005) 691–708.

13.     B.E. Launder, D.B. Spalding, Lectures in mathematical models of turbulence, Academic Press, London (1972).

14.     M.M. Mohammed, Air cooling characteristics of a uniform square modules array for electronic device heat sink, Appl. Thermal Eng. 26 (2006) 486–493.


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34.

Authors:

K N Pushpalatha, A K Gautham, Satish S B, Sabyasachi Pattnaik

Paper Title:

Efficient Fusion based Directional and Textural features for Signature Verification

Abstract:    Biometric signature verification, nowadays an important technique to recognize human identity. The accuracy of signature verification has lot of scope for improvement. In this paper, we propose an offline signature verification using fusion of Directional and Textural features. The Image is preprocessed and divided into sub-bands by applying DWT. The Directional features- Gradient, Coherence, Orientation and Textural features- correlation, energy and homogeneity are computed from the sub-bands and concatenated to form feature vector. The Feed Forward ANN tool in MATLAB is used for classification and verification. The results of False Rejection Rate (FAR), False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and Total Success Rate (TSR) are obtained for GPDS-960 database. A total of 204 images are used for training and testing. It is observed that the values of FRR, FAR and TSR are improved compared to the existing algorithms.

Keywords:
   ANN, Biometric, Coherence, DWT, Textural features.


References:

1.       Saad Mamoun Abdel Rhman Ahmed, “Off–line arabic signature verification using geometrical features,” National workshop on Information Research(WIAR 2012), King Saud University, 2012,pp.1-6.
2.       Vu Nguyen, Michael Blumenstein, “An application of the 2d gaussian filter for enhancing feature extraction in off-line signature verification,” IEEE International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition,2011,pp 339-343.

3.       Srikanta Pal, Alaei Alireza, Umapada Pal, Michael Blumenstein, “ Off-line signature identification using background and foreground information,”IEEE International Conference on Digital Image Computing: Techniques and  Applications, 2011, pp 672-677.

4.       Dakshina Ranjan Kisku,  Ajita Rattani,  Phalguni Gupta,  Jamuna Kanta Sing, “Offline signature verification using geometric and orientation features with multiple experts fusion,” IEEE 3rd International Conference on Electronics Computer Technology, 2011, pp 269-272.

5.       B.H.Shekar, R.K.Bharathi,  “Eigen-signature: A robust and an efficient offline signature verification algorithm,” IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Information Technology, ICRTIT 2011  MIT, Anna University, Chennai, 2011, June 3-5.

6.       Konstantinos Tselios, Elias N. Zois, Athanasios Nassiopoulos, George Economou, “Fusion of directional transitional features for off-line signature verification,” IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics,2011, pp 1-6.

7.       Srikanta Pal, Vu Nguyen, Michael Blumenstein, Umapada Pal,“ Off-line bangla signature verification,” IEEE Tenth IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems,2012,pp 282-286.

8.       Abd. Fatah Wahab, Rozaimi Zakaria, Zamaludin Md. Ali, “Fuzzy interpolation rational bezier curve,” IEEE Seventh International Conference on Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualisation,   2010,pp 63-67.

9.       Muhammad Reza Pourshahabi, Mohamad Hoseyn Sigari, Hamid Reza Pourreza, “Offline handwritten signature identification and verification using contourlet transform,” IEEE International Conference of Soft Computing and Pattern Recognition, 2009, pp 670-673.

10.     Md. Asraful Haque, Tofik AliIn, Dr.Rashid Ali, “Offline signature verification method using weighted block analysis,”  IEEE-International conference on advances in Engineering,Science And Management, March 30-31, 2012, pp 134-139.

11.     Luana Batista, Eric Granger and Robert Sabourin, “Applying dissimilarity representation to off-line signature verification,” IEEE International Conference on Pattern Recognition,2010, pp 1293-1297.

12.     Nassim Abbas, Youcef Chibani, “ SVM-DSmT combination for off-line signature verification,” IEEE International conference on Computer, Information and Telecommunication Systems,2012, pp 1-5.

13.     Vu Nguyen, Michael Blumenstein, “ A compact size feature set for the off-line signature verification problem,” IEEE Tenth IAPR International Workshop on Document Analysis Systems,2012,pp 261-265.

14.     Mustafa Berkay Yilmaz, Berrin Yanikoglu, Caglar Tirkaz, “Offline signature verification using classifier combination of HOG and LBP features,” IEEE International Joint Conference on Biometrics, 2011, pp 1-7.

15.     Juan Hu, Youbin Chen,“Writer-independent off-line handwritten signature verification based on real adaboost,” IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Management Science and Electronic commerce,2011, pp 6095-6098.

16.     Ji Jun-wen, Chen Chuan-bo, Chen Xiao-su, “ Off-line chinese signature verification using weighting factor on similarity computation,” IEEE Second International
Conference on e-Business and Information System Security , 2010, pp 1-4.

17.     Elaheh Soleynnpour, Boshra Rajae, Hamid Reza Pourreza, “Offline handwritten signature identification and verification using contourlet transform and support vector machine,” IEEE Machine Vision and Image Processing, 2010,pp 1-6.

18.     Saulo Henrique Leoncio de Medeiros Napoles, Cleber Zanchettin,  “Offline handwritten signature verification through network radial basis functions optimized by differential evolution,” IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, 2012, pp 1-5. 

19.     J.P. Swanepoel, J. Coetzer, “Offline signature verification using flexible grid features and classifier fusion,” IEEE Twelth  International Conference on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition,2010, pp 297-302.

20.     I.A. Ismail, El danf, T., Ramadan, M. A., Samak, A. H., “Automatic signature recognition and verification using principal component analysis,” IEEE Fifth International Conference on Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualization,2008, pp 356-361.

21.     Assia Hamadene,Youcef Chibani,Hassiba Nemmous, “Off-line handwritten signature verification using contoulet transform and co-occurance matrix,” IEEE International Conference on frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, 2012, pp 343-347.

22.     Vahid Malekian, Alireza Aghaei, Mahdie Rezaeian and Mahmood Alian, “Rapid off-line signature verification based on signature envelope and adaptive density partitioning,” IEEE First Iranian Conference on Pattern Recogniton and Image Analysis, 2013, pp 1-6.

23.     Patil B D, Kulkarni J N and  Holambe R S, “Fingerprint verification using wavelet and local dominant orientation,” IEEE IET International Conference on Visual Information Engineering, 2006, pp 79-82.

24.     M. Nasiri, A. Javaheri, “A fuzzy approach for the automatic off-line persian signature verification problem”, IEEE Seventh Iranian Cinference on Machine Vision and Image Processing, 2011, pp 1-5.

25.     K V Laksmi and Seema Nayak, “Offline signature verification using neural network,” IEEE Third International advance computing conference, 2013, pp 1065-1069.


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35.

Authors:

Emad S. Ahmed, Hanan J. Abdulkareem

Paper Title:

Design of Dual Mode SIR Band pass Filter for Wireless Communication Applications

Abstract:    In this paper, a new design of microstrip dual-mode bandpass filter using stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is introduced. The filter consists of a two coupled SIR resonators with a 50 ohm impedance port. The presented dual-mode filter works at 2.4 GHz and 2.89 GHz for industrial, scientific and medical (ISM), closed circuit television (CCTV) and  wireless local area networks (WLANs). The filter is designed and simulated using commercial electromagnetic simulator CST microwave studio 2009. The return losses of the filter at the operating frequencies are -32.469 dB and -26.18 dB respectively.  The filter shows good insertion losses of 0.37 and 0.24 dB within the operating bands and a good out-of- band rejection more than 25 dB.

Keywords:
  Dual-mode filter, stepped-impedance resonators, wireless local area network


References:
1.       B. F. Zong, G. M. Wang, H. Y. Zeng, Y. W. wang ,” Compact and High Performance Dual-band Bandpass Filter using Resonator-embedded Scheme for WLANs,” RADIOENGINEERING, Vol. 21, No. 4,  2012.
2.       Haiwen Liu, Jiuhuai Lei, Yulong Zhao, Wenyuan Xu, Yichao Fan, and Tiantian Wu ,” Tri-band Microstrip Bandpass Filter Using Dual-Mode Stepped-Impedance Resonator,” ETRI Journal, Volume 35, Number 2, April 2013.

3.       C.-X. Sun, L.-Y. Feng, X.-Y. Liu, and H.-X. Zheng,”Compact Dual-Mode Filter Using Meander Shorted Stub Loaded Resonators,” Vol. 30, 195-203, 2012.

4.       Jawad K. Ali,  Yaqeen S. Mezaal, Halil T. Eyyuboğlu,” New Dual Band Dual-Mode Microstrip Patch Bandpass Filter Designs Based on Sierpinski Fractal Geometry,”ROHTAK INDIA,2013.

5.       Xiaoguo Huang, Quanyuan Feng, QianYin Xiang, and Dinghong Jia ,” A High Selectivity Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Dual-Mode And Triple-Mode Resonators,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 36, 81-90, 2013.

6.       M. Makimoto and S. Yamashita,”Microwave  resonator and filters for wireless communication”,on 2000.

7.       J. Wang, L. Ge, K. Wang and W. Wu,” Compact microstrip dual-mode dual-band bandpass filter with wide stopband,” Vol. 47 No. 4, 17th February 2011.

8.       Adnan Görür and Ceyhun Karpuz ,” Miniature Dual-Mode Microstrip Filters,” Ieee Microwave And Wireless Components Letters,” Vol. 17, No. 1, January 2007.

9.       Marjan Mokhtaari, Jens Bornemann and Smain Amari ,” Folded Compact Ultra-Wideband Stepped-Impedance Resonator Filters,” IEEE, 2007.

10.     MITSUO, M., SADAHIKO, Y. Microwave Resonators and Filters for Wireless Communication. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-verlag, 2001.

11.     L. Guo, Z.-Y. Yu, and L. Zhang,” Design Of A Dual-Mode Dual-Band Filter Using Stepped Impedance Resonators,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 14, 147-154, 2010.


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36.

Authors:

Emad S. Ahmed, Maalim Qasim Mohammed

Paper Title:

A Novel Compact Size Dual Notched Bands UWB Elliptical Monopole Antenna

Abstract:    In this paper, a new compact ultra-wideband printed elliptical monopole antenna is presented. The proposed antenna operates over a wideband from 2.85 to 15.4 GHz for voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) less than two. Two modifications are introduced to enhance the frequency-impedance characteristic of the presented elliptical monopole antenna. The first one is to chamfer the edges of the ground plane with 45°angle. The second modification is to use asymmetrical in length finite ground planes. By utilizing a symmetrical L-shaped slot and an inverted U-shaped slot embedded in the radiating patch and feed line respectively, a dual band notched characteristic were achieved. These bands are 3-4 GHz and 5-6 GHz used for WiMAX and WLAN operations. The center frequency and the width of the notch bands are adjusted by varying the length and the width of the slots. The antenna shows omnidirectional radiation pattern characteristics with acceptable gain. Compared with other recently proposed dual band notch antennas, the proposed antenna exhibits advantages of a compact size, simple structure, wide bandwidth and good band-notch characteristic. The simulation results are obtained and optimized using a commercial electromagnetic simulator CST Microwave Studio.

Keywords:
   Ultra wideband, CPW-fed UWB antenna, band-notched characteristics.


References:

1.       Leung Koon Hei, “Ultra-Wide Band Antenna Design,” Chinese University of Hong Kong in partial fulfillment of the Degree of     Bachelor of Engineering, May, 2007.
2.       1Yusnita Rahayu , 2Razali Ngah and 2Tharek Abd. Rahman, “A small novel ultra wideband antenna with slotted ground plane,”1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Kuantan, Pahang 2Wireless Communication Centre (WCC), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor Malaysia, www.intechopen.com.

3.       P.S.Ashtankar1, Dr.C.G.Dethe2, “ Design and Modification of Circular Monpole UWB Antenna for WPAN Application,” Vol 3, No.5, 2012.

4.       P.A. Narayan, K. Girish and K.P. Ray, IEEE Trans.On Antennas and Propag, 294-295, 46(2),1998.

5.       Abdol Aziz Kalteh1*, Gholamreza DadashZadeh2 and Mohammad Naser-Moghadasi1, “Implementation and Investigation of Circular slot UWB Antenna with Dual-Band-Notched Characteristics,” Kalteh et al. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 2011.

6.       YC Lin, KJ Hung, “ Compact Ultra Wideband Rectangular Aperture Antenna and Band-Notched Designs, ” IEEE Trans Antennas Propagation. 54, 3075–3081,2006.

7.       R Fallahi, A-A Kalteh, MG Roozbahani, “ A novel UWB Elliptical Slot Antenna with Band-Notched Characteristics,” Progress Electromag Res PIER. 82, 127–136 ,2008.

8.       Q-X Chu, Y-Y Yang, “A Compact Ultra Wide Band Antenna with 3.4/5.5 GHz dual Band-Notched Characteristics,” IEEE Trans Antennas Propagation. 56, 3637–3644 ,2008.

9.       M. Hammoud, P. Poey and F. Colombel, “Matching the Input Impedance of a Broadband Disc Monopole,” Electronics letters, pp.406–407, February, vol. 29, no.4, 1993.

10.     Mohammed AL-Husseini1, Ali Ramadan1, Youssef Tawk2, Ali EL-Hajj1,Karim Y. Kabalan1, “Design and Ground Plane Optimization of a CPW-Fed Ultra-Wideband Antenna,” Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci, Vol.19, No.2, 2011.

11.     Naghsh Varian-Jahromi, M, “Compact UWB Band Notch Antenna with Transmission-Line-Fed,”  Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 3, 283-293,2008.

12.     Fallahi, R., A. A. Kalteh, and M. G. Roozbahani, “A Novel UWB Elliptical Slot Antenna with Band-Notched Characteristics,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research,Vol.82,127-136, 2008.

13.     J. Liang, C.C.Chiau, X. Chen and J. Yu, “Study of a Circular Disc Monopole Antenna for Ultra Wideband Applications,” Proc. of ISAP’04, Sendai, Japan, pp.81–84, 2004.

14.     Su Sandar Thwin, “Compact Printed Monopole Antenna with Dual Band-Notched Characteristics for UWB Applications,” International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 6, December 2011.

15.     C. M. Li and L. H. Ye, “Improved Dual Band -Notched UWB Slot Antenna with Controllable NotchedBandwidths,”ProgressIn Electromagnetics Research,Vol.115,477-493,2011.

16.     S. Natarajamani, Santanu Kumar Behera & Sarat Kumar Patra, “Planar UWB Fractal Antenna with Band-Notched Characteristics,” International Conference on Electronic Systems (ICES-2011), NIT Rourkela, India,7-9 Jan, 2011.

17.     W. X. Liu and Y. Z. Yin, “DUAL Band-Nothed  Antenna with the Parasitic Strip for UWB,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 25, 21-30, 2011.


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37.

Authors:

Kunal Patel

Paper Title:

Effect of Lightning on Building and Its Protection Measures

Abstract:    A lightning strike can cause significant structural damage to a building. It can lead damage to machinery and equipment, both inside and outside the building and may result in harm to people. This paper presents a review of lightning protection principles and set out a methodology to be followed to provide a total solution to both the direct and indirect effects of a lightning strike.

Keywords:
   lightning, effect, protection.


References:

1.        Golde, R.H., lightning protection, 1973
2.        IEEE standard 1100, IEEE Recommended practice for Powering And grounding sensitive electronic equipment (Emerald book).

3.        National fire protection Association 780, Standard for the Installation of lightning protection systems, NFPA, 1997&2000.

4.        Uman, Martin A and Krider, E. Philip,” Naturally and artificially Initiated lightning,” SCIENCE, 27 October 1989, volume 246

5.        Principle of lightning protection by Phillip R Tompson

6.        Abdel-Salam, M. et al, Lightning Protection Using Energised, Franklin RodsAssiutUniversity, IEEE 1995.

7.        Allen, N.L., On the Performance of Active and Passive  Terminations in LightningProtection, University of Leeds.

8.        Petrov, N.I. et al, Determination of the Striking Distanceof Lightning to EarthedStructures, University of WalesCollege of  Cardiff, the Royal Society 1995.


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38.

Authors:

Yogita Gupta, Ramandeep Kamboj, Jang Bahadur Singh

Paper Title:

To Investigate the Effect in Loss Reduction by Optimum Size of DG Using BFO

Abstract:    Distribution system has to meet the demands and to secure sufficient power for all the consumers. This can be achieved by increasing the more number of power units. Distribution generation (DG) causes reduction in power losses, enhances power profile, decreases the cost of generation and also delays the deferring of existing substations. Therefore the future of power generation will be DG. DG at one point can provide solution to the growing problems of the power system and at the other hand they can lead to many problems of the power system. Therefore DG comes with both opportunities and challenges. The advantage and disadvantage of implementing DG in the distribution network depend upon the size and allocation of DG in the distribution system. DGs are of different capacities and are divided into micro, small, medium, and large. Location and size of DG are the two main concerns in installation of DG in the system. In this paper, investigation is done on optimal size of DG in order to obtain minimum losses.

Keywords:
   BFOA, DG, Newton-Raphson method, DG installation cost.


References:

1.        F. Sarabia, “Impact of Distribution Generation on Distribution System,” Master Degree, Department of Energy Technology Aalborg university, Denmark, 2011.
2.        S. R. Fahim et al, “Optimal Study of Distributed Generation Impact on Electrical Distribution Networks using GA and Generalized Reduced Gradient,” proceeding of WSEAS, 2011, pp. 77.

3.        A. J. Ardakani et al, “Siting and Sizing of Distributed Generation for Loss Reduction”, International Carnivourous plant society, 2007, pp. 1

4.        E. Afzalan et al, “Optimal Placement and Sizing of DG in Radial Distribution Networks Using SFLA,” International Journal of Energy Engineering, vol. 2,   2012, pp. 73.

5.        J. B. V. Subrahmanyam and C. Radhakrishna, “Distributed generator placement and sizing in unbalanced radial distribution system,” International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 2, 2009, pp. 746.

6.        P. S. Rani and Dr. A. L. Devi, “Optimal sizing of DG units using exact loss formula at optimum power factor,” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), vol. 4, 2012, pp. 4043.

7.        A. F. A. KADIR et al, “Optimal sizing and placement of Distributed Generation in distribution system considering losses and THDv using Gravitational Search Algorithm,” Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, 2013, pp. 132.

8.        N. Rugthaicharoencheep and S. Auchariyamet, “Technical and Economic Impacts of Distributed Generation on Distribution System”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2012, pp. 288.

9.        H. Musa and S.S. Adamu, “Distributed Generation Placement and Sizing Using Newly Improved PSO for

10.     Radial Distribution Systems,” 2nd International Conference on Energy Systems and Technologies, 2013, pp. 237.

11.     P. Kayal and C. K. Chanda, “A simple and fast approach for allocation and size evaluation of distributed generation,” International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, vol. 3, 2013, pp.1.

12.     M. F. Kotb, “Distributed generators location and capacity effect on voltage profile improvement and power losses reduction using genetic algorithm,” Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, vol. 6, 2012,  pp. 446.

13.     S. Kansal et al. “Optimal placement of distributed generation in distribution networks,” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 3, 2011, pp. 47.

14.     A. Soumya and A. Amudha, “Optimal Location and Sizing of Distributed Generators in Distribution System,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), vol. 2, 2013, pp. 1.

15.     Dharamjit and D. K. Tanti, “Load Flow Analysis on IEEE 30 bus System,” International Journal of Scientific andResearch Publications, vol. 2, 2012, pp. 1.

16.     S. Sunny and P. Balaji, “The better optimization technique for the placement of DG in order to reduce overall cost of power system,” International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, vol. 2, 2013, pp. 159.


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39.

Authors:

Hamed Sepahvand, Soghra Raisi

Paper Title:

Improving the Response of a DC/DC Converter by Providing a New Structure for Embedded Schottky Diode

Abstract:    Paper In this paper, a new schottky diode with high speed switching is presented. Reverse recovery current and reverse recovery time are two parameters to determine the switching speed of power diodes. If a method could control the depletion of majority carriers in cut off time, it can enhance the switching speed. In this work, some islands, with non-similar type to bulk, are implemented in the bulk of the diode. These islands can gather and recombine the abandon majority carriers. So, the reverse recovery current can be limit by this way. To test this structure a simple fast schottky diode is applied in a DC/DC converter. The simulations are done in Silvaco software.

Keywords:
   Schottky diode, Reverse recovery, DC/DC converter, Recombination.

References:

1.       Yan Liu,  Zhitang Song, Houpeng Chen, Guangping Wu, Chao Zhang, Lianhong Wang, Lei Wang, Songlin Feng,“ Schottky-barrier diode array fabrication with self-aligned Ni silicidation for low power phase-change memory application”, 2012 International Workshop on Information Storage and Ninth International Symposium on Optical Storage, Fuxi Gan; Zhitang Song, Shanghai, China | October 21, 2012.
2.       G. Spiazzi, S. Buso, M. Corradin, “Performance evaluation of a Schottky SiC power diode in a boost PFC application”, Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on,  Volume:18 Issue:6. Nov. 2003.

3.       B. Ozpeneci, L. M. Tolbert, “Comparison of Wide-Band gap Semiconductors for Power Electronics Applications”, Oakridge National Laboratory, Dec. 2003.

4.       B. Ozpineci, A. M. Tolbert, “Characterization of SiC Schottky diodes at different temperatures”, Power Electronics Letters, IEEE, Volume:1 ,  Issue: 2, June 2003.

5.       Seong- Jin Kim “Breakdown Voltage Characteristics of SiC Schottky Barrier Diode with Aluminum Deposition Edge Termination” Woosuk University Jounel of the Korean Physical Society pp. S768 – S773 Vol 49 Dec 2006.

6.       W. Schottky, Naturwissenschaften, 26, 843 (1938).

7.       N. F. Mott, “Note on the contact between a metal and an insulator on semiconductor,” Proc. Cambr. Phi/os.Soc., 34, 568(1938).

8.       Francesc N. Masana, “SiC Schottky Diode Electrothermal Macromodel” Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 47, No 12, pp 2122-2128, Dec. 2011.

9.       G. Majumdar and T. Oomori, “Some key researches on SiC device technologies and their predicted advantages”, Power Semiconductors 6, 18–229 (2009).

10.     T. Nakamura, M. Aketa, Y. Nakano, M. Sasagawa, T. Otsuka, “Novel developments towards increased SiC power device and module efficiency”, Energytech conference,  ISBN:978-1-4673-1836-5, May 2012

11.     E. M. Sze, Physics of semiconductor devices, 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York, 1980.

12.     Marc C. Tarplee “Design Rules for Field Plate Edge Termination in SiC Schottky Diodes” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices Vol 48. No. 12, pg. 2659-2654 December 2001.


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40.

Authors:

B.Sreenivasa Raju, M.Lokesh

Paper Title:

A Simplified Svpwm for Five Level Inverter with DC-Link Balancing

Abstract:   The objective this paper presents a five level & three-level inverter topology for induction motor loads with dc link voltage stabilization. Presently diode-clamped inverter was used and it is also known as neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter is most favorable among various multilevel configurations. DC-link unbalance may overstress the capacitors and devices during a sudden regenerative load increase, and it can also cause nuisance over voltage or under voltage trips. A space vector based PWM scheme is proposed for power circuit configuration to have the dc link voltage balancing. This PWM scheme requires only instantaneous phase reference voltages for its implementation in the full modulation range. A SVPWM technique is also used to reduce the switching losses. In complete modulation range & power factor the capacitor voltage stabilization at the input side of the inverter is obtained. An open loop control scheme is presented, which uses only availability redundant switching states to obtain three-level inverter DC-link balancing & the current flow model of the five-level inverter  to obtain the DC-link balancing. This proposed three-level inverter & five- level inverter SVPWM scheme is studied through MATLAB simulations

Keywords:
   DC- link balance, Multilevel Inverter, SVPWM.


References:

1.       L. M. Tolbert and F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel converters for large electric drives,” in  oc. IEEE APEC’98, vol. 2, 1998, pp. 530–536.
2.       Y. Chen, B. Mwinyiwiwa, Z. Wolanski, and B.-T. Ooi, “Regulating and equalizing dc capacitance voltages in multilevel stat com,” IEEE Trans.Power Delivery, vol. 12, pp. 901–907, Apr. 1997.

3.       P.Satishkumar, J.Amarnath, SVL Narsimham “ A fast space vector modulation technique for M-Level inverter, Asian power electronic journal, vol.1, April 2010.

4.       S.A.Khajehoddin, A. Bkhsishi, P.K.Praveen Jain, “ A current flow model for M-Level diode clamped multilevel converters” IEEE 2010

5.       S.A.Khajehoddin, A. Bkhsishi, P.K.Praveen Jain, “A simple voltage balancing scheme for M-Level diode clamped multilevel converter based on generalized current flow model” IEEE 2010

6.       Kalpesh.H, Bhaledi, Promod Agrwal, “A space vector modulation with DC link balancing control for three level inverter” IEEE 2006

7.       J.-S. Lai and F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel converters—A new breed of power converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 32, pp. 509–517, May/June1996.

8.       P. M. Bhagwat and V. R. Stefanovic, “Generalized structure of a multilevel PWM inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. IA-19, pp.1057–1069, Nov./Dec. 1983.

9.       G. Sinha and T. A. Lipo, “A four level rectifier-inverter system for drive applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 30, pp. 938–944, July/Aug. 1994.

10.     G. Carrara, S. Gardella, M. Marchesoni, R. Salutari, and G. Sciutto, “A new multilevel PWM method: A theoretical analysis,” in Proc. IEEE PESC’90, 1990, pp. 363–371.

11.     M. Cosan, H. Mao, D. Borojevic, and F. C. Lee, “Space vector modulation of three-level voltage source inverter,” Proc. VPEC Seminar, pp.123–128, 1996.

12.     H. L. Liu and G. H. Cho, “Three-level space vector PWM in low index modulation region avoiding narrow pulse problem,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 9, pp. 481–486, Sept. 1994.

13.     B. Kaku, I. Miyashita, and S. Sone, “Switching loss minimized space vector PWM method for IGBT three-level inverter,” Proc. IEE—Elect Power Applicat., vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 182–190, May 1997.

14.     N. Celanovic and D. Boroyevich, “A comprehensive study of neutral point voltage balancing problem in three level neutral-point-clamped voltage source PWM inverters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 15,pp. 242–249, Mar. 2000.

15.     V.T.Somashekar “Digital Signal Processor Applications to Electric Drives” titled workshop from 29th Feb. to 2nd March, 2008 Organized by Department of Electrical Engg. Dept., NIT, Warangal.


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41.

Authors:

Bindu Kumar Karthikeyan

Paper Title:

Numerical Modelling and Experimental Validation of a Vertical Spindle Model

Abstract:    Numerical modelling of a vertical spindle is presented. Numerical model is assumed to have five degrees of freedom. The results obtained from the numerical modelling are used to verify with the spectra obtained from experiments. The experiments are done in a high speed high precision router spindle running at 25,000 rpm, employing high quality ceramic bearings. Fine measurement of spindle vibration characteristics is carried out using laser vibrometry. The comparison of the results shows close match. The validated model then provides contact loads which are used for elastohydrodynamic analysis of grease lubricated contacts

Keywords:
   Precision high speed spindles, Numerical modelling of spindle, laser vibrometry


References:

1.        Rahnejat, H. and Gohar, R, ‘The vibrations of radial ball bearings’, Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, Part C, J. Mechanical Engineering Science, 1985, 199(C3), 181–193.
2.        Wardle, F. P. and Poon, S. Y, ‘Rolling Bearing Noise-Cause and Cure’, July–August 1983 (CME).

3.        Matsubara M, Rahnejat, H. and Gohar, R, ‘Computational modelling of precision spindles supported by ball bearings’, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufacture., 1988, 28(4), 429–442.

4.        Aini, R., Rahnejat, H. and Gohar, R. ‘A five degrees of freedom analysis of vibrations in precision spindles’,  Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufacture, 1990, 30(1), 1–18.

5.        Aini, R. ‘Vibration monitoring and modelling of shaft/bearing assemblies under concentrated elastohydrodynamic conditions’, PhD thesis, Kingston University, January 1990.

6.        Aini, R., Rahnejat, H. and Gohar, R, ‘Vibration modelling of precision spindles supported by lubricated bearings’,  Trans. ASME, J. Tribology, April Vol. 124, 2002 158-165.

7.        H. Hertz, Gesammelte Werke, Vol.1, 1995. (H. Hertz, Miscellaneous Papers, trans. D.E. Jones, G.A. Schott, Macmillan, London, 1896).

8.        Rahnejat H, ‘Computational modelling of problems in contact dynamics’, Engineering analysis, 2:44, 1985, 192-197.

9.        N. Lynagh, H. Rahnejat, M. Ebrahimi and R. Aini, ‘Bearing induced vibration in precision high speed routing spindles’, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufacture, Volume 40, Issue 4, March 2000, Pages 561-577.

10.     J. R. Bell and S. J. Rothberg, ‘Laser vibrometers and contacting transducers, target rotation and 6 degree-of-freedom vibration: what do we really measure?’, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 237 (2000),  245-261.

11.     S. J. Rothberg and N. A. Halliwell, ‘On the use of laser vibrometry for rotating machinery measurements’, Proceedings of IMechE, 25th International Conference on Vibrations in Rotating Machinery, Bath, (1992), 409-415.

12.     Kourosh Tatar, Matti Rantatalo and Per Gren,  ‘Laser vibrometry measurements of an optically smooth rotating spindle’, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing,  Volume 21, 4,(2007) 1739-1745.

13.     Grubin, A.N., Vinogradaova, I.E., and Ketnva, F., eds, ‘Investigation of the contact machine components’, Central Sci. Res. Inst. Tech. Mech. Eng., Book 30, (D.S.I.R. translation 337), Moscow, 1949.

14.     Cann, P. M., Williamson, B. P., Coy, R. C. and Spikes, H. A., ‘The behaviour of greases in elastohydrodynamic contacts’, Appl. Phys. A,  25 (1992),  124-132.
15.     Greenwood, J. A. and Kauzlarich, J. J, "Inlet shear heating in elastohydrodynamic lubrication", Trans. ASME, J. Lubric. Technol, 95(1973), 417–426.

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42.

Authors:

Anupama A Chavan, Vijay Kumar Verma

Paper Title:

Functional Dependency Mining form Relational Database: A Survey

Abstract:    Data Mining represents the process of extracting interesting and previously unknown knowledge from data. Functional dependency plays a key role in database normalization. Normalization is process of rectifying database design to make sure that undesirable characteristics do not exist. To discover functional dependencies (FDs) from an existing relation instance is an important technique in data mining and database design. Functional dependencies are relationships between attribute of a database relation, a functional dependency state that the value of an attribute is uniquely determined by the values of some other attributes [5]. Functional dependency plays a key role in database normalization. Discovering FDs can also help a database designer to decompose a relational schema into several relations through the normalization process to get rid or eliminate some of the problems of unsatisfactory database design. In this paper we propose some of the existing methods and the techniques used by them.

Keywords:
   Decompose, Functional Dependencies, Instance, Normalization, Relations.


References:

1.       Jixue Liu, Jiuyong Li, Chengfei Liu, and Yong Feng Chen “Discover dependencies from Data—A review” IEEE transactions on knowledge and data engineering, vol. 24, no. 2, February 2012
2.       Vijaya Lakshmi, Dr. E. V. Prasad a fast and efficient method to find the conditional functional dependencies in databases International journal of engineering research and development e-issn: 2278-067, P-ISSN: 2278-800x, www.ijerd.com volume 3, issue 5 (august 2012), pp. 56

3.       Nittaya Kerdprasop and Kittisak Kerdprasop “Functional dependency discovery via Bayes net analysis” recent researches in computational techniques, non-linear systems and control ISBN: 978-1-61804-011

4.       Y.V.Sreevani, T. Venkat Narayana Rao   “Identification and Evaluation of Functional Dependency Analysis using Rough sets for Knowledge Discovery “ (IJACSA) International journal of advanced computer science and applications, vol. 1, no. 5, November 2010

5.       Jalal Atoum, Dojanah Bader and Larafat Awajan “Mining functional dependency from relational databases using equivalent classes and minimal cover “ Journal of computer science 4 (6): 421-426, 2008 ISSN 1549-3636© 2008 science publications

6.       H. Yao, H.J. Hamilton and Cory J Butz “FD_Mine: Discovering Functional Dependencies in a database Using Eqivalences,” J. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 197-219, 2008

7.       H. Yao and H.J. Hamilton, “Mining Functional Dependenciesfrom Data,” J. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 197-219, 2008.

8.       St_ephane Lopes, Jean-Marc Petit, and Lot_ Lakhal “Dep-Miner  Effective Discovery of Functional Dependencies and Armstrong Relations” Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000, pp. 350-364

9.       N. Novelli and R. Cicchetti, “Fun: An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Functional and Embedded Dependencies” Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 1973, 2001, pp 189-203

10.     Y. Huhtala, J. Karkkainen, P. Porkka, and H. Toivonen, “Tane : An Efficient Algorithm for Discovering Functional and Approximate Dependencies,” Computer J., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 100-111, 1999.

11.     Vijay Verma and Pradeep Sharma,” Data Dependencies Mining In Database by Removing Equivalent Attributes” IJCSE, Vol.-1, Issue-1, July 2013

12.     Avi Silberschatz , Henry F. Korth ,S. Sudarshan,”Databse System Concepts, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill  ISBN 0-07-352332-1


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43.

Authors:

Yogesh Kumar Gupta, Ojasvi Bhatia, Fanindra Bhushan 

Paper Title:

Nested Sliding Mode Controller for MIMO System Using High Gain Feedback

Abstract:    The  paper  presents  a  new algorithm for sliding  mode  control  for MIMO  system represented  in  block  companion   form. If  the  system  does  not  posses  singularly   perturbed structure, it can be made  to possess singularly  perturbed structure using high gain feedback. Here the  block companion  form of MIMO is used to design nested  sliding mode control  using high gain feedback concept. The individual  high gain in each stage of decomposition  is so applied that η-reachability condition  is satisfied,  so phenomenon of sliding under  sliding occurs till last stage  of decomposition  and  design of controller  for higher  order  system  becomes simpler.  For maintaining sliding  under  sliding,  we take  sliding  surface  as  incremental basis  where  sliding variable  becomes generalized  state  vector  for next  sliding surface. Finally,  we get a composite controller  with  robustness  through variable  structure control  design using Lyapunov  function. This proposed  design method  is illustrated with a 6th order two input  system. 

Keywords:
   Multi  timescale  decomposition, High Gain Feedback,  Incremental sliding mode control , sliding under sliding


References:

1.       Bandyopadhyay, B., Jayalekshmi, N.,and Srisailam, M.C. (1993). Design of reulators of high gain feedback systems using block companion form. 17th NSC-93,held at IIT.Kanpur,India, 158-161.
2.       Hanmandlu, M., Suryanarayana, N.V., and Sinha, A.K. (1986). Multi-time-scale decomposition of a high -gain feedback system. International Journal of Control,
volume 44, 17-41.

3.       Kokotovic, P.V., Khalil, H.K., and Reilly, J.O. (1986).Singular perturbation methods in control:Analysis and Design. Academic Press.

4.       Marino, R. (1985) on digital high-gain and sliding-mode control. International Journal of Control, volume 42, 1369-1385.

5.       Shang-Teh, W. (1997). On digital high-gain and sliding- mode control. International Journal of Control, volume 66, 65-83.

6.       Sheigh, L.S. and Tsay, Y.T. (1982). Block model matrices and their applications to multivariable control systems.IEE-D Proc., volume 129, 41-48.

7.       Wu-Chung, S. (1999). Sliding surface design for singularly perturbed systems. International Journal of Control,volume 72, 990-995.

8.       Yinxing, H., Jianqiang, Y., Dongbin, Z., and Dianwei, Q. (2007). Incremental sliding mode controller for large-scale underactuated system. Pro.of the IEEE International Conference on Networking,Sensing and ontrol,London,UK, 87-92.

9.       Young, K.D., Kokotovic, P.V., and Utkin, V.I. (1977). A singular perturbation analysis of high gain feedback system. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control,volume 22, 931-937.


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44.

Authors:

Hossein Afshar, Seyed Hooman Hoseini

Paper Title:

Experimental and 3-D Numerical Simulation of Flow over a Rectangular Broad- Crested Weir

Abstract:   A broad-crested weir is a flat-crested structure with alarge crest length compared to the flow thickness which is widely used in open channels, rivers, irrigation and drainage systems. New experiments were conducted on a rectangular broad-crested weir with a rounded corner. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model together with laboratory model were used in order to determining the free-surface profile of rectangular broad-crested weir. Simulations were performed using the volume of fluid (VOF) free surface model and three turbulence models of the RNG k–ε, standard k–ε and the large eddy simulation (LES) to find the water level profile and streamlines.The structured mesh with high concentration near the solid regions was used in te numerical procedure. The computational results showed a close agreement with experimental data obtained in the laboratory. Also, results indicate that RNG model has the minimum level

Keywords:
   Broad-crested weir, CFD, Laboratory model, Free surface profile


References:

1.        Ackers, P, "Weirs and Flumes for Flow Measurement". Jon Wiley and Sons, U.K, 1978.
2.        Azimi, A.H andRajaratnam, N,"Dischargecharacteristics of weirs of finite crest length". Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 2009, 135(12):120-125.

3.        Bazin, H.. "ExpériencesNouvellessurl'Ecoulement par Déversoir." ('Recent Experiments on the Flow of Water over Weirs.')Mémoireset Documents, Annales des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris,1896.

4.        Bos, M.G, "Discharge Measurement Structures." Publication No. 161, Delft Hydraulic Laboratory, Delft, The Netherlands,1976 (also Publication No. 20, ILRI, Wageningen, The Netherlands).

5.        Chan, H.C., Zhang, Y., Leu, J.M., Chen, Y.S,"Numerical calculation of turbulent channel flow with porous ribs", J. Mech, 2010, 26:15–28.

6.        Chow V. T,"Open Channel Hydraulics". McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1959.

7.        Clemmens, A.J., Bos, M.G. and Replogle, J.A,"RBC broad-crested weirs for circular sewers and pipes". Journal of Hydrology,1984, 68: 349-368.

8.        Dias, F., Keller, J.B., Vanden-Broeck,J.M,"Flows over rectangular weirs", Phys. Fluids, 1988, 31:2071–2076.

9.        FELDER, S, and CHANSON, H, "Free-surface Profiles, Velocity and Pressure Distributions on a Broad-Crested Weir: a Physical study." Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ASCE, 2012, Vol. 138, No.12, pp. 1068–1074.

10.     French, R.H,"Open-channel hydraulics". McGraw- Hill, New York, 1987.

11.     Gonzalez, C.A. and Chanson, H, "Experimental Measurements of Velocity and Pressure Distribution on a Large Broad-Crested Weir." Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 2007, Vol. 18, No. 3-4, pp. 107-113.

12.     GovindaRao, N.S.,Muralidhard," Discharge characteristics of weirs of finite-crest width". La Houille Blanche, 1963, 5: 537–545.

13.     Hall, G.W, "Analytical Determination of the Discharge Characteristics of Broad-Crested Weirs using Boundary Layer Theory." Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs., London, 1962, Vol. 22, June, paper No. 6607, pp. 177-190.

14.     Harrison, A.J.M, "The Streamlined Broad-Crested Weir." Proc. Instn. Civil Engrs., London, 1967,  Vol. 38, Dec., pp. 657-678.

15.     Henderson, F.M, "Open Channel Flow." MacMillan Company, New York, USA, 1966.

16.     Hieu,P.D.,Vinh,P.N,"Numerical study of wave overtopping of a seawall supported by porous structures", Appl. Math. Model, 2012, 36:2803–2813.

17.     Hirt, C.W., and Sicilian, J.M,"A porosity technique for the definition of obstacles in rectangular cell meshes". InProceedings of the 4th International Conference on Ship Hydro-dynamics, Washington, D.C, NationalAcademy of Sciences, Washington, D.C, 1985.

18.     Hur D.S., Mizutani N,"Numerical estimation of the wave forces acting on a three dimensional body on submergedbreakwater". Coastal Engineering, 2003, 47, 329-345.

19.     Ippen, A. T,"Engineering hydraulics". New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1950, p. 526-27.

20.     Isaacs, L.T, "Effects of Laminar Boundary Layer on a Model Broad-Crested Weir".Research Report No.CE28, Dept. of Civil Eng., Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 1981, 20 pages.

21.     Jia, Y., Scott,S.H.,Xu, Y., Huang, S., Wang,S.S.Y,"Three-dimensional numerical simulation and analysis of flows around a submerged weir in a channelbendway", J. Hydraul. Eng, 2005, 13: 682–693.

22.     Karim, M.F.,Tanimoto,K.,Hieu,P.D,"Modelling and simulation of wave transformation in porous structures using VOF based two-phase flow model". Appl. Math. Model. 2009,  33:343–360.

23.     Launder, B.E, Spalding, D.B,"Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence". Academic Press, London, 1972.

24.     Lara J.L., Losada I.J., Guanche R., 2008, Wave interaction with low-mound breakwaters using a RANS model. OceanEngineering 35, 1388 1400.

25.     Lewittو E.H,"Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics". 10th Edition, London, 1978.

26.     Mohammadpour, R., Ghani, A., Azamathulla, H.M,"Numerical modeling of 3-D flow on porous broad crested weirs". Journal of Applied Mathematical Modelling, 2013, In Press.

27.     Montes, J.S, "The Streamlined Broad-Crested Weir. Discussion." Proc. Instn. Civil Engrs., London, 1969, Vol. 42, Mar., pp. 576-578.

28.     Montes, J.S, "Hydraulics of Open Channel Flow." ASCE Press, New-York, USA, 1998, 697 pages

29.     Montes, J.S., and Chanson, H, "Characteristics of Undular Hydraulic Jumps. Results and Calculations." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 1998, Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 192-205.

30.     Patankar, S.V, "Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow". McGraw-hill Book Company, New York,1980.

31.     Ramamurthy, A.S., Tim, U.S., and Rao, M.V.J, "Characteristics of Square-Edged and Round-Nosed Broad-Crested Weirs."Jl of Irrig and Drainage.Engrg., ASCE, 1988, Vol. 114, No. 1, pp. 61-73.

32.     RangaRaju, K.G "Flow through open channel". McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993.

33.     Salmasi, F., Pooreskandar, S., HosseinzadeDalir, A., Farsadizade, D "Discharge Relations for Rectangular Broad-Crested Weirs." Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2011, 17: 324336.

34.     Sargison, J.E., and Percy, A, "Hydraulics of Broad-Crested Weirs with Varying Side Slopes." Jl of Irrigation and Drainage Engrg., ASCE, 2009,Vol. 135, No. 1, pp. 115-118.

35.     Sarker, M.A and Rhodes, D.G,"Calculation of freesurface profile over a rectangular broad-crested weir". Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 2004, 15(4) 215-219.

36.     Serre, F, "Contribution à l'Etude des Ecoulements Permanents et Variables dans les Canaux." ('Contribution to the Study of Permanent and Non-Permanent Flows
in Channels.')Jl La Houille Blanche, Dec., pp. 1953, 830-872 (in French).

37.     Shahamiri,S.A.,Wierzba, I,"Modeling the reactive processes within a catalytic porous medium".Appl. Math. Model, 2011, 35 (4):1915–1925.

38.     Streeter, V.L. and Wylie, E.B,"Fluid Mechanics". McGraw Hill, New York, 1981.

39.     Tison, L.J, "Le DéversoirEpais.('Broad-Crested Weir.')”Jl La Houille Blanche, 1950, pp. 426-439 (in French).

40.     Woodburn, J.G.."Tests of Broad-Crested Weirs."Transactions, ASCE, 1932, Vol. 96, pp. 387- 416. Discussion: Vol. 96, pp. 417-453.

41.     Xia, C., Jin, Y.C,"Multilayer depth-averaged flow model with implicit interfaces".J. Hydraul. Eng. 2007, 13:1145–1154.

42.     Yazdi, J.,Sarkardeh,H.,Azamathulla, H.M.,Ghani, A.A, "3D simulation of flow around a single spur dike with freesurface flow". Int. J. River Basin Manage,2010,8:55–62.

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45.

Authors:

Aarathi

Paper Title:

Optical Sensor in Vehicles

Abstract:    When the vehicels turns in curve at night, it can always appear “the blind spot” in the turn, for the lights are unable to adjust the illumination angle. In order to enhance safety driving at night, an adaptive front-lighting system (AFS) of automobile controlled by STC12C5A60AD which is the core of electric control unit is designed in this work. The AFS is based on the steering wheel angle and speed changes to adjust light axis angle to light up the road in the front, so the drivers' security vision are improved. The work principles of the AFS[6] and control model and hardware circuits are particularly described..

Keywords:
   optical sensor, Relay, LDR, LCD.


References:

1.        Hanwei Electronics Co., LTD, “MQ-5”
2.        Theodore S Rappa port, “Wireless Communications”.

3.        Karnataka State Fire and Emergency Services

4.        Keil Embedded Development Tools for ARM, “User Manual for LPC2129.

5.        Wikipedia for list of light sensor

6.        www.al-lighting.com/lighting/headlamps/afs

7.        R. Cucchiara and M. Piccardi, “Vehicle detection under day and night illumination,”International ICSC Symposium on Intelligent Industrial Automation,1999.

8.        N. Matthews, P. An, D. Charnley, and C. Harris, “Vehicle detection and recognition in greyscale imagery,” Control Engineering Practice, vol. 4, pp. 473–479, 1996


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46.

Authors:

Lalita Sharma, Shweta Shukla

Paper Title:

Classification of Web Blog Mining for Movie Review

Abstract:    Now a day’s social media plays very important role in varies domains. There are number of recourses available on the Internet to express the opinions, ideas emotion and interests. Blogs are most popular way for the peoples to express opinion.  Web Blog Mining which is the efficient and effective way of analyzing the sentiments of consumer reviews pertaining to specific products becomes desirable and essential. Blogs provides information but it hard to reach information automatically because blogs are full of un-indexed and unprocessed text that reflects the opinions of people. To grab people’s idea sentimental opinion mining is the best efficient way to mine their blogs.  This study covers the sentimental web mining approach to understand people’s opinions about reviews web blogs. This is the efficient and effective way of analyzing the sentiments of peoples review.

Keywords:
   mining, blog mining, sentiWords, crawling.


References:

1.       Tony Mullen and Robert Malouf. Taking sides: User classification for informal online political discourse.Internet Research, 18:177–190, 2008.
2.       http://technoratimedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/TechnoratiMedia-Logo-01.png

3.       Qiang Ye, et al., Sentiment classification of online reviews to travel destinations by   supervised machine learning approaches, Expert Systems with Applications (2008) doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2008.07.035.

4.       Jian Liu, et al., Super Parsing: Sentiment Classification with Review Extraction, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT’05), 2005.

5.       Yun-Qing Xia, et al., The Unified collocation Framework for Opinion Mining, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Hong Kong, 19-22 August 2007.

6.       Jian Liu, et al., Super Parsing: Sentiment Classificationwith Review Extraction, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Computer and InformationTechnology (CIT’05), 2005.

7.       Li Zhuang, et al., Movie review mining and summarization, Proceedings of the 15th ACM international conference on Information and knowledge management, 2006.

8.       WordNet Web site is available at http://wordnet.princeton.edu

9.       Arzu Baloglu, Mehmet S. Aktas” BlogMiner: Web Blog Mining Application for Classification of Movie Reviews” in 2010 Fifth International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services

10.     Andrea Esuli, et al., SENTIWORDNET: A PubliclyAvailable Lexical Resource for Opinion Mining, The fifth international conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC 2006

11.     http://google.com

12.     http://sentiwordnet.isti.cnr.it


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47.

Authors:

D.Sophin Seeli, M.K.Jeyakumar

Paper Title:

Performance Assessment of Fractal Coding on Remote Sensing Images with Different Imaging Modalities

Abstract:    Image compression coders can be lossy or lossless. Fractal image compression is a lossy image compression technique to achieve high level of compression while preserving the quality of the decompressed image close to that of the original image. The method relies on the fact that in certain images, parts of the image resemble other parts of the same image. The compression procedure consists of dividing the image into range blocks and domain blocks and then it takes a range block and matches it with the domain block.  It is a new technique in image compression field based on Affine contractive transforms. In the present work the fractal coding techniques are applied for the compression of remotely sensed imageries. Also the results are compared with various imaging modalities and the parameters that affect fractal image compression are studied. The comparison results that fractal image compression techniques are found more effective for compressing remote sensing images.

Keywords:
   Fractal, encoding, self-similarity, affine transformation, quad tree partitioning


References:

1.       A.E. Jacquin, “A novel fractal block-coding technique for digital Images”, ICASSP  International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, 1990.
2.       A.E. Jaquin, “Image coding based on a fractal theory of iterated contractive image transformation”, IEEE Trans. On Image Processing, vol. 1, 1992.

3.       D. Saupe and M. Ruhl, “Evolutionary fractal image compression”, IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, Lausanne, Switzerland, vol. 1, pp. 129-132, 1996.

4.       Y. Fisher, E.W. Jacobs, and R.D. Boss, “Fractal image compression using iterated transforms,” in Image and Text Compression, J.A. Storer, Ed. Boston, MA: Kluwer, pp. 35-61, 1992.

5.       Yuval Fisher " Fractal Image Compression ", siggraph `92  course notes, vol. 12 pp 7.1-7.19, 1992

6.       Xiao, Ke, "Fractal Compression and Analysis on Remotely Sensed Imagery", Ph.D Dissertation, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 2003.

7.       Gargantini, I., Detection of connectivity for regions represented by linear quadtrees. Computer and Mathematics with Application 8(4).

8.       B. B. Mandelbrot, “The Fractal Geometry of Nature” , 1982,

9.       A. E. Jacquin, "Fractal Image Coding: A Review", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol.81, No.10, 1993.

10.     Y. Fisher," Fractal Image Compression: Theory and Application". Springer-Verlag Inc., New York, 1995.

11.     B. Wohlberg and G. d. Jager," A Review of the Fractal Image Coding Literature", IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, Vol. 8, 1999.

12.     Xiao, K., The Image's Quadtree Structures, Their Research, Application and Development. Remote Sensing Technology and Application 6(1):18-25, 1991.

13.     Xiao, K., The algorithm Converting Raster to Quadtree. The Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Automatics, Robotics, and computer vision, Singapore, 1992.

14.     Xiao, K., The Algorithm Converting 2DRE Quadtree to Raster. Enviromental Remote Sensing China 8(1): 30-36, 1993.

15.     Fisher, Y., Fractal Image Compression Using Iterated Transforms, Image and Text Processing, edited by Storer, J. A., Kluwer Academic, Boston. pp 34-61, 1992.

16.     Ismail Avcibas and Bulent Sankur, “Statistical analysis of  image quality measures”, European Signal Processing, pp. 2181-2184, 2000.

17.     Tomas Kratochvil and Pavel Simicek “Utilization of MATLAB for picture quality evaluation”, Institute of Radio Electronics, Brno University of Technology, Czech. Republic, 2005.

18.     Arnaud E.Jackuin, “fractal Image Coding:A Review”, proceeding of the IEEE, Vol 81,No.10,1993.

19.     Barnsley M., Fractals Everywhere. Academic Press. San Diego, 1989 [BJ] R.D. Boss, E.W. Jacobs, “Fractals-Based Image Compression,” NOSC Technical Report 1315, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, 1998.

20.     P.Hou,M.Petrrou, C.I.Underwood, and A.Hojjatoleslami, “Improving JPEG performance in conjunction with cloud editing for remotesensing applications”, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote sensing, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 515-524, Jan. 2000.

21.     Bo Li, Rui Yang, and Hongxu Jiang, “Remote Sensing Image Compression Using Two-Dimensional Oriented Wavelet Transform” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote sensing, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 236-249,Jan. 2011.

22.     Yu Jie, Zhang Zhongshan, Qin Huiling, Guo Peihuang, and Zhang Guoning, “an improved method of remote sensing image compression based on fractal and wavelet domain”, The international Archieves of the Photogrammaetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol. XXXVII, Part B2,Beijing, 2008.

23.     D. Napolean, S.Shathya,M.Praneesh and M.Siva Subramanian, “Remote Sensing Image Compression Using 3D-SPIHT Algorithm and 3D-OWT”, International Journal on Computer Science  and Engineering, Vol 4 No. 05 2012.

24.     Kousalyadevi, R.and S.S.Ramakrishnan, “Performance Analysis of Multispectral Band Image Compression using Discrete Wavelet Transform”, Journal of Computer Science 8(5):pg. 789-795, 2012.


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48.

Authors:

Ganapathi Bhat Manchi, Sidde Gowda, Jaideep Singh Hanspal

Paper Title:

Study on Cognitive Approach to Human Error and its Application to Reduce the Accidents at Workplace

Abstract:    The err is in built in human nature. There are no specific counter measures for error. Human cognition uses processes that allow us to be amazingly fast, to respond flexibly to new situation [1] and to juggle several tasks at once (Flower and Hayes 1980). Unfortunately, these processes inevitably produce occasional errors. It is now well understood that these errors are the product of limitations in human information processing coupled with design features that are ill matched to human abilities. This is especially true for highly automated environments in which robust perceptual-motor tasks have been largely replaced by more error-prone cognitive tasks. The emerging model of cognition provides at least partial model of cognitive mechanism to understand the way human thinking works. The most effective way to deal with error due to human behavior and unpredictable environment is by safety culture and favorable system design.

Keywords:
   Cognition, Human error, Safety culture, System design


References:

1.       Reason J. Human error. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
2.       Reason J. Combating omission errors through task analysis and good reminders, 2002

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4.       Institute of Medicine (2000): To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington: National Academy Press.

5.       Reason, J. (1989): Human Error. Cambridge: CUP.

6.       Norman, D. (1988): the Psychology of Everyday Things. New York: Basic Books.

7.       Duncan, K. D. (1987). Fault diagnosis training for advanced continuous process installations. In: Rasmussen, J., Duncan, K., and Leplat, J. (Eds), New Technology and Human Error. Chichester: Wiley.

8.       Rasmussen, J. (1980). The human as a systems component. In: Smith, H.T. and Green, T.R.G. (Eds), Human Interaction with Computers. London: Academic Press.

9.       Health and Safety Executive (1999): Reducing error and influencing behaviour. London: HMSO.

10.     Guest, D.E., Peccei, R. & Thomas, A. (1994): Safety culture and safety performance: British Rail in the aftermath of the Clapham Junction disaster. Paper presented at the Bolton business school conference on changing perceptions of risk, Bolton, February 1994.

11.     Lee, T. & Harrison, K. (2000): Assessing safety culture in nuclear power stations. Safety Science, 34: 61-97.

12.     Leape, L. (1994): Error in medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association 272: 1851-1857.

13.     Clarke, S. (1998): Organisational factors affecting the incident reporting of train drivers. Work & Stress 12: 6-16.

14.     HSE/C (2001): Proposals for a new duty to investigate accidents, dangerous occurrences and disasters. http://www.hse.gov.uk/condres visited on 11/05/01.

15.     Davies, J.B., Wright, L., Courtney, E. & Reid, H. (2000): Confidential incident reporting on the UK railways: The CIRAS system. Cognition, Technology & Work 2: 117-125.

16.     Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force (QuIC). Doing what counts for patient safety. Summary of the Report for the President of the Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force. Washington: QuIC, 2000.

17.     Amalberti R, Wioland L. Human error in aviation. In: Soekkha HM, ed. Aviation safety. Utrecht: VSP, 1997: 91–108.

18.     de Leval M, Carthey J, Wright D, et al. Human factors and cardiac surgery: a multicentre study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000; 119:661–72.

19.     Reason J. Managing the risks of organisational accidents. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1997.

20.     Reason J. How necessary steps in a task get omitted: revising old ideas to combat a persistent problem. Cognitive Technol 1998; 3:24–32.

21.     Norman DA. The psychology of everyday things. New York: Basic Books, 1988.

22.     Baber C, Stanton NA. Task analysis for error identification: a methodology for designing error-tolerant consumer products. Ergonomics 1994; 11:1923–41.

23.     Herrmann D. Super memory: a quick action program for memory improvement. Emmau: Roedale Press, 1991.

24.     Herrmann D, Weigartner H, Searleman A, et al. Memory improvement: implications for memory theory. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992.

25.     Hobbs AN. Human errors in context: a study of unsafe acts in aircraft maintenance. PhD Thesis, University of New South Wales, 2000.

26.     Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). An analysis of root causes in 1983 and 1984 significant event reports. INPO 85-027. Atlanta: Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, 1985.

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30.     Wilson M. Errors and accidents in anaesthetics. In: Vincent C, Ennis M, Audley R, eds. Medical accidents. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993:61–79.

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35.     Chopra V, Bovill JG, Spierdijk J, et al. Reported significant observations during anaesthesia: a prospective analysis over an 18-month period. Br J Anaesth 1992; 68:13–7.

36.     Senders JW, Moray NP. Human error: cause, prediction and reduction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1991.

37.     Woods DD. Some results on operator performance in emergency events. Institute of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series 1984; 90:21–31.

38.     Sheen Mr Justice. MV Herald of Free Enterprise. Report of Court No. 8074 Formal Investigation. London: Department of Transport, 1987.

39.     Hollnagel E. Human reliability analysis: context and control. London: Academic Press, 1993.

40.     Cook RI, Woods DD. Operating at the sharp end: the complexity of human error. In: Bogner MS, ed. Human errors in medicine. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1994.

41.     Reason J. The mariner’s guide to human error. London: Shell International Tankers, 1993.

42.     Fischhoff B. For those condemned to study the past: heuristics and biases in hindsight. In: Kahneman D, Slovic P, Tversky A, eds. Judgment under
uncertainty: heuristics and biases. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982:335–54.

43.     Caplan RA, Posner KL, Cheney FW. Effect of outcome on physician’s judgments of appropriateness of care. JAMA 1991; 265:1957–60.

44.     Bacon Sir F. The New Organon. In: Anderson F, ed. Indianapolis: Bobbs- Merrill, 1960 (originally published 1620).

45.     Runciman WB, Webb RK, Lee R, et al. System failure: an analysis of 2000 incident reports. Anaesth Intens Care 1993; 21:684–95.

46.     Eagle CJ, Davies JM, Reason JT. Accident analysis of large scale technological disasters applied to an anaesthetic complication. Can J Anaesth 1992; 39:118–22.

47.     Helmreich RL, Schaefer H-G. Team performance in the operating room. In: Bogner MS, ed. Human errors in medicine. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1994.

48.     Woods DD, Johannesen JJ, Cook RI, et al. Behind human error: cognitive systems, computers, and hindsight. CSERIAC State-of-the-Art Report. Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, OH: Crew Systems Ergonomics Information Analysis Center, 1994.

49.     Currie M, Mackay P, Morgan C, et al. The ‘wrong drug’ problem in anaesthesia: an analysis of 2000 incident reports. Anaesth Intens Care 1993; 21:596–601.

50.     Stebbing, C., Wong, I. C K, Kaushal, R., Jaffe, A. (2007). The role of communication in paediatric drug safety. Arch. Dis. Child. 92: 440-445  

51.     Hirose, M., Regenbogen, S. E, Lipsitz, S., Imanaka, Y., Ishizaki, T., Sekimoto, M., Oh, E.-H., Gawande, A. A (2007). Lag time in an incident reporting system at a university hospital in Japan. Qual Saf Health Care 16: 101-104  

52.     Healey, A N, Primus, C P, Koutantji, M (2007). Quantifying distraction and interruption in urological surgery. Qual Saf Health Care 16: 135-139   

53.     Garbutt, J., Brownstein, D. R., Klein, E. J., Waterman, A., Krauss, M. J., Marcuse, E. K., Hazel, E., Dunagan, Wm. C., Fraser, V., Gallagher, T. H. (2007). Reporting and Disclosing Medical Errors: Pediatricians' Attitudes and Behaviors. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161: 179-185   

54.     Waring, J. J. (2007). Doctors' thinking about 'the system' as a threat to patient safety. Health (London) 11: 29-46  

55.     Galbraith, R M, Holtman, M C, Clyman, S G (2006). Use of assessment to reinforce patient safety as a habit. Qual Saf Health Care 15: i30-i33   

56.     Reiling, J (2006). Safe design of healthcare facilities. Qual Saf Health Care 15: i34-i40   

57.     Lowe, C M (2006). Accidents waiting to happen: the contribution of latent conditions to patient safety. Qual Saf Health Care 15: i72-i75  

58.     Jackson, C R, Gibbin, K P (2006). 'Per ardua...'Training tomorrow's surgeons using inter alia lessons from aviation. J. R. Soc. Med. 99: 554-558 

59.     Reason J. Human error: models and management. BMJ. 2000 March 18; 320(7237): 768–770  

60.     Shojania, K. G., Fletcher, K. E., Saint, S. (2006). Graduate medical education and patient safety: a busy--and occasionally hazardous--intersection. ANN INTERN MED 145: 592-598   

61.     Langford, N J (2006). e-Learning and error. Qual Saf Health Care 15: 306-306  

62.     Johnstone, M. -J., Kanitsaki, O. (2006). Culture, language, and patient safety: making the link. Int J Qual Health Care 18: 383-388  

63.     Ghaleb, M. A., Barber, N., Franklin, B. D, Yeung, V. W., Khaki, Z. F, Wong, I. C. (2006). Systematic Review of Medication Errors in Pediatric Patients. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 40: 1766-1776   

64.     McLoughlin, V., Millar, J., Mattke, S., Franca, M., Jonsson, P. M., Somekh, D., Bates, D. (2006). Selecting indicators for patient safety at the health system level in OECD countries.. Int J Qual Health Care 18: 14-20   

65.     Crone, K. G., Muraski, M. B., Skeel, J. D., Love-Gregory, L., Ladenson, J. H., Gronowski, A. M. (2006). Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Disclosing Medical Errors. Clin. Chem. 52: 1809-1814  

66.     Goodyear, M. D E (2006). Further lessons from the TGN1412 tragedy. BMJ 333: 270-271


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49.

Authors:

Chaithra.N.M., K.V. Ramana Reddy

Paper Title:

Implementation of Canny Edge Detection Algorithm on FPGA and displaying Image through VGA Interface

Abstract:    Edge detection is one of the most important stages in image processing. The Canny edge detection algorithm is most widely used edge detection algorithm because of it advantages. In this paper we present canny edge detection algorithm implemented on Spartan 3E FPGA and developed VGA interfacing for displaying images on the screen. In this paper we have taken 128×128 Image and displayed same on the monitor through FPGA.

Keywords:
   Block Memory, Canny, FPGA, VGA Interface.


References:

1.        Qian Xu, Chaitali Chakrabarti and Lina J. Karam   “A Distributed Canny Edge
2.        Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Mamata Juneja and Ekta Walia “Comparative Analysis of Edge Detectin Techniques for extracting Refined Boundaries” 2009 International Conference on Machine Learning and Computing ,IPCSIT vol 3, 2011.

3.        Wenhao He and Kui Yuan “An Improved Canny Edge Detector and its Realization on FPGA” IEEE  Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, Chongqing, China, June 25 - 27, 2008, pp. 6561-6564.

4.        Osman Z.E.M; Hussin ;Ali, N.B.Z “Optimization of Processor Architecture for Image Edge Detection Filter” IEEE transaction on Computer Modelling and Simulation, 2010, pp 648-652.

5.        Alasdair Mc Andrew. “Introduction to Digital Image Processing with MATLAB”.

6.        Gao Jie and Liu Ning  “An improved adaptive threshold canny edge detection algorithm”, IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Electronics
Engineering, 2012, pp. 164-168.

7.        Muralikrishna, B.; Gnana Deepika ,K.; Raghu Kanth, B.; Swaroop Vemana, V.G.; “Image Processing using IP Core Generator through FPGA”,  International Journal of Computer Applications, vol 46-No.23, May 2012,pp. 48-52.

8.        Enoch Hwang, “Build a VGA Monitor Controller”, Circuit Cellar, Issue 172 , November 2004,pp. 12-17.

9.        Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods. “Digital Image Processing”, Prentice Hall, 2nd edition (January 15, 2002).

10.     S. Varadarajan, C. Chakrabarti, L. J. Karam, and J. M.Bauza, “A distributed psycho-

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50.

Authors:

Seshagiri Boppana, B.N.CH.V. Chakravarthi, T. Suresh Kumar

Paper Title:

Reverse Harmonic Injected High Power Square Wave Inverter Fed Induction Motor

Abstract:    In past decades, a simple L-C filter can reduce harmonics for low power inverters, for medium and high power applications the size of L-C filter is bigger, Latter Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques are implemented for medium power, but these are limited by the switching losses with high operating frequency. The limitation of PWM can be overcome by Multi Level Inverter (MLI). Again these MLI are fed by separate DC sources, which are operated at fundamental frequency, the design and control are complex with the increase in number of levels. In this paper, a power frequency square wave VSI with series compensators is fed for high power Induction Motor Drive. The series compensators produce voltages at harmonic frequencies and are injected in reverse direction; the net effect causes pure sinusoidal waveform. The DC bus voltages required for series compensators are less in magnitude and operated at harmonic frequency. This strategy improves the conversion efficiency of square wave VSI. The compensators used are of single phase H-Bridge inverters with high frequency switches (IGBT).

Keywords:
   Induction Motor, Series Compensators, Harmonic Voltages, High Power Square Wave.


References:

1.       Watkins,kennethM.” The application of high power inverter system”. IEEE Transactions in Industrial and General Applications, Vol-I GA5, Isuue-2. Sept.2009, pp-588-593.
2.       M.carpita and S.Teconi “A Noval Multi Level Structure for voltage source inverter” IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference, 1991, pp-96-103.

3.       H. Liu, L. M. Tolbert, S. Khomfoi, B. Ozpineci, and Z. Du, “Hybrid cascaded multilevel inverter with PWM method,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf.,
Rhodes, Greece, Jun. 15–19, 2008, pp. 162–165.

4.       Gautam Poddar and Malaya Kumar Sahu "Natural Harmonic Elimination of Square-Wave Inverters for Medium-Voltage Application”, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol.24, No.5, May 2009.

5.       M. S. A. Dahidah and V. G. Agelidis, “Selective harmonic elimination    PWM control for cascaded multilevel voltage source converters: A generalized formula,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1620– 1630, Jul. 2008.

6.       J. Holtz and A. Khambadkone,  "Low switching frequency and high  dynamic    pulsewidth modulation based on field-orientation for high-power inverter drive",  IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,  vol. 7,  pp.627 -632 1992

7.       J.A. Houdsworth and D.A. Grant, “The use of harmonic distortion to     increase output voltage of a three-phase PWM inverter”, IEEE Trans.  Industry Appl., vol. IA-20, pp. 1124-1228,  Sept./Oct. 1984

8.       M. Depenbrock, “Pulse width control of a three phase inverter with non   sinusoidal phase voltage of a three-phase PWM inverter”, Proc. IEEE Int.  semiconductor Power Conversion Conf.,  Orlando, Florida, USA, pp. 399-403, 1977

9.       Y. Ikeda , J. Itsumi and H. Funato  "The Power Loss of the PWM Voltage-Fed Inverter",  19th PESC\'88 Record,  vol. 1,  pp.277 -283 1988.

10.     L. K. Mestha and P. D. Evans  "Optimization of Losses in PWM   Inverters",  IEE Conference Publication,  no. 291,  pp.394 -397 1988.

11.     Y. Ma , X. Ruan and Y. Yan  "Zero-voltage and zero-current-switching  PWM push-pull three-level converter",  Proc. IEEE PESC,  pp.1823 -1828 2002.


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51.

Authors:

Ch.Bhnau Prakash, A.V.Ramana Rao, M.Praveen, M.N.V.S.A Sivaram. K

Paper Title:

Optimization of Energy Saving Techniques in Air Conditioning Systems

Abstract:    In a conventional air conditioning system, chilled water flow and air quantity supplied to air conditioned area is constant irrespective of the building load. The building load will generally vary from 60% to 100% for 10 hours operation per day during the year. Maintaining the continuous chilled water flow of air quantity in an air conditioning system will consume more power during part load conditions. Thus by supplying variable chilled water flow by using constant primary pumps, variable flow secondary pumps, VAVs(variable air volumes) and variable frequency drives in air handling units in the air circuit, we can decrease the energy consumption during part load conditions. In the present project attempt has been made to calculate the energy savings and payback period of existing system. This is done by introducing primary and secondary pumping with VFDs .The VFDs are in turn provided AHUs and VAVs in the duct. In many conventional air conditioned buildings, the air conditioning system generally consumes the maximum power. This can be minimized by taking proper care during the selection, design and erection of air conditioning equipment ultimately leading to substantial savings in long run. By introducing secondary pumping with VFDs, VAVs in the duct and VFDs in AHUs, the power consumption has been reduced to 12.25% over existing constant flow pumping, constant airflow systems. Payback period is 2.69 years for introducing VAVs in the duct and VFDs in the AHUs and payback period is 3.73 years for primary and secondary pumping system.

Keywords:
   Air conditioning systems, Energy saving techniques, VFDs, VAVs.


References:

1.       P.N. Ananthanarayana, Basic Refrigeration & Air conditioning, New Delhi, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 1996, 1982
2.       Carrier Air conditioning Company Hand Book of Air conditioning system Design, Tata Mc Graw-Hill Book company,© 1965

3.       Indian Society of Heating Refrigeration & Air conditioning Engineers, HVAC Hand book 1997.

4.       CP Arora, Refrigeration & Air conditioning Engineers, New Delhi, Tata Mc Graw-Hill P  Publishing Company Ltd., 1981, 2001

5.       Dr.S.S.Thipse, Refrigeration & Air conditioning Engineers, Jaico Publishing House, 2005

6.       M. Adithan, Practical Refrigeration and Air conditioning1st Edition, 1991

7.       Manohar Prasad, Refrigeration and Air conditioning Data Book1989, reprint 2012

8.       P.L.Ballaney, Refrigeration and Air conditioning (in S.I. Units)15th edition, reprint 2012

9.       Prof.P.S.Desai, Modern Refrigeration and Air conditioning for Engineers (Principles, Practices and Applications) Reprint, 2010

10.     Glossary of terms used in refrigeration and air conditioning (IS 3615)Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Govt. of India2007     

11.     Khandwawala,Thermodynamic Approach for Refrigeration and Air conditioning1st Ed. 2011

12.     R.K.Rajput, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning2nd edition 2013

13.     2009 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals (SI Edition)American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)2009

14.     S.K.Kulshrestha,Refrigeration and Airconditioning,4th edition, 2001

15.     Ahmadul Ameen, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 2007.


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52.

Authors:

Neha Kalwar, Sanjay Sharma

Paper Title:

Max-Energy Node Selection and Average Energy Path Selection based Routing in MANET

Abstract:    Energy aware routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is the major problem to finding energy efficient routes that maximize the network lifetime without the knowledge energy status of nodes in network. To improve network performance, the paths for message flows are chosen in such a way that the total energy consumed along the path be minimized while avoiding energy-depleted nodes. Finding paths that consume minimum energy and finding paths that do not use energy-depleted nodes lead to conflicting objectives. In this paper, we propose an energy aware routing technique that selects the MAX energy holding nodes and calculate the average of nodes energy and if the path has maximum energy then in that case, the maximum average energy path is selected for sending data in network. This proposed method always utilizes the maximum energy nodes and for reliable connection it is essential in network. A simulation-based performance comparison between a normal energy based routing ad hoc protocol and its modified proposed energy based protocol are done by ns-2 simulator and the simulation results are showing the better results of network performance and energy utilization.

Keywords:
   MANET, Energy aware routing, MAX Energy, Average energy, Reliable routing,


References:

1.       Taesoo Jun, Angela Dalton, Shree shankar Bodas, Christine Julien, and Sriram Vishwanath, “Expressive Analytical Model for Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc
Networks”, IEEE international Conference on Communication, pp. 1-7, 2008.

2.       X.Hong, K.Xu and Gerla, “Scalable Routing Protocols for MANET”, IEEE network, Vol. 16, pp. 11-21, 2002.

3.       P. Sivasankar, C.Chellappan and S. Balaji, “Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient On demand Routing Algorithms for MANET”, 2008 IEEE Region 10 Colloquium and the Third ICIIS, Kharagpur, INDIA, pp. 1-5, 2010.

4.       Ajit Singh, Harshit Tiwari, Alok Vajpayee and Shiva Prakash, “ A Survey of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks”, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE), Vol. 02, No. 09, pp. 3111-3119,2010.

5.       Peyman Arebi “A New Method for Restoration Broken Links in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks by Estimation Energy Consumption”, IEEE Fourth International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks, 2012.

6.       Mansoor-uz-Zafar Dawood,Noor Zaman,Abdul Raouf Khan,Mohammad Salih  “Designing of energy efficient routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Using Location Aware (LA) Algorithm.” Journal of Information & Communication Technology Vol. 3, No. 2, pp 56-70, 2009.

7.       Nicola Costagliola • Pedro Garçia López • Francesco Oliviero • Simon Pietro Romano “Energy- and Delay-Efficient Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Springer Science Business Media, LLC, 23 July 2011.

8.       Sofy Harold And A. Vija Y Alakshmi  “Enhanced Power Control MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”, ICCSP, 978-1-4673-1622-4/12/, IEEE-2012.

9.       Mohammad A. Mikki “Energy Efficient Location Aided Routing Protocol for Wireless MANETs”,(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security Vol. 4, No. 1 & 2, 2009.

10.     Wei Liu, Chi Zhang, Guoliang Yao and Yuguang Fang,” DELAR: A Device-Energy-Load Aware Relaying Framework for Heterogeneous Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, IEEE-Journal On Selected Areas In Communications, Vol. 29, No. 8, September 2011.

11.     Nini Wei,Yi Song “An Energy-Aware Routing Strategy Based on Dynamic Priority  Factor in Ad Hoc Networks”,2011 International Conference of Information Technology, Computer Engineering and Management Sciences, pp.6-11 IEEE, 2011.

12.     Ajina A, “Energy Efficient, Power Aware Routing Algorithm for Sensor Network”. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1.1793-8201, February-2011.

13.     Saoucene Mahfoudh and Pascale Minet,“ An energy efficient routing based on OLSR in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks”, 22nd International Conference on
Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops IEEE Computer Society, pp. 1253-1259, 2010.

14.     Radhika D. Joshi and Priti P.Rege “Verification Of Energy Efficient Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Using Petri Net “International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN) Vol. 3, No. 4, August 2011.

15.     K Fall and K. Varadhan, The NS Manual, November 18, 2010, available on http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/doc/ns_doc.pdf. 25 July 2010.

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53.

Authors:

M. Durairaj, R. Nandha Kumar

Paper Title:

Data Mining Application on IVF Data For The Selection of Influential Parameters on Fertility

Abstract:    This paper illustrates the process applying data mining techniques for identifying influential tests for infertility couples to determine the success rate of IVF (In-vitro Fertilization) treatment.  The data set used in the experiments contains information recorded during IVF treatment and relevant laboratory tests [1].  It has supportive information for the medical practitioner to identify which are tests have high impact factors in determining the success of infertility treatment. Data mining has so much of techniques that used to finding the data reduction, pre-processing and normalization [3].The reduced data set contain the set of parameters which have an influence on the results that can be used to predict and forecast [2]. The experiment is in a way of study related to the representativeness of the sample and irrelevant features. Out of around 250 million individuals estimated to be attempting parenthood at any given time, 13 to 19 million couples are likely to be infertile. So the couples prefer the IVF treatment compared with other methods of treatment. In India the board of medical council announced the duration of infertility. If a woman was not conceived after his marriage within 6 months they caused infertility. So they must start the initial fertility treatment. Most of them prefer the In-Vitro fertilization compare with other fertility treatments [9]. A survey of the fertility treatment 1 in 20 of all pregnancies conceived by the ivf treatment. But the patients suffer from the negative imagination and they don’t know the success level of the treatment. The prediction of the success rate of IVF treatment has a great economic importance for the couples who undergo treatment for baby [2]. The data set are preprocessed by the supervised filter and the attribute selection algorithm before subject to the prediction.  It is very essential to properly analyze the data set and reduce or clean the unwanted data that increases the prediction accuracy [6]. The parameters with high impact factor can be selected by applying the proper reduct algorithm, which removes the parameters that has a lesser role in determining the success rate of particular patients and help the Gynecologists to recommend them for specific treatment of IVF, IUI or ICSI.

Keywords:
   Attribute selection algorithm, Data mining, IVF, spermatological data, supervised filter.


References:

1.       J.Bazan, A.Skowron, P.Synak, “Dynamic reducts as a tool for extracting laws from decision tables, Proc.Symp.on Methodologies for intelligent systems,” Charlotte, USA, 1994, 346-355.
2.       M. Durairaj, K. Meena and S. Selvaraju, “Applying a data mining approach of rough sets on spermatological data analysis as predictors of in-vitro fertility of bull semen”, International Journal of Computer Mathematical Sciences and Applications, Serials Publications, ISSN: 0973-6786, Vol. 2(3), pp. 221-231, Dec 2008.

3.       M. Durairaj and K. Meena, “Application of Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Fertilization Potential of Frozen Spermatozoa of Cattle and Buffalo”, International Journal of Computer Science and System Analysis, Serials Publications, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Jun 2008, pp. 1-10.

4.       Kaufmann, S.J., Eastaugh, J.L., Snowden, S., Smye, S.W. and Sharma, V. Theapplication of neural networks in predicting the outcome of in-vitro fertilization. Human Reproduction, (1997) vol.12 no. 7 pp. 1544-1457.

5.       Larsson, B. and Rodriguez-Martinez, H. Can we use in vitro fertilization tests to predictsemen fertility? Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2000) 60-61: 327-336.

6.       Thangavel, K, Jaganathan, P, Pethalakshmi, A and Karnan, M. “Effective Classification with Improved Quick Reduct for Medical Database Using Rough System”, BIME Journal, Vol. 05, Issue (1), pp. 7-14, 2005.

7.       Guoqiang Peter Zhang (2000) “Neural Networks for Classification: A Survey” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS, MAN, AND CYBERNETICS—PART C: APPLICATIONS AND REVIEWS,         pp.451-462. 

8.       K.Srinivas, G.RaghavendraRao, A.Govardhan (2012) “Analysis of Attribute Association in Heart Disease Using Data Mining Techniques” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) pp.1680-1683. 

9.       S.J.Kaufmann, J.L.Eastaugh, S.Snowden, S.W.Smye and V.Sharma (1997)”The application of Neural Networks in predicting the outcome of in-vitro fertilization “Human Reproduction vol.12 no. 7 pp.1454–1457. 

10.     Kay Elder, & Brian Dale., 2000, “In- Vitro Fertilization”, Second Edition, United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge.

11.     Edwards, R. G. (2001) “The Bumpy Road to Human In-Vitro Fertilization. Nature Medicine” 7:1091-1094.

12.     http://www.medaccessindia.com/IVF-pregnancy-success-rates.html

13.     http://www.ehow.com/about_4760556_advantages-vitro-fertilization.html

14.     https://www.centerforhumanreprod.com/ivf-success-rates.html

15.     http://www.drmalpani.com/book/chapter25h.html


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54.

Authors:

M.Kumaran

Paper Title:

Design of Coaxial Continuous Transverse Stub Antenna Array for Mobile and Space Application

Abstract:    Continuous Transverse Stub (CTS) technology with coaxial transmission line can be used for simple, light weight, low-loss microwave structures with omnidirectional radiation pattern in the horizon plane. The Coaxial CTS antenna provides low reflection with good input impedance and high radiation efficiency. This paper proposes the design of coaxial CTS antenna array operating at 2.238 GHz in S-band. The return loss (S11) at this frequency is -47.481 dB. The corresponding gain and efficiency is 5.025 dB and 92.2%. This type of antenna can be used for fixed (line of sight), mobile (line of sight) and space operation. This paper also discusses the design of the CTS antenna array in X-band. Operating at 10.548 GHz this antenna can be used for radiolocation. Return loss (S11) is got to be -34.642 dB. Radiation efficiency and gain at this frequency is 94.6% and 2.47 dB. The basic theory is analyzed. Design and optimization is done using CST Microwave Studio software. The simulation result shows the better performance in both S-band and X-band. The achieved impedance of 35 Ω doesn’t worse the result obviously.

Keywords:
   CTS array, mobile, radiolocation, space operation, S-band, X-band.


References:

1.       Bo Sun, Jinghui Qiu, Lingling Zhong, and Xiaohang Xing, “Design of Double-frequency Coaxial CTS Antenna,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Hangzhou, China, March 24-28, pp. 875-877, 2008
2.       Isom, R., M. F. Iskander, Z. Yun, and Z. Zhang, “Design and  development of multiband coaxial continuous transverse stub (CTS) antenna arrays,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 8, {2180-2184}, 2004.

3.       W. W. Milroy, “Continuous Transverse Stub element devices and methods of making same,” U.S. Patent 5,266,961, 1991.

4.       Iskander, M.F., Zhang, Z., Yun, Z., and Isom, R., “Coaxial Continuous Transverse Stub (CTS) Array,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, Vol. 11, no.12, pp. 489-491, Dec. 2001.

5.       Z. Zhang, M. F. Iskander, and Z. Yun, “Coaxial continuous transverse stub element device antenna array and filter” U.S. Patent 6, 201,509 Nov 5, 1999.

6.       M. F. Iskander, Z. Yun, Z. Zhang, R. Jensen, and S. Redd,“Design of a Low-Cost 2-D Beam-Steering Antenna Using Ferroelectric Material and the CTS Technology” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, {1000-1003} 2001.

7.       Paul Thompson, Barry Evans, Michel Bousquetet, Laurent Castenet, Takis Mathiopoulos, “Concepts and Technologies for a Terabit/s Satellite” Supporting future broadband services via satellite, The Third International Conference on Advances in Satellite and Space communications, SPACOMM (2011)

8.       Milroy, W. W., “The continuous transverse stub (CTS) array: Basic theory, experiment, and application,” Proc. Antenna Applications Symp., Sept.  Vol 2,  25-27, 1991.

9.       Chu, R.-S., “Analysis of continuous transverse stub (CTS) array by floquet mode method,”  IEEE International Antennas and Propagation Symposium and USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, Vol. 2, June 21-26, 1998.

10.     A. Lemons, R. Lewis, W. Milroy, R. Robertson, S. Coppedge, and T. Kastle, “W-band CTS planar array,” in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Dig., Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 651–654.

11.     M. F. Iskander and E. Jensen, “TLine: Software for sinusoidal steady-state analysis of transmission lines,” Comput. Applicat. Eng. Educ., Vol.2, no. 3, pp. 185–194, 1994.

12.     Balanis .A, “Antenna Theory Analysis and Design”, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1982

13.     http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/2003-allochrt.pdf

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55.

Authors:

Mohammad Anwar Rahman

Paper Title:

Dynamic Stochastic Model to Forecast Non- Stationary Electricity Demand

Abstract:    This paper presents a dynamic stochastic model to forecast the pattern of residential electricity consumption of a rapidly developing industrial nation. Electricity usage is essential for continuous economic development and urbanization. Long term projection of residential electricity demand is vital for decision makers to developstrategic resource planning and energy policy. In this forecasting model, electricity demand is a function of the price of electricity, household electric appliances, real personal income, number of households, and urban conditions. We propose the Bayesian statistical technique on a dynamic linear model to predict the parameters of the demand model. We apply the model to a time series of a nonlinear, non-stationary household electricity demand. The forecast is generated from the inference of marginal posterior distribution of the model parameters obtained with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation method. The forecast result is tested and compared with actual data and two alternate models. The Bayesian model is proven to be an effective forecasting method with the flexibility to solve multi-dimensional time series models and update estimated parameters as the demand changes over time. Test results indicate that Bayesian model is preferred over the classical artificial neural networks and the regression models due to its capacity to predict parameters of large-scale multivariate models.

Keywords:
   Bayesian statistical model, classical artificial neural network, dynamic linear model, electricity load data, forecast validation.


References:

1.       P.K. Adom andW. Bekoe, “Conditional dynamic forecast of electrical energy consumption requirements in Ghana by 2020: A comparison of ARDL and PAM,” Energy, 44, 2012, 367-380.
2.       R. Ramanathan, R. Engle and C.W.J., Granger, F. Vahid-Araghi and C. Brace, “Short-run forecasts of electricity loads and peaks,” International Journal of Forecasting, 13, 1997, 161–174.

3.       V.Dordonnata, S.J. Koopmanb, and M.Oomsb, “Dynamic factors in periodic time-varying regressions with an application to hourly electricity load modeling,” Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 56, 2012, 3134–3152.

4.       J.W. Taylor and R.Buizza, “Using weather ensemble predictions in electricity demand forecasting,” International Journal of Forecasting, 19, 2003, 57–70.

5.       J.W. Taylor and P.E. McSharry, “Short-term load forecasting methods: an evaluation based on European data,”IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 22, 2007, 2213–2219.

6.       J.T. Connor, “A robust neural network filter for electricity demand prediction,” Journal of Forecasting, 15, 1996, 436–458.

7.       A.Azadeh, and Z.S. Faiz, “A meta-heuristic framework for forecasting household electricity consumption,” Applied Soft Computing, 11(1), 2010, 614-620.

8.       C.S. Gonzales, B.J. Xiberta, and C.H. Llaneza, “Forecasting of energy production and consumption in Asturias (Northern Spain),”Energy, 24, 1999, 183-198.

9.       Z.Yumurtaci, and E.Asmaz, “Electric energy demand of Turkey for the year 2050,”Energy Sources, 26(12), 2004, 1157-1164.

10.     M.Tunc, U.Camdali, and C.Parmaksizoglu, “Comparison of Turkey’s electrical energy consumption and production with some European countries and optimization
of future electrical power supply investments in Turkey,”Energy Policy, 34(1), 2006, 50 - 59.

11.     G. De Vital, K.Endresen and L.C. Hunt, “An empirical analysis of energy demand in Namibia,” Energy Policy, 34, 2006, 3447-3463.

12.     Z.Atakhanova, and P. Howie, “Electricity demand in Kazakhstan,” Energy Policy, 35, 2007, 3729–3743.

13.     A.A. Himanshu and C.H. Lester, “Electricity demand for Sri Lanka: a time series analysis,” Energy, 33, 2008, 724-739.

14.     K. Subair and D.M. Oke, “Privatization and Trends of Aggregate Consumption of Electricity in Nigeria: An Empirical Analysis,”African Journal of Accounting Economics Finance and Banking Research, 3, 2008, 18-27.

15.     Amusa. H, Amusa. K., Mabugu. R. (2009) ‘Aggregate demand for electricity in South Africa’, Energy Policy, Vol. 37, pp. 4167 - 4175.

16.     Inglesi-Lotz R. and Blignaut JN. (2011) ‘South Africa’s electricity consumption: a sectoral decomposition analysis’, Applied Energy, Vol. 88, pp. 4779 -4784.

17.     R.Cottet, and M.Smith “Bayesian modeling and forecasting of intra-day electricity load,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 98, 2003, 839–849.

18.     Y.Ohtsuka, T.Ogac, andK. Kakamuc, “Forecasting electricity demand in Japan: a Bayesian spatial autoregressive ARMA approach,” Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 54, 2010, 2721–2735.

19.     A. Panagiotelis and M. Smith, “Bayesian skew selection for multivariate models,”Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 54, 2010, 1824–1839.

20.     A..Gelman, J.B. Carlin, H.S.Stern, and D.B. Rubin, Bayesian Data Analysis. (2nded.). Boca Raton, FL:Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2003.

21.     P. Congdon, Bayesian Statistical Modeling. Chichester (UK): Wiley. 2001.

22.     WinBUGS Tutorial (2010) available:  http://mathstat.helsinki.fi/openbugs/data/Docu/Tutorial, Last accessed on November, 2012.

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25.     S.S Qian, C.A. Stow, and M.E. Borsuk, “On Monte Carlo methods for Bayesian inference,” Ecological Modeling, 159, 2003, 269-277.


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56.

Authors:

M.S.M Aras, M.F. Basar, N. Hasim, M.N. Kamaruddin, H.I. Jaafar

Paper Title:

Development and Modeling of Water Tank System Using System Identification Method  

Abstract:     This paper presents the development and modeling of Water Tank System (WTS) for temperature control using system identification technique. The WTS consists of the tank with 30 liter water, a stirrer, heater and thermocouple was powered by 240VDC and the system run by LabView software. The stirrer used to stabilize the water temperature that installed on the top cover of the WTS. In this project, a prototype of the WTS will be developed first. The WTS will be tested on an open loop system to obtain measured input-output signals. Input and output signals from the system are recorded and analyzed to infer a model. Then, system identification toolbox in MATLAB will be applied to generate a model of the WTS. The experimental testing of WTS only considered in temperature control. The modeling obtained will be used to design the a suitable controller for temperature control. The most crucial issue is the control system. It is needed for the WTS to perform the desired temperature setting. The objective of this project is to reduce or eliminate the overshoot of system response from temperature setting.  The conventional controller PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) will be used to control the temperature so that the temperature will maintain its desired temperature. The result shows that FLC is the better performance of system response in term of overshoot and oscillation.

Keywords:
   Water Tank System (WTS), Temperature Control, Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC), PID Controller


References:

1.        Mohd Shahrieel Mohd Aras, SN Bin Syed Salim, Eric Chee Sai Hoo, M Hendra Hairi, Comparison of Fuzzy Control Rules Using MATLAB Toolbox and Simulink for DC Induction Motor-Speed Control, IEEE International Conference of Soft Computing and Pattern Recognition, 2009. SOCPAR'09, pp 711-715.
2.        Norman S.Nise ,Control Engineering System 6th Edition, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, John Wiley & Son Inc. 2011.

3.        Hazriq Izzuan Jaafar, Z. Mohamed, Amar Faiz Zainal Abidin, Z. Ab Ghani, PSO-Tuned PID Controller for a Nonlinear Gantry,   Crane System, IEEE International Conference on Control System, Computing and Engineering, 23 - 25 Nov. 2012, pp 1-5.

4.        Hazriq Izzuan Jaafar, Nursabillilah Mohd Ali, Z. Mohamed, Nur Asmiza Selamat, Anuar Mohamed Kassim, Amar Faiz Zainal Abidin, J.J. Jamian, Optimal Performance of a Nonlinear Gantry Crane System via Priority-based Fitness Scheme in Binary PSO Algorithm,pp 1 -6, 2013.

5.        M.S.M Aras, S.S. Abdullah, H.I. Jaafar, A. A Rahman, M.A.A Aziz, Single Input Fuzzy Logic Controller tuning using PSO based on Simple Feed Forward and Output Feedback Observer for Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle, Submitted to related journal (under review), 2013.

6.        Reza Talebi-Daryani, Markus Olbring “Application Of Fuzzy Logic Control For Energy Management Of a Cascaded Heating Centre”, University of Applied Sciences Cologe/Germany, Sviences-Landis & Staefa/Cologe Germany, pp.1-8

7.        Mohd Shahrieel bin Mohd Aras, FBA Azis, SMSBS Hamid, FAB Ali, SSB Abdullah, Study of the effect in the output membership function when tuning a Fuzzy Logic Controller, IEEE International Conference on Control System, Computing and Engineering (ICCSCE), pp 1-6, 2011.

8.        B.J LaMeres, M.H. Nehrir, V.Geres “Controlling The Average Residential Electric Water Heater Power Demand Using Fuzzy Logic”, Electrical & Computer Engineering Department Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717.

9.        Yunseop Kim “Fuzzy Logic Temperature Controller”, Physics 344 Fall 2001 Project Report, Physics Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, pp 2-12

10.     Vjekoslav Galzina,MsC, Tomislav Saric,PhD, Roberto Lujic,PhD “Application Of Fuzzy Logic in Boiler Control”, University J.J Strossmayer in Osijek, Mechanical Engineering Faculty in Slavonski Brod, pp.15-21

11.     Manis Agarwal, “Fuzzy Logic Control in Washing Machines”, Roll Number 00ME1011, Department of Mechanical Engineering, India Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, pp.1-5

12.     N Hasim, MF Basar, MSM Aras, “Design and Development of a Water Bath Control System: A Virtual Laboratory Environment,” 2011 IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development (SCORED), pp. 403-408, ISBN: 978-1-4673-0099-5, Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 19-20 December 2011.

13.     MSM Aras, MKA Rahim, A Asrokin, MZA Abdul Aziz, Dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) for wireless application, IEEE International RF and Microwave Conference (RFM 2008), Pages 454-458, 2008.

14.     Norhaslinda Hasim, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd Aras, Mohd Zamzuri Ab Rashid, Anuar Mohamed Kassim, Shahrum Shah Abdullah, Development of fuzzy logic water bath temperature controller using MATLAB, IEEE International Conference on Control System, Computing and Engineering (ICCSCE), pp 11 – 16, 2012.

15.     M.F. Basar, A. Ahmad, N. Hasim and K. Sopian, “Introduction to the Pico Hydropower and the status of implementation in Malaysia,” IEEE Student  Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD), pp. 283-288, ISBN: 978-1-4673-0099-5, Cyberjaya, Malaysia, 19-20 December 2011. 

16.     M.F. Basar, A.A. Rahman, Z Mahmod, “Design and Development of Green Electricity Generation System Using Ocean Surface Wave,” PEA-AIT International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Development : Issues and Strategies (ESD 2010), pp. 1-11, ISBN: 978-1-4244-8563-5, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 02-04 June 2010. 

17.     MSM Aras, H.A. Kasdirin, M.H. Jamaluddin, M F. Basar, Design and Development of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV-FKEUTeM), Proceedings of MUCEET2009 Malaysian Technical Universities Conference on Engineering and Technology, MUCEET2009, MS Garden, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, 2009.

18.     “User Guide And Specifications NI USB 6008/6009”, Bus-Power Multifunction DAQ USB Device.

19.     Mohd Nasir Taib, Ramli Adnan, Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman, “Practical System Identification “, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Malaysia.

20.     Lennart Ljung “Perspectives on System Identification”, Division of Automatic Control.


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57.

Authors:

Komal Sheth, Nitish Gadgil, P. R. Futane

Paper Title:

A Survey of Gesture Recognition Systems for Indian Sign Language Recognition

Abstract:    The problem of Sign Language Recognition (SLR) consists of four main stages, Video Acquisition, Video Processing, Feature Extraction and Recognition. SLR is a multi-disciplinary research area; hence literature survey of each stage mentioned above is done independently in order to find the suitable best method for each stage. Another reason for doing independent literature survey of each stage is, selection of efficient method at each stage will improve the overall performance of the SLR system. The set of techniques reviewed in this paper can be selected for developing a system for recognition of the native Indian Sign Language (ISL).

Keywords:
   SLR, ISL, Skin Detection, Feature Extraction.


References:

1.       A. Abadpour, S. Kasaei; “Pixel-Based Skin Detection for Pornography Filtering”; Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, July 2005.
2.       Ahmad Yahya Dawod, Junaidi Abdullah, Md.Jahangir Alam; “A New Method for Hand Segmentation Using Free-Form Skin Color Model”; 3rd International Conforence on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering(ICACTE), 2010.

3.       Anirudh Garg; “Converting American Sign Language To Voice Using RBFNN”; Master’s Thesis, Computer Science, Faculty of San Diego State University, Summer 2012.

4.       Ankit Chaudhary, Ankur Gupta; “Automated Switching System for Skin Pixel Segmentation in Varied Lighting”; 19th International Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP12), Nov 2012.

5.       Anup Nandy,  Soumik Mondal, P. Chakraborty , G.C.Nandi; “Gesture based imitation learning for Human Robot Interaction”; UACEE International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks ISSN:- 2250-3749(online).

6.       Benjamin D. Zarit, Boaz J. Super, Francis K. H. Quek; “Comparison of Five Color Models in Skin Pixel Classification”; Proceedings. International Workshop on  Recognition, Analysis, and Tracking of Faces and Gestures in Real-Time Systems, 1999.

7.       Berna Erol, Faouzi Kossentini, “Automatic Key Video Object Plane Selection Using the Shape Information in the MPEG-4 Compressed Domain”, IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol. 2, No. 2, June 2000.

8.       Bhawna Gautam; “Image Compression Using Discrete Cosine Transform & Discrete Wavelet Transform”; Bachelor’s Thesis, Computer Science and Engineering, NIT Rourkela, May 2010.

9.       C.Prema,  D.Manimegalai; “ Survey on Skin Tone Detection using Color Spaces”; International Journal of Applied Information Systems (IJAIS) – ISSN : 2249-0868, , Volume 2– No.2, May 2012.

10.     Deepika Tewari, Sanjay Kumar Srivastava; “ A Visual Recognition of Static Hand Gestures in Indian Sign Language based on Kohonen Self- Organizing Map Algorithm” ; International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-2, Issue-2, December 2012.

11.     H C Vijay Lakshmi,  S. PatilKulakarni; “Segmentation Algorithm for Multiple Face Detection in Color Images with Skin Tone Regions using Color Spaces and Edge DetectionTechniques”; International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 4, August, 2010.

12.     Henrik Birk, Thomas Baltzer Moeslund; “Recognizing Gestures From the Hand Alphabet Using PrincipalComponent Analysis”; Master’s Thesis, Laboratory of Image Analysis, Aalborg University, Denmark, October 1996

13.     J. Bernal, F. Vilarino, J. Sanchez; “Feature Detectors and Feature Descriptors: Where We Are Now”; Technical Report 154, Computer Vision Center & Computer Science Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 2010.

14.     J. Rekha, J. Bhattacharya, S. Majumder, “Shape. Texture and Local Movement Hand Gesture Features for Indian Sign Language Recognition”; 3rd International Conference on trendz in Information Sciences and Computing (TISC), 2011.

15.     Jouglas Alves Tomaschitz, Jacques Facon;” Skin Detection applied to Multi-racial Images”; 16th International Conference on  Systems, Signals and Image Processing. IWSSIP, 2009.

16.     Joyeeta Singha, Karen Das; “  Indian Sign Language Recognition Using Eigen Value Weighted Euclidean Distance Based Classification Technique”;   (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2013.

17.     Kenny Morrison, Stephen J. McKenna; “An Experimental Comparison of Trajectory-Based and History-Based Representation for Gesture Recognition”; In
Proceedings of the International Gesture Workshop,2004.

18.     Ketki. P.Kshirsagar, Dharmpal Doye; “ Object Based key Frame Selection for Hand Gesture recognition”; International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in Communication and Computing, 2010.

19.     Klimis Symeonidis; “Hand Gesture Recognition Using Neural Networks”; Master’s Thesis, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK, 2000.

20.     Lim Wei Howe, Farrah Wong, Ali Chekima;”Comparison of Hand Segmentation Methodologies for Hand Gesture Recognition”; Information Technology, ITSim 2008. International Symposium, Volume:2, 2008.

21.     M.H. Yang, N. Ahuja; “Gaussian Mixture model for human skin color and its application in image and video databases”, Proceedings of SPIE: Conference on Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases, vol. 3656, pp. 458–466, 1999.

22.     M.K. Bhuyan, P.K. Bora, and D. Ghosh; “Trajectory Guided Recognition of Hand Gestures having only Global Motions”; International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol.3, no..44, 2008.

23.     M.K. Bhuyan, “FSM-based Recognition of Dynamic Hand Gestures via Gesture Summarization using Key Video Object Planes”, International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering 6, 2012.

24.     Michael J. Jones, James M. Rehg; “Statistical Color Models with Application to Skin Detection”; International Journal of Computer Vision, Springer, 2002.

25.     Muhammad Inayat Ullah Khan; “Hand Gesture Detection & Recognition System”; Master’s Thesis,Computer Engineering, Dalrana University, Sweden, 2011.

26.     Muhammad Yousuf Bin Azhar , Israr Ahmed, Sameer Rafiq, Suleman Mumtaz Ali Mehmood Usman, Razi Ur Rehman; “Boltoy Haath- Palistani Sign Language Recognition”; Department Of Computer Engineering; Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology, Computer Engineering, 2001.

27.     P. Kakumanu, S. Makrogiannis, N. Bourbakis; “Asurvey of skin-color modeling and detection methods”; Elsevier, The journal of the pattern recognition society, 40
,1106 – 1122, 2007.

28.     Prajakta M.Patil, Y.M.Patil; “Robust Skin Colour Detection And Tracking Algorithm”; International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 1 Issue 8, October – 2012.

29.     Qiong Liu, Guang-zheng Peng; “A Robust Skin Color Based Face Detection Algorithm”; 2nd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics, 2010.

30.     R. Rojas ; “Neural Networks”; Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996.

31.     Rafiqul Zaman Khan, Noor Adnan Ibraheem; “Segmentation Algorithms for Vision Based HCI”; First Kuwait Conf. on E-Services and E-Systems, November 2009.

32.     Rafiqul Zaman Khan, Noor Adnan Ibraheem; “Survey on Gesture Recognition for Hand Image Posture”; Canadian Center of Computer and Information Science, 110-121, May 2012.

33.     Rashmi D. Kyatanavar, Prof. P. R. Futane; “Comparative Study of Sign Language Recognition Systems”; International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 6, June 2012.

34.     Reza Hassanpour, Asadollah Shahbahrami,  Stephan Wong; “Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model for Skin Color Segmentation “;Proceedings Of World Academy Of Science, Engineering And Technology, Issn 1307-6884,  Vol: 31, July 2008.

35.     Rosalyn R. Porle, Ali Chekima, Farrah Wong, and G. Sainarayanan; “Performance of Histogram-Based Skin Colour Segmentation for Arms Detection in Human Motion Analysis Application”; International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering 4:15, 2009.

36.     Sandeep K., Rajagopalan A.N.; "Human Face Detection in Cluttered Color Images Using Skin Color and Edge Information"; Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology – Madras Chennai - 600 036, India.

37.     Sanjay Kr. Singh1, D. S. Chauhan, Mayank Vatsa, Richa Singh; “A Robust Skin Color Based Face Detection Algorithm”; Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 227-234, 2003.

38.     Shekhar Singh,  Akshat Jain, Deepak Kumar; “Recognizing and Interpreting Sign Language Gesture for Human Robot Interaction”;  International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 52– No.11, August 2012.

39.     Shuying Zhao, Wenjun Tan, Shiguang Wen, and Yuanyuan Liu; “An Improved Algorithm of Hand Gesture Recognition under Intricate Background”;  the First International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Applications (ICIRA 2008),: Part I. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2008, pp. 786–794.
40.     Siddharth S. Rautaray , Anupam Agrawal; “Vision based hand gesture recognition for human computer interaction: a survey”; Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, November 2012.
41.     Son Lam Phung, Abdesselam Bouzerdoum, and Douglas Chai; “Skin Segmentation Using Color and Edge Information”; Proceedings Seventh International Symposium on Signal Processing and Its Applications, vol:1, 2003.

42.     Swathi Rajashekar; “Composite Feature-Based Face Detection Using Skin Color Modeling and SVM Classification”; Master’s Thesis, Computer Science, Utah State University, 2012.

43.     T. Bouwmans, F. El Baf, B. Vachon, “Background Modeling using Mixture of Gaussians for Foreground Detection - A Survey”; Recent Patents on Computer Science Volume 1, No 3, pages 219-237, November 2008.

44.     Thomas Coogan, George Awad, Junwei Han, Alistair Sutherland; “Real Time Hand Gesture Recognition Including Hand Segmentation and Tracking”; School of Computer Applications, Dublin City University, Ireland, 2007.

45.     Vaishali S. Kulkarni, Dr. S.D.Lokhande; “Appearance Based Recognition of American Sign Language Using Gesture Segmentation”; (IJCSE) International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 02, No. 03, 2010, 560-565.

46.     Vladimir Vezhnevets, Vassili Sazonov and Alla Andreeva; “A Survey on Pixel-Based Skin Color Detection Techniques”; GRAPHICON03, 2003, pp. 85–92.

47.     Vladimir Vezhnevets, Alla Andreeva, “A Comparative Assessment of Pixel-based Skin Detection Methods”, Technical report, Graphics and Media Laboratory, Moscow State University, 2005.

48.     Xingyan Li; “Vision Based Gesture Recognition System With High Accuracy”; Department of Computer Science, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-3450, 2005.

49.     Y. Wang, B. Yuan;”A novel approach for human face detection from color images under complex background”, Pattern Recognition 34(10) ,1983–1992,2001.

50.     Yang M.-H., Kriegman D. J. and Ahuja M.;"Detecting faces in images: A survey"; IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis ad Machine Intelligence, Vol. 24(1), pp. 34-58, 2002.

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58.

Authors:

Muralidhara R, Siva Yellampalli

Paper Title:

VIP Architecture and Design Using OVM for IrDA Protocol

Abstract:   This paper presents practical and efficient way of architecting and developing verification component (VIP) for IrDA protocol using OVM methodology, which supports transaction level modeling , coverage driven and self-checking and reusability across subsystem , system, Architectural exploration along with HW-SW co-simulation, Which can address Time to market and Bug free silicon.

Keywords:
   Transcation level modeling, Verification IP, coverage driven, OVM, Time to market, Bug free silicon, resusbality.


References:

1.       A. Raynaud. The new gate count: What is verification’s real cost? Electronic Design, October 2003   link
2.       B.stohr, M.Simmons, J.Geishauser “FlexBench:Reuse of verification IP to  increase the productivity “ Design Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, 2002

3.       Hu Zhaouhui, A.Pierres, Hu shiqing, Chen Fang “Practical and efficient SOC Verification flow by resuing IP testcase and Testbench” SOC design conference(ISOCC),2012 International.

4.       System verilog 3.1a Language Refrence Manual.link

5.       OVM 2.1.2 Methodology manual.link

6.       IrDA standard Protocol Stack Controller With Fixed 9600 Baud Communication Rate -2007-2011 Microchip Technology Inclink


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59.

Authors:

T.Shanmuga Vadivel, C.G.Saravanan, P.Balashanmugam

Paper Title:

Study of Diesel Particulate Emission from Bio-diesel (Waste Cooking Oil) in DI Engine Adding Fuel Additive  

Abstract:    The need for improvement of fuel quality in respect of stabling, ignition and combustion quality and injector celandines has been recognized.  New standard to define the optimum fuel quality have evolved and are involving with development of relevant test methods.    In transport fuels, multi functional additives are being used a proven cost effective means to improve fuel quality, especially to meet the requirements of new engine designs and stringent emission standards well designed “ash less”  additives offer the option to address the quality of heavy fuel for use in engine especially with the constraints in improvement process changes. Over the last few years biodiesel has gained importance as an alternative fuel for diesel engines.  Manufacturing biodiesel from plant oil is relatively easy and possesses many environment benefits.  Besides, what makes biodiesel all the more attractive is that it can be derived from waste cooking oil produced in large quantities in public eateries. The purpose of this project is to analyze the potential of waste cooking oil (WCO) for their suitability as feed stock for biodiesel preparation and to compare the fuel properties of the derived esters of WCO (WCO-biodiesel) with those esters of fresh oil and baseline diesel fuel.  The palm oil based WCO – biodiesel and ester of fresh palm oil are transformed into respective biodiesel, by transesterification process.  The investigation will be carried out in the single cylinder water cooled DI diesel with the sole fuel and the performance, emission and combustion characteristics analyzed. In case of palm oil the maximum brake thermal efficiency is 28% at maximum load.

Keywords:
   Particulate emission, WCO, biodiesel, transesterification 


References:

1.       Jose M. Desantes, Jean Arregle and Santiago Ruiz and Alain Delage,(1999) “Characterisation of the injection-combustion process in a DI diesel engine running with Rape oil methyl ester” SAE Technical paper 01-1497.
2.       D.C. Rakopoulos, C.G. Rakopouls, E.G. Giakoumis, A.M. Dimaratos, M.A. Founti,(2011) “Comparative environmental behavior of bus engine operating on blends of diesel fuel with four straight vegetable oils of Greek origin: Sunflower, cottonseed, Corn and olive. Journal of Fuel   pp. 3439-3446.

3.       Culshaw F.A.(1993), “The potential of biodiesel from oil-seed rape”, Journal of Power and Energy, Vol. 207, No. A3, pp. 173-181.

4.       Desantes J.M., Arregle J., Pastor J.V.(1998), “Influence of the fuel characteristics on the injection process in a DI diesel engine”, SAE Paper 980802.

5.       Kaiser W.(1991), “The use of alternative fuels in tractor engine – State of development and prospects from a manufacture’s viewpoint”, Conference “Engine and Environment” AVL Proceedings.

6.       Macchi S.(1991), “Overview on Biodiesel Utilisation for S+L+H Tractor engines”, conference “Engine and environment”, AVL Proceedings.

7.       Payri F., Desantes J.M., Arregle J. (1996), “Characterisation of DI diesel sprays in high density conditions”, SAE Paper 960774.

8.       Mohamad I. AI-Widyan, M.I., Tashtouch, G. and Abul-Qudais, M. (2002).  Utilization of ethyl ester of waste vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines, Fuel Processing Technology,  pp. 91-103.

9.       Rickeart D.J., Thompson N.D., “A review of the potential for bio-fuels as transportation fuels”, SAE paper 932778, 1993.

10.     Yiannis A. Levendis , Iraklis Pavlatos, Richard F. Abrams,(1994), Control of diesel soot, hydrocarbon and NOx emission with particulate trap and EGR. SAE paper
940460.

11.     Ayhan Demirbas,(2009) “Biodiesel from waste cooking oil via base-catalytic and supercritical methanol transesterification” Energy conservation and Management, Vol.50, Issue 4, pp 923-\927.

12.     Larsen C, Dey F, Levendis YA (1996), An optimization study on the control of NOx and particulate emissions from diesel engines, SAE paper no. 960473, 1996.

13.     Komninos NP, Rakopoulos CD (2010). Numerical investigation into the formation of CO and oxygenated and nonoxygenated hydrocarbon emissions from isooctane and ethanol-fueled HCCI engines.  Journal of Energy Fuels; 24: 1655-67.

14.     Miyamoto N, Ogawa H, Nabi MN (2000). “Approaches to extremely low emissions and efficient diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels.  International Journals of Engine Research; 1: pp 71-85.

15.     Abu-Jrai A, Rodriguez-Fernandez J, Tsolakis A. Megaritis A. Theinnoi K, Cracknell RF(2009), “Performance, combustion and emissions of a diesel engine operated with reformed EGR, comparison of diesel and GTL fuelling, Journal of Fuel, 88 pp. 1031-41.
16.     Rakopoulos CD. Antonopoulos KA. Rakopoulos DC, Kakaras EC, Pariotis EG. (2007), Characteristics of the performance and emissions of a HSDI diesel engine running with cotton seed oil or its methyl ester and their blends with diesel fuel.  International journal of Vehicle December; 45 pp 200-21.
17.       W.M. J. Achter, L. Verchot, Y.J. Franken, E. Mathijs, V.P. Singh, R. Aerts, B Muys(2008), “Jatropha bio-diesel production and use review article” Journal of Biomass and bioenergy, vol. 32, issue 12, Dec, pages 1063 – 1084.

18.     Meher Lc, Sagar DV, Naik SN (2006), “Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification – a review” Journal of Renewable energy Rev, 10: 248 – 68.

19.     Ma.F, Hanna MA,(1999) “Biodiesel production” A review bio resource technol; 70: 1 – 15.

20.     Fukuda H, Kondo A, Node H,(2001), “Biodiesel fuel production by transesterification of oils” Journal of bioscience bioenergy  ; 92: 405 – 26.

21.     Kawashima A, Matsubara K, Honda K. (2008)”Development of heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel production” Bio research technology; 99: 3439 – 43.

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60.

Authors:

Jyoti Narwal, Ajay Goel, Devender Sharma, D.R. Kapoor, Bhupinder Singh

Paper Title:

An Experimental Investigation on Structural Performance of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beam

Abstract:    Conventional concrete loses its tensile resistance after the formation of multiple cracks. However, fibreous concrete can sustain a portion of its resistance following cracking to resist more loading. The Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) has enhanced resistance against cracking and a better micro-crack arrest mechanism. Further, fibre reinforced concrete is found to have improved strengths against shear, flexure, tension and increased resistances against impact, fatigue, wear and enhanced toughness and ductility over that of RCC.   In the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of percentage of steel fibres on structural behavior of beams measured in terms of Load Deflection behavior, Ultimate load carrying capacity, Cracking Pattern and Mode of Failure and to investigate the effect of aspect ratio of steel fibres on structural performance of RC beams measured in terms of above parameter sand also to investigate the effect of mixed fibres (two types of fibres with different aspect ratios) on structural performance of RC beams. Initially thirteen specimens of series (SV1, SVF1, SVF2 and SVF3) with different aspect ratio of fibres were tested.  Finally, thirteen specimens of series (SV1, SVF1, SVF2 and SVF3) with volume fractions of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2% steel fibres were cast and tested. The results obtained from the investigation indicated that addition of steel fibres in the concrete mix improved structural performance of beam measured in terms of ultimate load carrying capacity, stiffness, crack width, deflection. The presence of steel fibres in concrete mix also improved the post cracking behavior of the specimens of all the series due to crack arresting phenomenon. With the increase in the percentage of fibres from 0.05% to2% in the beam the deflection at peak load increased. The optimum fibre volume percentage for all the series was obtained as 1.5%.  The structural performance of the specimens of the series SVF2 was best among all the series. It was also observed in the study that addition of fibres results in improvement in ultimate load carrying capacity of beams along with its area under the curve thus indicating improved toughness of the beams.

Keywords:
    RCC, SFRC, SVF2, SVF3

References:

1        Andrew G. Mphonde and Gregory, C. Frantz., “Shear Tests of High and Low Strength Concrete Beams without Stirrups”, ACI, Jr., July – August, 1984, pp. 350-356
2        ACI : 318-1977 “Building Code Requirements For Reinforced Concrete American Concrete Institute,” U.S.A

3        Batson, G.B., Jankins, E. and Spatney, R., “Steel Fibres As Shear Reinforcement In Beams”, Jr. of ACI, October, 1972, Proc. V. 69, pp. 640-644.

4        D. Suji, S. C. Natesan, R.Murugesan and R. Sanjai Prabhu, ‘Optimal Design of Fibrous Concrete Beams through Simulated Annealing’ Thammasat Int. J. Sc. Tech, Vol.13, No.1 March 2008.

5        IS: 383-1970, “Indian Standard Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

6        IS: 456-2000, “Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.  

7        IS: 1786_1985, “Indian Standard For Test Of Reinforcement” Bureau Of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

8        IS: 5816-1999, “Method of Test for Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete Cylinders”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

9        IS: 8112-1989, “Specification for 43 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement (First Revision with Amendment No.3)”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

10      IS: 10262-1982, “Recommended Guide Lines for Concrete Mix Design”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

11      IS: 12269-1989, “Specification for 53 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement (First Revision with Amendment No.3)”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

12      Jindal, R.L. and Gupta, S.P., “Research Report on Behavior of Steel Fibres Reinforced Concrete”, Jan. 1975, Civil Engineering Deptt., Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh.

13      Kar, J.N. and Pal, A. K. ‘strength of fibre Reinforced Concrete’, Proc. V.69, February, 1972, pp. 96-100.

14      Kulwant Singh, “Beha Pakotiprapha, B. et al., “Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortar with Randomly oriented Steel wires”, Magazine of Concrete Research, March, 1974.

15      Lankard, D.R., “Prediction of Flexural Strength Properties of Steel Fibrous Concrete”. Proc. Of Const. Engg. Research Laboratory (CERL) Conference on Fibrous Concrete, Champaign III, May, 1972.

16      McKee, D.C. ‘ The Properties of an Expensive Cement Mortar Reinforced With Random Wire Fibre, PhD. thesis Department of Civil Engineering, University of ILLinois, Urbana,1969.

17      Parimi, S.R. and Rao, J.K.S., “On the Fracture Toughness of Fibre Reinforced Concrete”, ACI SP-44-4. 1974, pp. 79-92.

18      Portar, H.F. ‘The Preparation of concrete from selection of materials to find disposition , proceeding national association of cement users, Journal of American concrete institute, volume 6 ,1910.

19      Ramey, M.R., “The Flexural Behavior of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams”, Ph.D. Thesis, Carnegie – Mallon University, Pittsburg Pennsylvania, Sept. 1967.

20      Romauldi, J.P. and Batson, G.B., “Behavior of Reinforced concrete Beams with closely spaced Reinforcement”, Jr. of ACI, Proc. V, No. 5, June 1963, pp. 775-789.

21      Romauldi and Mandel, “Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams with closely spaced Reinforcement”, Jr. of ACI, Proc. V, No. 5, June 1963, pp. 775-789.

22      R.V. Balendran, F.P. Zhou, A. Nadeem, A.Y.T. Leung, ‘Influence Of Steel Fibre On Strength And Ductility Of Normal And Lightweight High Strength Concrete’ Buildings and Environment 37(2002) 1361-1367.

23      S.A.Al-Ta’an and N.S.Al-Aaffar, ‘Investigation of Shear Response of Fibrous Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Incremental-iterative Method’ Al-Rafidain Engineering Vol.15 No.3 2007.

24      Shah, S.P. and Rangan, B.V. ‘Effect of Reinforcement on Ductility of Concrete’, Proc. ASCE, Vol.96, ST6, June, 1980, pp.1167-1184.

25      Shah, S.P. and Rangan, B.V ‘fibre reinforced concrete properties, Jr. of A.C.I., V.68 February, 1971, pp.126-135.

26      SP 23:1983, “Handbook on Concrete Mixes”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

27      Swamy, R.N. and Bahiya, H.M., “Influence of Fibre Reinforced on Dowel Resistance of Shear”, Jr. of ACI, Proc. V. 76, Feb., 1974, pp. 327-355.

28      Swamy, R.N. and Mangat, P.S., “Flexural strength of steel Fibre Reinforced concrete”, Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers, of Civil Engineers, Part 2, Dec. 1974, pp. 701-707.

29      Swamy, R.N. Mangat, P.S. “the onset of Cracking and Ductility of steel fibre concrete”, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.5, January, 1975, pp.37-53.

30      Swamy, R.N., Manget, P.S. and Rao, C.V., “Mechanics of fibre-Reinforced Cement Matrices”, ACI Publication sp44,pp 1-28.

31      Synder, M.J., and Lankard, D.R., “Factors Affecting Cracking Strength of Steel Fibrous Concrete”, ACI Jr. Proc. V. 69, No. 2, Feb. 1972, pp. 96 – 100.

32      Yoon-Keun Kwak, Marc O. Eberhard, Woo-Suk Kim, and Jubum Kim, ‘‘Shear Strength of Steel Fibre-Reinforced Concrete Beams without Stirrups’ ACI Structural Journal V.99 No 4 august 2002.


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61.

Authors:

Tadgiri Aruna, R.Bhadraiah

Paper Title:

An Implementation on 32-Bit High Speed Truncation- Error -Tolerant Adder with Low power Consumption

Abstract:    In this study, we had proposed architecture for high speed Truncation Adder Algorithm. In modern VLSI technology, the occurrence of all kinds of errors has become inevitable. By adopting an emerging concept in VLSI design and test, error tolerance (ET), a novel error-tolerant adder (ETA) is proposed. The ETA is able to ease the strict restriction on accuracy, and at the same time achieve tremendous improvements in both the power consumption and speed performance. When compared to its conventional counterparts, the proposed ETA is able to attain more than 74% improvement. One important potential application of the proposed ETA is in digital signal processing systems that can tolerate certain amount of errors. The modifications to the conventional shift and add multiplier includes introduction of modified error tolerant technique for addition and enabling of adder cell by current multiplication bit of the multiplier constant.

Keywords:
   High speed arithmetic, error tolerant technique, image processing, power dissipation, Digital Signal Processing (DSP), Least Significant Bit (LSB), adder cells, high-speed integrated circuits, low-power design, VLSI.


References:

1.       M. A. Breuer, “Intelligible test techniques to support error-tolerance,” in Proc. Asian Test Symp., Nov. 2004, pp. 386–393.
2.       K. J. Lee, T. Y. Hsieh, and M. A. Breuer, “A novel testing methodology based on error-rate to support error-tolerance,” in Proc. Int. Test Conf., 2005, pp. 1136–1144.

3.       S. Chong and A. Ortega, “Hardware testing for error tolerant multimedia compression based on linear transforms,” in Proc. Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Syst. Symp., 2005, pp. 523–531.

4.       H. Chung and A. Ortega, “Analysis and testing for error tolerant motion estimation,” in Proc. Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Syst. Symp., 2005, pp. 514–522.

5.       J. E. Stine, C. R. Babb, and V. B. Dave, “Constant addition utilizing flagged prefix structures,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 2005.

6.       L.-D. Van and C.-C. Yang, “Generalized low-error area-efficient fixed width multipliers,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers, vol. 25,no. 8, pp. 1608–1619, Aug. 2005.

7.       M. Lehman and N. Burla, “Skip techniques for high-speed carry propagation in binary arithmetic units,” IRE Trans. Electron. Comput., vol. EC-10, pp. 691–698, Dec. 1962.

8.       O. Bedrij, “Carry select adder,” IRE Trans. Electron. Comput., vol. EC-11, pp. 340–346, 1962.

9.       O. MacSorley, “High speed arithmetic in binary computers,” IRE Proc., vol. 49, pp. 67–91, 1961.

10.     Y. Kiat-Seng and R. Kaushik, Low-Voltage, Low-Power VLSI Subsystems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

11.     Kuok, H.H., 1995. Audio recording apparatus using an imperfect memory circuit,” U.S. Patent 5 414 758, May 9, 1995. Thomson Consumer Electronics, Inc. Chong, I.S. and A. Ortega, 2005.


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62.

Authors:

S.B.Chikalthankar, I.I.Sayyad, V.M.Nandedkar

Paper Title:

Analysis of Orthotropic Plate By Refined Plate Theory

Abstract:    In this paper a Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory (TSDT) for the analysis of orthotropic plate, taking into account transverse shear deformation effect is presented. Present theory exactly satisfies stress boundary conditions on the top and bottom of the plate. In this displacement-based, trigonometric shear deformation theory, the in-plane displacement field uses sinusoidal function in terms of thickness coordinate to include the shear deformation effect. The theory obviates the need of shear correction factor like other higher order or equivalent shear deformation theories. Governing equations and boundary conditions of the theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. Results obtained for static flexural analysis of simply supported thick orthotropic plates for uniformly distributed loading case is compared with those of other refined theories and exact solution from theory of elasticity.

Keywords:
   Orthotropic thick plates, Shear deformation, trigonometric shear deformation theory.


References:

1.       Timoshenko, S. P. And Krieger, S. W., “Theory of Plates and Shell”, 1959,McGraw Hill, New York.
2.       Reissner, E. and Stavsky, Y., “Bending and stretching of certain type of heterogeneous aelotropic elastic plates”, Journal of App. Mech., 28, 1961, pp 402-408.

3.       Kirchhoff, G.R., Uber das gleichgewicht und die bewegung einer elastischen Scheibe, Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (Crelle's Journal) 1850, 40: 51-88.

4.       Lekhnitskii, S. G., “Anisotropic plates”, Gorden and Breach, New York, 1968.

5.       Whitney, J. M.  and Leissa A.W., “Analysis of heterogeneous anisotropic plates”, Journal of App. Mech., 36, 1969, pp 261-266.

6.       Szilard, R., “Theory and analysis of plates-classical and numerical methods”, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

7.       Whitney, J. M. and Pagano N.J., “Shear Deformation in Heterogeneous Anisotropic plate,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Journal Applied
Mechanics, 1970,Vol. 37, pp. 1031-1036.

8.       Jones, R. M., “Mechanics of composite Material”, 1975,McGraw Hill Kogakusha, Ltd.,

9.       Reissner, E.,“The Effect of transverse Shear Deformation on the Bending Elastic Plate,” Transactions of the American society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1945, Vol. 12, pp. 69-77.

10.     Mindlin, R. D., “Influence of Rotatory Inertia and Shear on Flexural Motions of Isotropic, Elastic Plates,” ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1951, Vol. 18, pp.31-38.

11.     Whitney, J.M.,“Shear Correction Factors for Orthotropic Laminates under Static Load”, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1973, Vol.40, pp.303-304. 1973.

12.     Bert, C. W., “A critical evaluation of new plate theories applied to laminated composites, Composite Structure., 2, 1984, pp 329-347.

13.     Noor, A.K. and Burton, W.S., “Assessment of Shear Deformation Theories for Multilayered Composite Plates,” Applied Mechanics Reviews, 1989, Vol. 42, pp.1-13.

14.     Kapania, R. K. and Reciti, S., “Recent advances in analysis of laminated Beams and Plates: Part-II”, AIAA Journal., 27, 1989, pp 935-946.

15.     Sayyad, A.S.,Ghugal,Y.M.,“Buckling analysis of thick isotropic plates by using exponential shear deformation theory”, Applied and Computational mechanics 6(2012) 185-196.

16.     Sayyad, A.S.,Ghugal,Y.M.,“Bending and Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Isotropic Plates by using Expoential Shear deformation Theory”, Applied and Computational mechanics 6(2012) 65-77.

17.     Reddy, J. N., “On the generalization of displacement-based laminate theories”, Applied Mech. Rev., 42 1989, S213-S222.

18.     Mallikarjuna, and Kant, T., “A critical review and some results recently developed refine theories of fibre reinforced laminated composites and sandwiches”, Composite Structures, 26, 1993, 293-312.

19.     Reddy, J. N. and Robbins, Jr. D. H., “Theories and computational Models for composite laminates”, Applied Mech. Rev., 47, no 6, 1994, pp 147-169.

20.     Noor, A. K., Burton, W.S. and Bert, C. W., “Computational models for sandwich panels and shells”, Applied Mech. Rev., 49, 1996, pp 155-199

21.     Lo, K. H., Christensen, R.M. and. Wu, E.M, “A High-Order Theory of Plate Deformation, Part-1: Homogeneous Plates,” ASME Journal of Applied          Mechanics,
1977, Vol. 44, pp.663-668.

22.     Lo, K.H., Christensen, R. M. and Wu, E.M., “A High-Order Theory of Plate Deformation, Part-2: Laminated Plates,” ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1977, Vol. 44, pp.669-676.

23.     Stein, M., “Nonlinear Theory for Plates and Shells Including the Effects of Transverse Shearing,” AIAA Journal, 1986, Vol. 24, pp.1537-1544.

24.     Stein, M. Jegley, D. C., “Effect of Transverse Shearing on cylindrical bending, vibration buckling of laminated plates,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 25, no. 1, 1997, pp.123
129.

25.     Stein, M., “post buckling behavior of longitudinally compressed orthotropic plates with transverse shearing flexibility,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 28, no. 5, 1990, pp.892-895

26.     Gordaninejad, F. and Bert, C. W., “A new theory of bending of thick sandwich beams, Int. Journal of Mech. Sci., 31, no 11/12, 1989, pp. 925-934.

27.     Heur, R., “Static and dynamic analysis of transversely isotropic, moderately thick sandwich beams by analogy”, Acta Mechanica, 91, 1992, pp., 1-9.

28.     Krishna Murty, “Toward a Consistent Plate Theory,” 1986,  AIAA Journal, Vol. 24, pp.1047-1048.

29.     Srinivas, S.,Joga Rao, C.V., A.K. Rao, Bending, Vibration and buckling simply supported thick orthotropic rectangular plates and laminates, International Journal of Solids and Structures 6:1463-1481.

30.     Krishna Murty, A. V., “Higher Order Theory for Vibrations of Thick Plates,” 1977, AIAA Journal, Vol. 15, pp.1823-1824.

31.     Ghugal, Y.M., Sayyad, A.S., “A static flexure of Thick Isotropic Plates Using Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory”,Journal of Solid Mechanics, Vol.2, 2010, pp.79-90.

32.     Reddy, J. N., “A simple Higher-order Theory for laminated Composites Plate,” Transaction of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Journal Applied Mechanics, 1984, Vol. 51, pp. 745-752.

33.     Reddy, J., N., and Phan, N.D., “Stability and Vibration of isotropic, orthotropic and laminated plates according to higher order shear deformation theory,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1985,Vol. 98, pp. 157-170.


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63.

Authors:

G.Phani Sindhuri, P.Kiran Kumar, T.Bhavani

Paper Title:

NOHT: Situational Awareness by Hadoop Framework VAST 2012 Mini Challenge 1

Abstract:    Big Data is the collection of large and complex data sets which becomes difficult to manage and process using traditional tools. Big data Analytics is the process of examining large amounts of data to make better business decisions. One of the Major challenge pose by VAST 2012 is to symbolize the “Bank of Money” network issues identified by the sprouting technologies to provide situation awareness by observing the visualization of the network. This Paper introduces usage and importance of NOSQL database and distribution of data and its processing in parallel using Apache Hadoop Framework and for fast ad-hoc visualization Tableau software is used to address this challenge.

Keywords:
   Visual Analytics Science & Technology (VAST)[1] , Not only SQL (NOSQL)[5][6], cloudera distribution for Hadoop (CDH)[9].


References:

1.       Kristin Cook, Georges Grinstein, Mark Whiting, Michael Cooper, Paul Havig, Kristen Liggett, Bohdan Nebesh, “VAST Challenge 2012: Visual Analytics for Big Data”.
2.       Williams, F.C.B., Faithful, W.J., Roberts, J.C., “SitaVis – Interactive Situation Awareness Visualization of Large Datasets.”

3.       Patel A.B,Birla M,Nair U,Addressing big data problem using Hadoop and Map Reduce

4.       Abousalh-Neto, N. A., Kazgan, S., “Big Data Exploration through Visual Analytics.”

5.       MongoDB vs. Oracle Database Comparision, Romanian , Boicea.A;Fac. Of Autom. Control & Comput.sci .,Politeh.Univ. of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania; Radulescu.F;Agapin.

6.       MongoDB:http://www.mongodb.org

7.       Tableau Software: http://www.tableausoftware.com

8.       Apache Hadoop: http://www.hadoop.apache.org

9.       cloud era Hadoop:

10.     http://www.cloudera.com/content/cloudera/en/products/cdh.html


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64.

Authors:

Narasamma S, Suma Latha. K, Suma Latha. M

Paper Title:

Anticipatory Measure for Auction Fraud Detection in Online

Abstract:    This paper introduces and presents the Online Modeling of Proactive Moderation System for Auction Fraud Detection by Using online feature selection, stochastic search variable selection (SSVS),coefficient  bounds from human knowledge and multiple instance learning. An important usability goal of proactive moderation systems is by applying expert knowledge, such as bounding the rule based feature weights to be positive and multiple instance learning, can significantly improve the performance in terms of detecting more frauds and reducing customer complaints given the same workload from human experts.

Keywords:
   Online Auction, Fraud Detection, Online Modeling, Online Feature Selection, Multiple Instance Learning.


References:

1.        D. Agarwal, B. Chen, and P. Elango.   Spatio-temporal models for estimating click-through rate. In Proceedings of the 18th international conference on World Wide Web, pages 21-30. ACM, 2009.
2.        Andrews, I.Tsochantaridis, and Hofmann. Support vector machines for multiple-instance learning. Advances in neural information processing systems, pages 577-584, 2010.

3.        C. Bliss. The calculation of the dosage-mortality curve. Annals of applied  

4.        A. Borodin and R. El-Yaniv. Online computation and competitive analysis, volume 53. Cambridge University Press New York, 2008.

5.        L. Breiman. Random forests. Machine learning, 45(1):5-32, 2006.

6.        R.Brent.Algorithms for Minimization without derivatives. Dover Pubns,    2002.

7.     &