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Volume-3 Issue-3 Published on February 28, 2014
22
Volume-3 Issue-3 Published on February 28, 2014

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S. No

Volume-3 Issue-3, Februay 2014, ISSN:  2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Divya Ahir, Khayti Darbar, Ankur Dave

Paper Title:

802.11i Encryption Key Distribution Using Quantum Cryptography

Abstract:    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. Key distribution is the problem of classical cryptography algorithm, and tends to provide safe channel to transport key. Quantum cryptography could distribute key in quantum channel. Eavesdropper cannot access to key on quantum channel. Research on the application of quantum cryptography in mobile networks is still premature. In this paper, we analyze the interests of using quantum technique for the distribution of encryption keys in 802.11 wireless networks, and propose a scheme integrating quantum cryptography in 802.11i security mechanisms for the distribution of the encryption keys. The use of an apparatus network to provide alternative line-of-sight paths is also discussed.

Keywords:
 802.11i, quantum cryptography, network security.


References:

1.       N. Namekata, S. Mori, and S. Inoue, “Quantum key distribution over an installed multimode optical fiber local area network”, Optical Express, 2005.
2.       D. Stucki, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 67 km with a plug and play system,” New Journal of Physics, Vol. 4, 2002, pp. 41.1–41.8.

3.       H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, Y. Nambu, T. Kimura, and K. Nakamura, “Single-photon interference experiment over 100 km for quantum cryptography system using a
balanced gated-mode photon detector”, Electronics Letters, Vol. 39, 2003, pp. 1199–1200.

4.       C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zardaa, M. Halder, P.M. Gorman, P.R. Tapster, J.G. Rarity and H. Weinfurter. “Long Distance Free Space Quantum Cryptography”, 2003.

5.       http://www.idquantique.com

6.       M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites”, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9, Issue 6, November 2003
7.       ANSI/IEEE Standard 802.11, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, 1999 Edition, Reaffirmed June 2003.

8.       IEEE Standard 802.11i, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications - Amendment 6: Medium Access Control (MAC) Security Enhancements, July 2004.

9.       K. G. Paterson, F. Piper, and R. Schack, “Why quantum cryptography ?”, Quantum physics, quant-ph/0406147, June 2004.

10.     J. Edney, and W..A. Arbaugh, Real 802.11 Security - Wi-Fi Protected Access and 802.11i, Addison-Wesley, 2004.

11.     B. Aboba, L. Blunk, J. Vollbrecht, J. Carlson, and H. Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3748, June 2004.

12.     B. Aboba, D. Simon, "PPP EAP TLS Authentication Protocol", RFC 2716, October 1999.

13.     R. Rivest, "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321, April 1992.

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2.

Authors:

B.Kavipriya, S.Dhivya, J.Sivasankari, S,Sheik Farith, A.Jasmine

Paper Title:

Effective Anonymous Approach for Implementing RFID Reciprocated Endorsement Protocol

Abstract:    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a wireless technology that utilizes radio communication to identify objects with a unique electrical identity. The widespread deployment of RFID technologies may generate new threats to security and user privacy. One of the main drawbacks of RFID technology is the weak authentication systems between a reader and a tag. In general, “weak” authentication systems that either leak the password directly over the network or leak sufficient information while performing authentication allow intruders to deduce or guess the password. In this paper, we study the RFID tag–reader mutual authentication scheme using protocol. A hardware implementation of the mutual authentication protocol for the RFID system is proposed.The proposed system was simulated using Modelsim XE II and synthesized using libero synthesis technology. The system hasbeen successfully implemented in hardware using prosaic nano chip using a FPGA.

Keywords:
   Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation, mutual authentication, radio-frequency identification(RFID)


References:

1.        P. Peris-Lopez, T. Li, L. Lim, J. C. Hernandez-Castro, and J. M Estevez- Tapiador, “Vulnerability analysis of a mutual authentication scheme under the EPC class-1 generation-2 standard,” in Proc. RFIDSec, Jul. 2008, pp. 52–63.
2.        C.-C. Yuan, K.-H. Huang, H.-L. Li, and Y.-J. Huang, “The    design of encoding architecture for UHF RFID applications,” in Proc. Asia-Pacific Microw. Conf., Hong Kong, Dec. 16–19, 2008, pp

3.        D. M. Konidala, Z. Kim, and K. Kim, “A simple and cost effective RFID tag–reader mutual authentication scheme,” in Proc. Int. Conf. RFIDSec, Jul. 2007, pp. 141–152

4.        Radio Frequency Identification for Item Management, 2nd ed., ISO/IEC 18000, Jul. 1, 2008.

5.        A. Juels, “RFID security and privacy: A research survey,” IEEE J. Sel.Areas Commun., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 381–394, Feb. 2006.

6.        S. Garfinkel and B. Rosenberg, Eds., RFID : Applications, Security, and Privacy.Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, Jul. 2005

7.        R. Want, “Enabling ubiquitous sensing with RFID,” Computer, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 84–86, Apr. 2004

8.        I. Vajda  and  L.  Butty’an,  “Lightweight  authentication  protocols for low-cost RFID tags,” in  Proc.  2nd  Workshop  Security  Ubicomp 2003,  pp.  1–10.

9.        W.  Stallings, Cryptography  and  Network  Security: Principles Practices, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2003.

10.     E. Y. Choi, S. M. Lee, and D. H. Lee, “Efficient RFID authentication protocol for ubiquitous computing environment,” in Proc. EUC Workshops, vol. 3823, LNCS, Berlin, Germany, 2005, pp. 945–954


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3.

Authors:

U. Rajyalakshmi, K. Satya Prasad, S.Koteswara Rao

Paper Title:

Tissue Processing, Staining And Image Processing Of Pathological Cancer Images: A Review

Abstract:    Digital image processing enables synthesis of images for characterisation of properties. Image segmentation is the most critical functions in image analysis and processing. Fundamentally segmentation results affect all the subsequent processes of image analysis such as object representation and description, feature measurement, and higher level tasks such as object classification.Cancer, at early stage, detection can be possible only with micro image processing. Processing and staining of Cancer tissues for pathological examination through micro images is a difficult task. The study intends to compare the set of image segmentation and edge detection algorithms that can be employed in the image segmentation process.Review of current methodologies of image segmentation using automated algorithms, which are accurate and require little user interaction, is possible especially for pathological medical images. In this paper we project the study of processing, straining and capturing of the pathological images for processing to detect cancer early.

Keywords:
   Image processing, Pathological Images, edge detection, Image segmentation, Tissue processing, staining, cancer.


References:

1.        H.P. Narkhede “Review of Image Segmentation Techniques”, International Journal of Science and Modern Engineering (IJISME) ISSN: 2319-6386, Volume-1, Issue-8, July 2013, pp.54 - 61
2.        Dinesh D. Patil, Ms. Sonal G. Deore, “Medical Image Segmentation: A Review”, International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing, IJCSMC, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, January 2013, pp.22 – 27

3.        Zhang, Y. J, An Overview of Image and Video Segmentation in the last 40 years, Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Signal Processing and Its Applications, pp. 144-151, 2001

4.        S I Talukder, “Histopathology Techniques: Tissue Processing and Staining “, Histopathology Techniques, October, 2007,  pp.1 – 11

5.        Lowe DG and Teffrey IM (eds): Surgery Pathology Technique 1st edition, 1990

6.        Isselbacher Kj (ed): Harrison’s Principle of Internal medicine, 13th edition vol 2, 1994.

7.        Tian-gang Li,Su-pinWang, NanZhao, “Gray-scale edge detection for gastric tumour pathologic cell images by morphological analysis”, Computers in Biology and Medicine 39 (2009) 947 – 952, www.elsevier.com/locate/cbm

8.        F. Mayer, An overview of morphological segmentation, International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence 15 (7) (2001) 1089–1118

9.        F. Meyer, S. Beucher, Morphological segmentation. Visual Common Image Repress 1 (1) (1990) 21–46.

10.     Y. Cui, Image Processing and Image Analysis, Mathematical Morphology Methods and Application, Science Publishing House, Beijing, 2002.

11.     H.S. Wu, J. Barba, et al., A parametric fitting algorithm for segmentation of cell image, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 3 (45) (1998) 400–408.

12.     J.P. Thiran, B. Macq, Morphological feature extraction for the classification of digital images of cancerous tissues, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 43 (10) (1996) 1011–1023.

13.     Akif BurakTosun, MelihKandemir, CenkSokmensuer, CigdemGunduz-Demir, “Object-oriented texture analysis for the unsupervised segmentation of biopsy images for cancer detection”, Pattern Recognition 42 (2009) 1104 – 1112,

14.     Andrion, C. Magnani, P.G. Betta, A. Donna, F. Mollo, M. Scelsi, P. Bernardi, M. Botta, B. Terracini, Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: interobserver variability, J. Clin. Pathol. 48 (1995) 856–860.

15.     G.D. Thomas, M.F. Dixon, N.C. Smeeton, N.S. Williams, Observer variation in the histological grading of rectal carcinoma, J. Clin. Pathol. 36 (1983) 385–391.

16.     P.W. Hamilton, P.H. Bartels, D. Thompson, N.H. Anderson, R. Montironi, Automated location of dysplastic fields in colourectal histology using image texture analysis, J. Pathol. 182 (1997) 68–75.

17.     S.J. Keenan, J. Diamond, W.G. McCluggage, H. Bharucha, D. Thompson, B.H. Bartels, P.W. Hamilton, An automated machine vision system for the histological grading of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), J. Pathol. 192 (2000) 351–362.

18.     A.N. Esgiar, R.N.G. Naguib, B.S. Sharif, M.K. Bennett, A. Murray, Fractal analysis in the detection of colonic cancer images, IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 6
(2002) 54–58.

19.     C. Demir, S.H. Gultekin, B. Yener, Learning the topological properties of brain tumours, IEEE-ACM Trans. Comput. Biol. Bioinformatics 2 (3) (2005) 262–270.

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21.     L. Lucchese, S.K. Mitra, Colour image segmentation: a state-of-the-art survey, image processing, vision, and pattern recognition, in: Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India, vol. 67A, No. 2, 2001, pp. 207–221.

22.     D.L. Pham, C. Xu, J.L. Prince, Current methods in medical image segmentation, Annu. Rev. Biomed Eng. 2 (2000) 315–338.

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30.     Y. Deng, B.S. Manjunath, Unsupervised segmentation of colour-texture regions in images and video, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Learn. 23 (8) (2001) 800–810.

31.     F. Jing, M. Li, H.J. Zhang, B. Zhang, Unsupervised image segmentation using local homogeneity analysis, in: Proceedings of the 2003 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, vol. 2, 2003, pp. II-456–II-459.

32.     J. Chen, T.N. Pappas, A. Mojsilovic, B.E. Rogowitz, Adaptive perceptual colour- texture image segmentation, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 14 (10) (2005) 1524–1536.

33.     F.H.Gilles, C.J.Tavare, L.E.Becker, P.C.Burger, A.J.Yates, I.F.Pollack, J.L.Finlay, Pathologist inter observer variability of histologic features in childhood brain tumours : results from the CCG-945 study,Pediatric and Developmental Pathology 11(2008)108–117.

34.     C.Grootscholten, I.M.Bajema, S.Florquin, E.J.Steenbergen, C.J.Peutz Kootstra, R.Goldschmeding, M.Bijl, E.C.Hagen, H.C.VanHouwelingen, R. Derksen, J.H.M.Berden, Interobserver agreement of scoring of histopathological  characteristics and classification of lupusnephritis, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 23(2008)223–230.

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37.     B.Lessmann, T.W.Nattkemper, V.H.Hans, A.Degenhard, Amethod for linking  computed image features to histological semanticsin neuropathology, Journal of Biomedical Informatics 40 (2007) 631–641.

38.     W.Qian, T.Zhukov, D.S.Song, M.S.Tockman, Computerized analysis of cellular  features and biomarkers for cytologicdiagnosis of early lung cancer, Analytical and Quantitative Cytology and Histology 29 (2007) 103–111.

39.     O.Sertel, J.Kong, H.Shimada, U.V.Catalyurek, J.H.Saltz, M.N.Gurcan, Computer-aided prognosis of neur oblastomaon whole- slideimages: classification  of stromal development, Pattern Recognition 42 (2009) 1093–1103.

40.     K.A.Marghani, S.S.Dlay, B.S.Sharif, A.Sims, Morphological and texture features for cancers tissues microscopic images, Medical Imaging 2003: Image Processing, Pts 1–35032 (2003) 1757–1764.

41.     E.Alexandratou, D.Yova, D.Gorpas, P.Maragos, G.Agrogiannis, N.Kavantzas,  Texture  analysis of tissues in Gleasongrading of prostate cancer-art. no. 685904, in: D.L.Farkas, D.V.Nicolau, R.C.Leif,(Eds.) ,Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues VI. vol.  6859, 2008, pp. 6859041–6859048.

42.     M.Wiltgen, A.Gerger, C.Wagner, P.Bergthaler, J.Smolle, Evaluation of texture features in spatial and frequency domain for automatic discrimination of histologic tissue, Analytical and Quantitative Cytology and Histology  29 (2007) 251–263.

43.     C.Wittke, J.Mayer, F.Schweiggert, On the classification of prostate carcinoma  with  methods from spatial statistics, IEEE Transactions on Information  Technology  in Biomedicine 11 (2007) 406–414.

44.     J.P.Thiran, B.Macq, Morphological feature extraction for the classification of  digital images of canceroustissues, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  43 (1996) 1011–1020.

45.     H.Seker, M.O.Odetayo, D.Petrovic, R.N.G.Naguib, A fuzzy logic based- method for prognostic decision making in breast and prostate cancers, IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine 7 (2003)  114–122.
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47.     O. Wirjadi, T. Breuel, W. Feiden, Y.J. Kim, Automated feature selection for the classification of meningioma cell nuclei, in: Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin, 2006, pp. 76-80.

48.     H.Qureshi, O.Sertel, N.Rajpoot, R.Wilson, M.Gurcan, Adaptive discriminant  wavelet packet transform and local binary patterns for meningioma sub type
classification, in: Proceedings of the Medical Image Computing  and  Computer-Assisted Intervention—Miccai 2008,PtIi,vol.5242,2008, pp. 196–204.

49.     H.Qureshi, N.Rajpoot, R.Wilson, T.Nattkemper, V.H.Hans, Comparative analysis of discriminant wavelet packet features and raw image features for classification of meningiomasubtypes, in: Medical Image Understanding and Analysis, Aberystwyth, UK, 2007.


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4.

Authors:

Amjad Almusaed, Asaad Almssad

Paper Title:

Natural Lighting Efficiency By Means of Sun- Skylight-Tubes

Abstract:    The notion of comfort a luminous ambience refers to the distribution of luminance and chromatic ties on the interior envelope of a space that is one of different fields of vision for a subject within an ambience. Luminance and chromatic ties are at present not often studied as far as comfort in buildings is concerned. Sun lighting and bioclimatic concept is inseparable considerations when designing a building because of the historical and practical significance of natural lighting in architecture. Sunlight is as old as architecture itself. Human life gets sufficient sunlight, in fact, we use more of 90 % of our day indoor, for this reason, specialists are now seeing how architecture can ameliorate the indoor-outdoor links. At present, by biological and technological investigation the trend is to search backwards towards the previous philosophies and advantages of more indoor / outdoor relationship. Plus homeowners who want to have healthy home environments might want to renew the most relevant facts of technology and biology.

Keywords:
   Natural lighting, Sun skylight tubes, Daylight efficiency, Collector Sunlight.


References:

1.       Amjad Almusaed 2011, Biophilic and Bioclimatic architecture, Analytical Therapy for the Next Generation of Passive Sustainable Architecture, under printing,  Springer-Verlag London Limited
2.       Amjad Almusaed (2004) Intelligent sustainable strategies upon passive bioclimatic houses, Arkitektskole in Aarhus, Denmark.
3.       Beyle, Noel (2000) The smallest lighthouse keeper. The Cape Codder, June 20
4.       Caldwell, Bill (1986) Lighthouses of Maine. Portland, Maine: Gannett Books.

5.       Derek Phillips 2004, Daylighting, Natural Light in Architecture, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford.

6.       Edmonds I R and Greenup P J (2002) "Daylighting in the tropics", Solar Energy, 73.

7.       Goot, Michael (2001) Portsmouth resident wants to start local lighthouse group." Foster's Daily Democrat, Dover, NH, May 22.

8.       L. David. Jones (1999) Energy Efficient Buildings: Sustaining an Argument, in the World Architecture No. 74, pp. 116, UK.

9.       Littlefair P (1989) "Innovative daylighting systems", BRE information paper, IP22/89.

10.     Ken Yeang (2003), Light Pipes: An Innovative Design Device for Bringing Natural Daylight and Illumination into Buildings with Deep Floor Plan (Patent Applied) Asian Innovation Awards.

11.     Kittler, R., (1985). Luminance distribution characteristics of homogeneous skies: a measurement and prediction strategy. Lighting Research and Technology, 17(4): p. 183-8.

12.     Perraudeau, M., (1988). Luminance models. In National Lighting Conference. Cambridge, UK, March 27-30.

13.     Grady, Wayne (1990)   Green Home: Planning and building the environmentally advanced house, Camden house publishing, Buffalo, NY, pp 151-157.

14.     Ian D. CollinEric J. Collins 1977, Window Selection, A guide for architects and designers, Butterworth & Co (Publishers) Ltd.

15.     ARIBA  1971


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5.

Authors:

Udary Gnaneshwara Chary, Balabrahmam R, Kuna Sateesh, Aman Kumar

Paper Title:

Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS Analog Multiplexer For Bio-Medical Applications

Abstract:    One of the frequently used IC in bio-medical instruments for multiplexing the various signals is Analog multiplexer. This paper demonstrates the design of low voltage, low power CMOS analog multiplexer, using pass transistor logic for bio-medical application. The design goal is to achieve minimum power dissipation and minimum ON resistance with wide range of low voltage and low frequency of operation. The above goals are met by selection of proper technology parameters and by enhancing the design using minimum number of NMOS Pass transistor. Modified pass transistor logic is proposed, which replaces the traditional pass transistor logic for designing a multiplexer and require less no. of transistors. The ON resistance of 10Ω is achieved and the power dissipation of around 10nW is achieved in this design. Design and analysis is performed using 45 nm CMOS technology in CADENCE IDE.

Keywords:
   Bio-medical application, Low power, Low voltage, Low frequency, ON resistance, fswitch.


References:

1.       Sai-Weng Sin; Seng-Pan U; Martins, R.P., "Generalized Circuit Techniques for Low-Voltage High-Speed Reset- and Switched-Opamps," Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on , vol.55, no.8, pp.2188,2201, Sept. 2008.
2.       Phillip.E.Allen. Douglas.R.Holberg CMOS Analog Circuit Zesign Oxford University press 2002.

3.       Baker, R. Jacob, “CMOS Mixed-Signal Circuit Design, Second Edition,” Wiley-IEEE Press, 2009.

4.       Plesnik, E.; Malgina, O.; Tasic, J.F.; Zajc, M., "ECG signal acquisition and analysis for telemonitoring," MELECON 2010 - 2010 15th IEEE Mediterranean ElectrotechnicalConference , vol., no., pp.1350,1355, 26-28 April 2010.

5.       Sheng-Cheng Lee; Tsan-Jieh Chen; HermingChiueh, "A multi-channel multi-mode physiological signals acquisition and analysis platform," Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.397,400, 19-23 May 2013.

6.       Liqiong Wei; Roy, K.; De, V.K., "Low voltage low power CMOS design techniques for deep submicron ICs," VLSI Design, 2000. Thirteenth International Conference on, vol., no., pp.24,29, 2000.

7.       Steyaert, M.; Peluso, V.; Bastos, J.; Kinget, P.; Sansen, W., "Custom analog low power design: the problem of low voltage and mismatch," Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 1997., Proceedings of the IEEE 1997 , vol., no., pp.285,292, 5-8 May 1997

8.       Zimmermann, Reto; Fichtner, Wolfgang, "Low-power logic styles: CMOS versus pass-transistor logic," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of, vol.32, no.7, pp.1079,1090, Jul 1997.

9.       K. Yano, Y. Sasaki, K. Rikino, and K. Seki, “Top-down pass-transistor logic design”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 31, pp. 792–803, June1996.

10.     Galup-Montoro, C.; Schneider, M.C.; Coitinho, R.M., "Resizing rules for MOS analog-design reuse," Design & Test of Computers, IEEE , vol.19, no.2, pp.50,58, Mar-Apr 2002.

11.     Galup-Montoro, C.; Schneider, M.C., "Resizing rules for the reuse of MOS analog designs," Integrated Circuits and Systems Design, 2000. Proceedings. 13th Symposium on, vol., no., pp.89,93, 2000.


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6.

Authors:

Gazala Yusufi, Smita Prava Mishra

Paper Title:

Identification of Valid Clusters for Datasets Whose Number of Clusters are Unknown

Abstract:    The true use of clustering is not exploited properly as humans try to cluster datasets whose class labels are already known. In order to make best use of clustering, an attempt has been made in this work to find a mechanism to identify the number of clusters in the datasets whose class labels are unknown. The cluster validity techniques like Dunn’s index, Davies-Bouldin index, Silhouette index, C index, Goodman-Kruskal index, etc. have been used to validate the number of clusters generated. These techniques access the clustering tendency and measure the quality of the clusters. These indexing techniques are used in conjunction with clustering algorithms like k-means, k-medoid, etc. to measure the validity of the clusters identified by the said algorithms depending on application specific data. The current work applies the above mentioned techniques to several classified datasets taken as benchmark as well as unclassified datasets so as to find the number of clusters in those datasets. Hence, suggests a better use of clustering.

Keywords:
   Clustering, Cluster Validity Techniques, Indexing, Internal Cluster Validation, Unclassified Dataset Validation.


References:

1.       Halkidi M., Batistakis Y., Vazirgiannis M. (2001). On clustering validation techniques, Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, volume 17(2), pages 107–145.
2.       Rendon, E., Abundez, I. M., Zagal, C. G., Arizmendi, A., Quroz, E.M., Arzate, E. (2011). A comparison of internal and external cluster validation indexes. AMERICAN-MATH'11/CEA'11 Proceedings of the 2011 American conference on applied mathematics and the 5th WSEAS international conference on Computer engineering and applications, pages 158-163.

3.       Rendon, E., Abundez, I. M., Arizmendi, A., Quroz, E. M. (2011). Internal versus external cluster validation indices. International Journal of Computers and Communications, volume 5 (1), pages 27-34.

4.       Bolshakova, N., Azuaje, F. (2006). Estimating the Number of Clusters in DNA Microarray Data. Medline Journal for biomedical articles, volume 45(2), pages 153-157.

5.       Bolshakova, N., Azuaje, F., Cunningham, P. (2005). An integrated tool for microarray data clustering and cluster validity assessment. Bioinformatics, volume 21(4), pages 451-455.

6.       Bolshakova, N., Azuaje, F. (2003). Cluster validation techniques for genome expression data. Signal Processing, volume 83 (4), pages 825 – 833.

7.       Ansari, Z., Babu, A. V., Azeem, M. F., Ahmed, W. (2011). Quantitative Evaluation of Performance and Validity Indices for Clustering the Web Navigational Sessions. World of Computer Science and Information Technology Journal (WCSIT), volume 1 (5), pages 217-226.

8.       Bezdek, J., Pal, N. (1995). Cluster Validation with Generalized Dunn’s indices. ANNES '95 Proceedings of the 2nd New Zealand Two-Stream International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks and Expert Systems, pages 190-193.

9.       Bezdek, J., Pal, N. (1998). Some new indexes of cluster validity. IEEE Transactions on System, Man and Cybernetics-Part B, volume 28 (3), pages 301-315.

10.     Agarwal, P., Alam, M. A., Biswas, R. (2011). Issues, Challenges & Tools of Clustering Algorithms. International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), volume 8 (3), pages 523-528.

11.     Maulik, U., Bandhopadhyay, S. (2002). Performance evaluation of some clustering algorithms and validity indices. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, volume 24 (12), pages 1650-1654.

12.     Vinh, N., Epps, J., Bailey, J. (2009). Information Theoretic measures for cluster comparison: Is a correction for chance necessary?. Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Machine Learning, Montreal, Canada, June 14th -18th.

13.     Jaroszewicz, S., Simovici, D., Kuo, W., Ohno, L. (2004). The Goodman–Kruskal Coefficient and Its Applications in Genetic Diagnosis of Cancer. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, volume 51 (7), pages 1095-1102.

14.     Simovici, D., Jaroszewicz, S. (2004). A metric approach to building decision trees based on Goodman-Kruskal association index. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 8th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2004, Sydney, Australia, May 2004 Proceedings, volume 8, pages 181-191.

15.     Taheri, S.M., Hesamian, G. (2011). Goodman–Kruskal Measure of Association for Fuzzy-Categorized Variables. Kybernetika, volume 47 (1), pages 110–122.

16.     Hryniewicz, O. (2006). Goodman-Kruskal γ measure of dependence for fuzzy ordered categorical data. Journal of Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, pages 323-334.

17.     Beh, E., Simonetta, B., D’Ambra, L. (2007). Partitioning a non-symmetric measure of association for three-way contingency tables. Journal of Multivariate Analysis 98, pages 1391-1411.

18.     Goodman, L., Kruskal, W. (1954).  Measures of associations for cross-validations. Journal of the American Statistical Association, volume 49, pages 732-764.

19.     Bolshakova, N., Azuaje, F., Cunningham, P. (2005). A Knowledge-driven approach to cluster validity assessment. Journal of Bioinformatics, volume 21 (10), pages 2546-2547.

20.     Yang, C., Zing, E., Li, T., Narsimhan, G. (2005). A knowledge-driven method to evaluate multi-source clustering. Proceeding ISPA'05 Proceedings of the 2005 international conference on Parallel and Distributed Processing and Applications, pages 196-202.

21.     Jaccard, P. (1912). The distribution of flora in the alpine zone. New Phytologist, volume 11, pages 37–50.

22.     Rand, W. M. (1971). Objective criteria for the evaluation of clustering methods. Journal of the American Statistical Association, volume 66 (336), pages 846-850.

23.     Frossyniotis D., Likas A., Stafylopatis A., (2004). A clustering method based on boosting, Pattern Recognition Letters 25, pages 641-654.

24.     Dunn, J.C. (1974). Well separated clusters and optimal fuzzy partitions. Journal of Cybernetics, volume 4 (1), pages 95-104.

25.     Davies, D. L., Bouldin, D. W. (1979). A cluster separation measure. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, volume PAMI-1 (4), pages
224-227.

26.     Rousseeuw, P. J. (1987). Silhouettes: a graphical aid to the interpretation and validation of cluster analysis. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, volume 20, pages 53-65.

27.     Hubert  L., Schultz  J. (1976). Quadratic assignment as a general data-analysis strategy. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychologie, volume 29, pages 90-241.

28.     http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets.html


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7.

Authors:

K M K Sinha, T.Sharma, D D Haldar

Paper Title:

Reduction of Iron Ore with Non Coking Coal

Abstract:    During the past century, many efforts were made to develop processes for producing iron for steel making without the use of coke. This becomes vital where country like India has limited reserve of coking coal. Coke making is extremely problematic from environmental point of view. The reduction of iron ore with non coking coal or gas  below the melting point of the iron produced is classified as Direct Reduction process and product referred to as Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) .The iron making reactions in iron oxide plus carbon involve the disappearance of two solid phases (iron oxide and carbon) and formation of two phases ( metallic iron and gases).The location of the regions where the production of DRI is concentrated is determined by two factors : the availability of cheap natural gas or non coking coal plus the availability of high quality iron bearing raw material ( 65% Fe content or more). In the present investigation an attempt has been made to study the direct reduction behaviour of iron ore fines with non-coking coal fines .For this purpose the effect of reduction time ,temperature and Fe2O3 : C ratio on degree of reduction has been studied. It is observed that degree of reduction increases with increase in Fe2O3 : C ratio, temperature and time. The value of activation energy in the temperature range 1173-1323 K is 203.2 KJ/mole.

Keywords:
   Degree of reduction, Fe2O3 : C ratio ,Activation energy.


References:

1.       Umakanta Dash 2006 ( May) , “Direct Reduction of Iron Ore Fines”, M.Tech Thesis, Indian School of Mines,Dhanbad,India
2.       Amar Amit Kumar,2008 ( May), “ Studies on reduction of iron ore pellet with non coking coal ” M.Tech Thesis, Indian School of Mines,Dhanbad,India

3.       www.worldcoal.org

4.       Coal Directory of  India. 2009-10

5.       W.-K Lu and D Huang, 2003, “ Mechanisms of reduction of iron ore /coal agglomerates and scientific issues in RHF operations ”,Mineral Processing & Extractive Metall. Rev: pp 293-324

6.       W.-K Lu,1997, “ Heterogeneous Kinetics –Advances in physical chemistry of process metallurgy ”, Academic Press, London

7.       The Metals Society ,England ,1976, “ Hoganas Process, Direct Reduction of Iron Ore ”, PP. 316-325

8.       W.-K Lu, 2001, “The search for an economical and environmental friendly iron making process” ,(1998 HOWE Memorial Lecture ,Iron and Steel Society),Mat. and
Met.Trans,B,32,757-762

9.       Y.K Rao.,1971, “ The kinetics of reduction of hematite by Carbon ” , Metallurgical Transactions,2,(5),pp 1439-1447

10.     D Bandopadhyay, N Chakraborti and A Ghosh,1993, “ A study on the kinetics of Iron oxide reduction by solid carbon ”,Steel Research,64 ( 7),pp. 340-345

11.     R Haque, H S Ray and A Mukherjee 1992, “ Carburization of directly reduced iron during reduction of iron ore fine by coal fine”, Iron making and Steel making,19 ( 2),pp 127-130

12.     T Sharma and B K Pandey,59 (2000), “Reducing agents and double layered iron ore pellets”, International Journal of Mineral Processing, pp 295-304

13.     T Sharma,1992 (16),Steel International 28

14.     B K Singh ,1992  “ Reduction of Iron Ore Pellet with Non-coking coal” M. Tech Thesis, Indian school of Mines, Dhanbad, India

15.     B K Pandey,1998, “ Reduction of Iron ore-coal composite pellets”, Ph.D. Thesis ,Vinoba Bhave University Hazaribag, India


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8.

Authors:

Navneet Bhattad, Sudhir Rathod,Viraj Wankhede, Kshitij Gosavi, Amita Meshram

Paper Title:

Accurate Energy-Efficient Localization using Radio Database Compression and Clustering Technique

Abstract:    Location based service is a positioning method that exploits the already existing infrastructures such as cellular networks or W-LANs. Increasing Demand for Energy efficient networks, we are proposing a clustering technique for compressing the radio database in Login Systems. The aim of the proposed technique is to reduce the computation cost and transmission load in the mobile-based implementations using Global Positioning System (GPS). The presented method is Block-based Weighted Clustering (BWC) technique, which is applied in a concatenated location-radio signal space, and attributes different weight factors to the location and radio components.  The Experimental Architecture will be produced to evaluate the results and the efficiency of the BWC technique. Also, it improves the performance of standard k-means and hierarchical clustering methods.

Keywords:
   W-LANs, (GPS), (BWC)


References:

1.        Yunye Jin, Wee-Seng, Mehul Motani,  and Wai-Choong Wong, “A Robust Indoor Pedestrian Tracking System with Sparse Infrastructure Support”, IEEE Transaction on mobile computing Vol. 12, No. 7, JULY 2013.
2.        Kaishun Wu,   Jiang Xiao, Youwen Y, Dihu Chen, Xiaonan Luo,   and Lionel M. Ni,   “CSI-Based Indoor Localization” IEEE Transaction on parallel and distributed system, Vol. 24, No. 7, JULY 2013

3.        Azin Arya, Philippe Godlewski, Marine Campedel, and Ghislain du Che´ne , “Radio Database Compression for Accurate Energy-Efficient Localization in Localisation Systems”, IEEE Transaction on knowledge and data  engineering, vol. 25, no. 6, June 2013.

4.        Kejiong Li, John Bigham, and Laurissa Tokarchuk, “Validation of a Probabilistic Approach to Outdoor Localization” IEEE wireless communication letters, Vol. 2, No. 2, APRIL 2013

5.        Mu Zhou, Albert Kai-sun Wong, Zengshan Tian, Victoria Ying Zhang, Xiang Yu, Xin Luo, “Adaptive Mobility Mapping for People Tracking Using Unlabelled Wi-Fi
Shotgun Reads” IEEE communication latters, Vol. 17, No. 1, JANUARY 2013.

6.        Mohamed M. Atia,   Aboelmagd Noureldin, and Michael J. Korenberg, ” Dynamic Online-Calibrated Radio Maps for Indoor Positioning in Wireless Local Area Networks”, IEEE Transaction on mobile computing, Vol. 12, No. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012,

7.        Yungeun Kim, Yohan Chon, and Hojung Cha, Member, IEEE, “ Smartphone-Based Collaborative and Autonomous Radio Localisation”, IEEE Transaction on system, man, and cybernetics—part C: Application and review, vol. 42, No. 1, JANUARY 2012

8.        Shih-Hau Fang, Tsung-Nan Lin,  “Principal Component Localization in Indoor WLAN Environments”, IEEE Transaction on mobile computing, Vol. 11, No. 1, JANUARY 2012

9.        Chun-Yu Shih, Lyu-Han Chen and Gen-Huey Chen, Eric Hsiao-Kuang Wu, Ming-Hui Jin, “Intelligent Radio Map Management for Future WLAN Indoor Location Localisation”, 2012 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference: Mobile and Wireless Networks.


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9.

Authors:

Ojo O. Adedayo, M.M. Isa, A. Che Soh, Z. Abbas

Paper Title:

Comparison of Feed Forward Neural Network Training Algorithms for Intelligent Modeling of Dielectric Properties of Oil Palm Fruitlets

Abstract:    Adequate data of the dielectric properties of oil palm fruitlets and the development of appropriate models are central to the quest of quality sensing and characterization in the oil palm industry. In this study, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was designed, optimized and deployed to model the dielectric phenomena of microwave interacting with oil palm fruitlets within the frequency range of 2-4GHz. The ANN training data were obtained from Open-ended Coaxial Probe (OCP) microwave measurements and the quasi-static admittance model, the ANN was trained with four different training algorithms:  Levenberg Marquardt (LM) algorithm, Gradient Descent with Momentum (GDM) algorithm, Resilient Backpropagation (RP) algorithm and Gradient Descent with Adaptive learning rate (GDA) algorithm. The performance of the ANNs in comparison with measurement data showed that the dielectric properties of the samples under test were accurately modeled, and the LM and RP ANNs can be employed for rapid and accurate determination of the dielectric properties of the oil palm fruitlets.

Keywords:
   Artificial Neural Network, complex permittivity, dielectric properties, training algorithms.


References:

1.        Sosa-Morales M. E., Valerio-Junco L., López-Malo A., & García H. S. Dielectric properties of foods: Reported data in the 21st Century and their potential applications. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 43(8), pp. 1169-1179, 2010.
2.        Gao M., Tang J., Johnson J. A., & Wang S. Dielectric properties of ground almond shells in the development of radio frequency and microwave pasteurization. Journal of Food Engineering, 112(4), pp. 282-287, 2012.

3.        Gershon D. L., Calame J. P., Carmel Y., Antonsen T. M. & Hutcheon R. M.Open-Ended Coaxial Probe for High-Temperature and Broad-Band Dielectric Measurements, 47(9), pp. 1640-1648, 1999.

4.        Neshat M., Adeli A., Sepidnam G., Sargolzaei M., & Toosi A. N. A Review of Artificial Fish Swarm Optimization Methods and Applications. International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, 5(1), 107-148, 2012.

5.        Rahmat M., Ling T., Husain A., & Jusoff K. Accuracy Comparison of Arx And ANFIS Model of an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System. International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, 4(3), 440-453, 2011.

6.        Wu, Hongbing, Lou Peihuang & Tang Dunbing. Adaptive Dynamic Clone Selection Neural Network Algorithm for Motor Fault Diagnosis. International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. 6 (2), pp. 482-504, 2013.

7.        May R., Dandy G., & Maier H. Review of Input Variable Selection Methods for Artificial Neural Networks. Artificial Neural Networks - Methodological Advances and Biomedical Applications, pp. 19-42, 2011.

8.        Scott D. J., Coveney P. V., Kilner J. A., Rossiny J. C. H., & Alford N. Prediction of the functional properties of ceramic materials from composition using artificial neural networks. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 27(16), pp. 4425-4435, 2007.

9.        Erzin Y., Rao B. H., Patel, A, Gumaste S. D., & Singh D. N. Artificial neural network models for predicting electrical resistivity of soils from their thermal resistivity. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 49(1), pp. 118-130, 2010.

10.     Yildiz C., Gultekin S., Guney K., & Sagiroglu S. Neural Models for the Resonant Frequency of Electrically Thin and Thick Circular Microstrip Antennas and the Characteristic Parameters of Asymmetric Coplanar Waveguides Backed with a Conductor. International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 56(6), pp. 396-406,
2002.

11.     Yildiz C. & Türkmen M. A CAD Approach Based on Artificial Neural Networks for Shielded Multilayered Coplanar Waveguides. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 58(4), 284-292, 2004.

12.     Karanayil B. & Rahman M. F. Artificial Neural Network Applications in Power Electronics and Electrical Drives. Power Electronics Handbook: Devices, Circuits, and Applications, Elsevier Inc, 3rd  Edition, pp. 1139-1154, 2001.

13.     Hasan A., & Peterson A. F. Measurement of Complex Permittivity using Artificial Neural Networks. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 53(1), pp. 200-203, 2011.

14.     Gorriti, A. G., & Slob, E. C. Comparison of the different reconstruction techniques of permittivity from S-parameters. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 43(9), 2051-2057, 2005.

15.     Anderson J. M., Sibbald C. L., & Stuchly S. S. Dielectric Measurements Using a Rational Function Model. IEEE Transaction on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 42(2), pp. 199-201, 1994.

16.     Bobowski J.S. & Johson T. Permittivity measurements of biological samples by an open-ended coaxial line. Progress In Electromagnetic Research, 40, pp. 159-183, February 2012.

17.     You K. Y., Salleh J., Abd Malek M. F., Abbas Z., Ee Meng C. & Kim Yee L. Modeling of Coaxial Slot Waveguides Using Analytical and Numerical Approaches: Revisited. International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1-12, 2012.

18.     Komarov V. & Wang J. T. Permittivity and measurement, Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave Engineering, Washington State University, pp. 1-20, 2012.

19.     Blackham D. V, & Pollard R. D. An Improved Technique for Perimittivity Measurements Using a Coaxial Probe. IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, 46(5), pp. 1093-1099, 1997.

20.     Devendra Mistra, Mohinder Chabbra, Benjamin R. Epstein, Mark Mitrotznik. Noninvasive Electrical Characterization of Materials at Microwave Frequencies Using an Open-Ended Coaxial Line?: Test of an Improved Calibration Technique. IEEE Transactions on Microwave and Techniques, 38(1), pp. 8-14, 1990.

21.     You, K. Y. Development of a new technique for measurement of dielectric properties of oil palm fruits. Universiti Putra Malaysia, 2003.

22.     Riedmiller, M., & Braun, H. A direct adaptive method for faster backpropagation learning: the RPROP algorithm. IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, pp. 586-591, 1993.

23.     Ki?i, Ö., & Uncuo?lu, E. Comparison of three back-propagation training algorithms for two case studies, 12, 434-442. 2005.

24.     Rus, G., & Gallego, R. (2002). Optimization algorithms for identification inverse problems with the boundary element method. Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements, 26, 315-327. 2002.

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10.

Authors:

N. Udaya Kumar, E. V. Krishna Rao, M. Madhavi Latha, K. Padma Vasavi

Paper Title:

An Irregular Shaped Region of Interest Based Intelligent Image Compression Using Direction Adaptive Filter Banks

Abstract:    In order to transmit real time images over band limited channels it is very much essential to consider an intelligent transmission system. An irregular shaped Region of Interest (ROI) based Intelligent Compression using Direction Adaptive Filter Banks is presented in this paper. As most of the real time images have irregular boundaries, Direction Adaptive filter banks are used to extract the boundaries of irregular shaped regions. From the edge maps thus obtained, the ROI is extracted by region growing segmentation. The ROI is encoded using a lossless arithmetic encoder and the background is encoded using the most popular SPIHT encoder. At the receiving end, the decoded data from the ROI and the background is added to obtain the final decoded image.  The proposed technique is compared against the SPIHT algorithm. The comparisons are made with respect to image fidelity, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) in dB and the bit error rate. The results obtained from the proposed algorithm for image compression are found to be better than SPIHT with respect to qualitative and quantitative analyses.

Keywords:
   Irregular shape, Region of Interest, Direction Adaptive Filter Bank, SPIHT.


References:

1.       A M.S. Joshi, R.R. Manthalkar and Y.V. Joshi, “Image Compression Using Curvelet, Ridgelet and Wavelet Transform, A Comparative Study”, ICGST-GVIP, ISSN 1687-398X, Vol. 8, Issue (III), pp.25-34 , October 2008.
2.       Muna F. Al- Sammraie and Faisal G. Khamis, "Adaptive Image Compression Based Wavelet using Space-Frequency Segmentation", in proc. of Research Journal on Applied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 421- 430, 2008.

3.       Sanchez, V.; Basu, A.; Mandal, M.K., Prioritized region of interest coding in JPEG2000, Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on Volume 14, Issue 9, Sept. 2004 Page(s):1149 – 1155

4.       C.Doukas and I.Maglogiannis, “Region of interest coding techniques for medical image compression”, IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag.,vol.25, no.5, Sep-Oct.2007.

5.       Emmanuel Christophe and William A. Pearlman, “Three-Dimensional

6.       SPIHT Coding of Volume Images with Random Access and Resolution Scalability", In proc. of EURASIP Journal on Image and Video Processing, Vol. 2008, No. 2, Feb.2008, Doi: 10.1155/2008/248905

7.       G. Tahoces Pablo, J. Ram´on Varela, J. Lado Mar´ıa and Miguel Souto, Image compression: Maxshift ROI encoding options in JPEG2000, Computer Vision and ImageUnderstanding, Issue 2, Feb. 109 (2008), 139-145

8.       W. Ding, F. Wu, and S. Li, “Lifting-based wavelet transform with directionallyspatial prediction,” presented at the Picture Coding Symp.,San Francisco, CA, 2004


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Authors:

Sudhin Govind, Athulya P Prem, Fuhad Ahamed, Prima Vincent

Paper Title:

Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Zero- Voltage-Switching Synchronous Buck Converter with a Coupled Inductor

Abstract:    the paper presents mathematical modelling and simulation of a synchronous buck converter having soft-switching capability. In order to realize soft switching, based on a basic buck converter, the proposed converter added a small inductor, a diode, and an inductor coupled with the main inductor.  The requirements for converters that are more compact, lighter, cost minimization and with an improved performance can be achieved by adopting a high-frequency operation. Because of soft switching, the proposed converter can obtain a high efficiency under heavy load conditions. Moreover, a high efficiency is also achieved under light load conditions, which is significantly different from other soft-switching buck converters. The detailed theoretical analyses of steady-state operation modes are presented, and the detailed modelling methods and some simulation results are also given. The switching waveforms are measured to validate the proposed topology.

Keywords:
  Synchronous Buck converter, zero-voltage switching (ZVS), small signal modelling and PSIM software.


References:

1.        Hyun-Lark Do. “Zero-Voltage-Switching Synchronous Buck Converter with a Coupled Inductor” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 58, No. 8, August 2011
2.        Y.-M. Liu and L.-K. Chang, “Single-stage soft-switching ac–dc converter with input-current shaping for universal line applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.
56, no. 2, pp. 467–479, Feb. 2009.

3.        Y. Tsuruta, Y. Ito, and A. Kawamura, “Snubber-assisted zero-voltage and zero-current transition bilateral buck and boost chopper for EV drive application and test evaluation at 25 kW,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 4–11, Jan. 2009.

4.        Lei Jiang, Chunting Chris Mi, Siqi Li, Chengliang Yin, and Jinchuan Li “An Improved Soft-Switching Buck Converter With Coupled Inductor” IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, Vol. 28, No. 11, November 2013

5.        H. Bodur and A. F. Bakan, “An improved ZCT-PWM DC–DC converter for high-power and frequency applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 89
95, Feb. 2004.

6.        M.Jabbariand H.Farzaneh  fard,“New resonant step-down/up converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 249–256, Jan. 2010.

7.        G. Hua, E. X. Yang, Y. Jiang, and F. C. Lee, “Novel zero-current-transition PWM converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 601– 606, Nov. 1994.

8.        G. Hua, C.-S. Leu, Y. Jiang, and F. C. Y. Lee, “Novel zero-voltage- transition PWM converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 213–219, Mar. 1994.

9.        Y. Tsuruta, Y. Ito, and A. Kawamura, “Snubber-assisted zero-voltage and zero-current transition bilateral buck and boost chopper for EV drive application and test evaluation at 25 kW,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 4–11, Jan. 2009.

10.     M. Mahdavi and H. Farzanehfard, “Zero-current-transition bridgeless PFC without extra voltage and current stress,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 2540–2547, Jul. 2009.

11.     E. Adib and H. Farzanehfard, “Family of zero-current transition PWM converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 3055–3063, Aug. 2008.

12.     E. Adib and H. Farzanehfard, “Zero-voltage-transition PWM converters with synchronous rectifier,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 105–110, Jan. 2010.

13.     H.-L. Do, “Zero-voltage-switching synchronous buck converter with a coupled inductor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 3440– 3447, Aug. 2011.

14.     H.-L.Do, “Non isolated bidirectional zero-voltage-switching DC–DC converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 2563–2569, Sep. 2011.

15.     J. Zhang, J.-S. Lai, R.-Y. Kim, and W. Yu, “High-power density design of a soft-switching high-power bidirectional dc–dc converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1145–1153, Jul. 2007.

16.     Y. Zhang and P. C. Sen, “A new soft-switching technique for buck, boost, and buck–boost converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1775–1782, Nov./Dec. 2003.

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12.

Authors:

Nisar S. Shaikh, S.M. Rajmane

Paper Title:

Modelling and Analysis of Suspension System of TATA SUMO by using Composite Material under the Static Load Condition by using FEA

Abstract:    In order to conserve natural resources and economize energy, weight reduction has been the main focus of automobile manufacturer in the present scenario. Weight reduction can be achieved primarily by the introduction of better material, design optimization and better manufacturing processes. The suspension leaf spring is one of the potential items for weight reduction in automobile as it accounts for ten to twenty percent of the unsprung weight. This helps in achieving the vehicle with improved riding qualities. It is well known that springs, are designed to absorb and store energy and then release it. Hence, the strain energy of the material becomes a major factor in designing the springs. It can be easily observed that material having lower modulus and density will have a greater specific strain energy capacity. The introduction of composite materials was made it possible to reduce the weight of the leaf spring without any reduction on load carrying capacity and stiffness. Since; the composite materials have more elastic strain energy storage capacity (1) and high strength-to-weight ratio as compared to those of steel. It is seen that from the graph that when load increases the bending stress increases linearly. So load-stress graph gives the straight line relationship. At lower loads both theoretical and ANSYS results are very close, but when load increases the ANSYS results are uniformly reduced compared to theoretical results.The deflection in steel leaf spring is less as compared to the composite leaf spring as shown in the above graphs. Springs are placed between the road wheels and the body. When the wheel comes across a bump on the road, it rises and deflects the spring, there by storing energy there in. On releasing, due to the elasticity of the spring material, it rebounds there by expending the stored energy. In this way the spring starts vibrating, of course, with amplitude decreasing gradually on account of internal friction of the spring material and friction of the suspension joints, till vibrations die down.

Keywords:
   leaf spring, FEM, strain energy, strength to weight ratio, etc.


References:

1.        Senthil kumar and Vijayarangan, “Analytical and Experimental studies on Fatigue life Prediction of steel leaf soringand composite leaf multi leaf spring for Light passanger veicles using life data analysis” ISSN 1392 1320 material science Vol. 13 No.2 2007.
2.        Shiva Shankar and Vijayarangan “Mono Composite Leaf Spring for Light Weight Vehicle Design, End Joint, Analysis and Testing” ISSN 1392 Material Science Vol. 12, No.3, 2006.

3.        Niklas Philipson and Modelan AB “Leaf spring modelling” ideon Science Park SE-22370 Lund, Sweden

4.        Zhi’an Yang and et al “Cyclic Creep and Cyclic Deformation of High-Strength Spring Steels and the Evaluation of the Sag Effect:Part I. Cyclic Plastic Deformation
Behavior” Material and Material Transaction A Vol 32A, July 2001—1697

5.        Muhammad Ashiqur Rahman and et al “Inelastic deformations of stainless steel leaf springs-experiment and nonlinear analysis” Meccanica Springer Science Business Media B.V. 2009

6.        C.K. Clarke and G.E. Borowski “Evaluation of Leaf Spring Failure” ASM International, Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, Vol5 (6) Pg. No.(54-63)

7.        J.J. Fuentes and et al “Premature Fracture in Automobile Leaf Springs” Journal of Science Direct, Engineering Failure Analysis Vol. 16 (2009) Pg. No. 648-655.

8.        J.P. Hou and et al “Evolution Of The Eye End Design Of A Composite Leaf Spring For Heavy Axle Load ” Journal of Science Direct, Composite Structures 78(2007) Pg. No. (351-358)

9.        Gulur Siddaramanna SHIVA SHANKAR, Sambagam VIJAYARANGAN, “Mono composite leaf spring for light weight vehicle-Design End joint analysis and testing”, ISSN 1392-1320 MATERIALS SCIENCE (MEDZIAGOTYRA). Vol. 12, No.3. 2006.

10.     “Theory of Machines”,R.S. Khurmi, J.K. Guptta, S. Chand Publications,14th edition, 2010.

11.     Mouleeswaran SENTHIL KUMAR, Sabapathy VIJAYRANGAN, “Analytical and Experimental studies on Fatigue Life prediction of Steel and Composite Multi-leaf for Light Passenger Vehicles Using life data analysis”, ISSN 1392-1320 MATERIALS SCIENCE (MEDZIAGOTYRA). Vol. 13, No. 2. 2007.

12.     SAE, “Manual on Design and Application of Leaf Springs”,SAE HS 788, Society  of  Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, 1980.

13.     Al-Qureshi, H.A., “Automobile leaf springs from composite materials”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 118(1-3):pp.58-61. [doi:10.1016/S0924-0136(01) 00863-9]

14.     Mahdi, E., Alkoles, O.M.S., Hamouda, A.M.S., Sahari, B.B., Yonus, R., Goudah, G., “Light composite elliptic springs for vehicle suspension”, Composite Structures, 75(1-4): pp.24-28. [doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2006.04.082]

15.     Reaz A. Chaudhuri , K. Balaraman “A novel method for fabrication of fiber  reinforced plastic  plates” Composite Structures 77 (2007), pp.160-170.

16.     Practical Finite Element Analysis by Nitin S. Gokhale

17.     Composites – A Design Guide by Terry Richardson

18.     ANSYS 10.0 Help for FEA Analysis

19.     Text book of Machine Design by R.S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta

20.     Introduction to Steel Reference Books S. N. Bagchi and Kuldeep Prakash

21.     Spring Designers Hand Book by Carlson

22.     Properties of Engineering Materials by Higgins R. A

23.     Handbook of Design of Equipments by Abdulla and Shariff.


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13.

Authors:

D. Mondal, S. Basak, R. Bera, M. Mitra

Paper Title:

Integrated Hybride DBF Vehicular Radar

Abstract:    This paper addresses the development efforts towards spread spectrum digital beam forming vehicular radar. Lot of limitation for Conventional radar system; to overcome this problem we are using CSWAP technique for the design of fully integrated Hybrid DBF vehicular Radar. So planar array structure based microstrip antenna which is digitally controlled by DSP or FPGA board is the important part of this work. Lot of works carried out by us that is Antenna radiation pattern, element pattern, power pattern, array factor, antenna e-scanning and beam formation, digital beam formation using different combination of elemental patch and side lobe reduction using different windowing techniques is the major part of this work .The car fitted at the front with single 77GHz will take joint decision of LRR as well as SRR [1]. So in the channel lot of polluted signal like interference, clutter noise arises in the receiver portion of this radar to avoid this proper choice of waveform is very important part also of the SSDBF  vehicular Radar at the transmitter side .We have tested different orthogonal codes like Barker, Frank,Gold,P1,P2,P3,Px. and their performance analysis.

Keywords:
   Cost, Size, Weight and Power (CSWAP),  Conventional Digital Beam forming (CDBF) ,Spread Spectrum Digital Beam forming (SSDBF) Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), DAR (Digital Array Radar),AF(Array Factor) ,Minimum Variance Distortion less Response (MVDR) ,linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV)


References:

1.       Giubbolini, L., “A multistatic microwave radar sensor for short range anticollision warning," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 49,No. 6, 2270{2275, Nov. 2000.
2.       “Phased Array Antenna ” Skolnik  M.I.(Ed). Radar handbook. (McGraw-Hill.New York 1990,2nd edn) chapter 7

3.       Bergmo,Marcos A.”SSDBF Technical Progress Report” various

4.       NICKEL, U.: 'Subarray configurations for digital beam forming with low sidelobes and adaptive interference suppression'. Proceedings of IEEE international conference on Radar, Alexandria, Va, USA, 1995, pp. 714-719

5.       Michal VAVRDA, “DIGITAL BEAMFORMING IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, Institute of Radio Electronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology,

6.       Rasshofer, R. H. and K. Naab, “77 GHz long range radar systems status, ongoing developments and future challenges," Radar Conf.,2005.

7.       FARINA, A., and STUDER, F. A.: 'Evaluation of sidelobe canceller performance', lEEProc. F, Signal Radar Process. 1982, 129, pp. 52-58

8.       Van Trees, H. Optimum Array Processing. New York, NY:Wiley & Sons, NY, 2002.

9.       Frost,O. "An Algorithm For Linearly Constrained Adaptive Array Processing", Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol 60, Issue 8, August, 1972, pp. 926–935

10.     Brown, Arik D., and Sumati Rajan. Pattern Modeling for Conformal Arrays. Technical Memo. Baltimore, MD: Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, April 2005.

11.     Walsh, Tom, F. W. Hopwood, Tom Harmon, and Dave Machuga. Active Electronically Scanned Antennas (AESA). Radar Systems Engineering Course. Baltimore,
MD: Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Dec. 2003.

12.     A Multi-Beam And Multi-Range Radar With FMCW And Digital Beam Forming For Automo-Tive Applications. S.-H. Jeong , *, H.-Y. Yu, J.-E. Lee , J.-N. Oh, and K.-H. Lee Department of Radar Research & Development, MANDO ElectronicsLaboratory, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-870, Korea Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 285-299, 2012

13.     Marcum, J. I., A Statistical Theory of Target Detection by Pulsed Radar, IRE Transactionson Information Theory. Vol IT-6, pp 59-267. April 1960.

14.     Swerling, P., Probability of Detection for Fluctuating Targets, IRE Transactions on Information Theory. Vol IT-6, pp 269-308. April 1960

15.     “Vehicular Safety In Hostile Environment For Intelligent Transport System”-  D.Mondal1 , ,R.Bera2 ,T.K.Das1, & M.Mitra 3 , 1Future Institute of Engineering & Management, Sonarpur, W.B, India,2Sikkim Manipal University, Majitar, Rangpo, East-Sikkim, India.3 Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah, W.B, India Published in  Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology. 2012

16.     “Prediction of Vehicle Classification and Channel Modelling for Intelligent Transportation” N.B.Sinha, Dipak Mondal, M.Mitra and R.Bera, Journal of telecommunications, volume 5, issue 1, October, 2010.


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14.

Authors:

Anchal Katyal, Amanpreet Kaur, Jasmeen Gill

Paper Title:

Automatic Speech Recognition: A Review

Abstract:    The research, development and the accuracy of automatic speech recognition (ASR) remains one of the most important research challenges over the years e.g. speaker and language variability, vocabulary size and domain, noise. This paper describes the recent progress and the author’s perspective of ASR and gives an overview of major technological perspective and appreciation of the fundamental progress of Automatic speech recognition.

Keywords:
   ASR, HMM, Classifications of ASR, Speech Recognition Process, HNN.


References:

1.        Giuseppe Riccardi, Dilek Hakkani-tur, “ Active learning: theory and applications to Automatic speech recognition,” IEEE transactions on speech and audio processing, vol. 13, no. 4, july 2005.
2.        Santosh K.Gaikwad, Bharti W.Gawali, “A review on speech recognition technique,” International Journal of computer applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 10– no.3, November 2010.

3.        Thomas Hain, Asmaa El Hannani, “Automatic Speech Recognition for scientific purposes – webasr,”2008 ISCA, september 22-26, brisbane australia.

4.        Parwinderpal Singh, Er. Bhupinder Singh, “ Speech recognition as emerging revolutionary technology,”International Journal of advanced research in computer science and software engineering Volume 2, issue 10, october 2012 issn: 2277 128x.

5.        Wiqas Ghai, Navdeep Singh, “Analysis of automatic speech recognition systems for indo-aryan languages: Punjabi a case study,” International Journal of Soft computing and engineering (IJSCE) issn: 2231-2307, volume-2, issue-1, march 2012.

6.        Preeti Saini, Parneet Kaur, “Automatic Speech Recognition: a review,” International Journal Of Engineering Trends And Technology- Volume4issue2- 2013.

7.        Mohit Dua, R.K.Aggarwal, “ Punjabi Automatic Speech Recognition using htk,” IJCSI international journal of computer science issues, vol. 9, issue 4, no 1, july 2012 issn (online): 1694-0814.

8.        Wiqas Ghai, Navdeep Singh, “Literature review on automatic speech recognition,” international journal of computer applications (0975 – 8887) volume 41– no.8, march 2012.

9.        I. A. Muslea, “active learning with multipleviews,” ph.d. Dissertation, Univ. Southern california, los angeles, 2000.

10.     M. Tang, x. Luo, and s. Roukos, “active learning for statistical natural Language parsing,” in proc. 40th anniversary meeting of association For computational linguistics (acl-02), philadelphia, pa, 2002, Pp. 120–127.

11.     G. Riccardi and d. Hakkani-tür, “active and unsupervised learning for Automatic speech recognition,” in proc. Eurospeech, 2003.

12.     M.a.anusuya , s.k.katti “speech recognition by machine :A review” international journal of computer science and Information security 2009.

13.     Samudravijay k “speech and speaker recognition report” Source:http://cs.jounsuu.fi/pages/tkinnu/reaserch/index.html Viewed on 23 feb. 2010.

14.     Sadokifuruki ,Tomohisa ichiba, “Cluster-based modeling For ubiquitous speech recognition,  Tokyo institute of technology Interspeech 2005.

15.     Spector, Simon kinga and Joe Frankel, “Recognition ,speech Production knowledge in automatic speech recognition ,Journal of acoustic society of america,2006.

16.     Ranu Dixit,Navdeep Kaur, “Speech Recognition Using Stochastic Approach: A Review,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 2, Issue 2, February 2013.


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15.

Authors:

Kiranraj A. Tank, Pradnya P Zode

Paper Title:

Design of a Parallel Pipelined FFT Architecture For Real Valued Signals

Abstract:    This paper presents a novel approach to design a four and eight parallel pipelined fast Fourier transform (FFT) architecture based on canonic signed digit multiplier. This approach is based on use of decimation in time algorithm which reduces the number of delay elements up to some extent compared to decimation in frequency based design. The number of delay elements required for an N point FFT architecture is N-4 which is comparable to that of delay feedback schemes. The number of complex adders required is approximately 50% less than the other feedback designs. The proposed architecture can be extended to any radix 2n based FFT algorithm. This proposed architecture is based on feed forward designs and can be pipelined up to more stages to increase the throughput.

Keywords:
   Canonic signed digit (CSD), decimation in time (DIT),  fast Fourier transform  (FFT), folding.


References:

1.        Ziegler, H., "A fast Fourier transform algorithm for symmetric real-valued series," Audio and Electroacoustics, IEEE Transactionson , vol.20, no.5, pp.353,356, Dec 1972 doi: 101109/TAU19721162406
2.        Sorensen, H.V.; Jones, D.L.; Heideman, M.; Burrus, C.S., "Real-valued fast Fourier transform algorithms," Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions on , vol.35, no.6, pp.849,863, Jun 1987.

3.        Shousheng He; Torkelson, M., "Design and implementation of a 1024-point pipeline FFT processor," Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 1998. Proceedings of the IEEE 1998, vol., no., pp.131,134, 11-14 May 1998.

4.        B. R. Sekhar and K. M. M. Prabhu  "Radix-2 decimation-in-frequency algorithm for the computation of the real-valued FFT",  IEEE Trans. Signal Process.,  vol. 47,  no. 4,  pp.1181 -1184 1999.

5.        Garrido, M.; Parhi, K.K.; Grajal, J., "A Pipelined FFT Architecture for Real-Valued Signals," Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on , vol.56, no.12, pp.2634,2643, Dec. 2009.


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16.

Authors:

Manira Khatun

Paper Title:

VLSI Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Circuit

Abstract:    The paper proposes the VLSI realization of a Fuzzy logic circuit. In this paper, a current-input, current-output reconfigurable MIN-MAX circuit is developed using PSPICE for application in fuzzy temperature controller.

Keywords:
   Bounded difference operation, CMOS MIN circuit, CMOS MAX circuit, Current mirror, Fuzzy Logic, RFMC.


References:

1.        Neural network fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm Rajasekhran, G.A/VijayalakshmiPai
2.        M. Togai & H. Watanabe, A VLSI Implementation of Fuzzy Inference Engine: toward an Expert System on a Chip, Information Sciences, Vol.38, pp.147-163, 1986

3.        Büh94] H. Bühler, Réglage par logique floue, Presses Polytechniques Romandes, Lausanne, 1994

4.        A.P. Ungering, K. Thuener & K. Goser, Architecture of a PDM VLSI Fuzzy Logic Controller with Pipelining and Optimized Chip Area, IEEE Int. Conf. on Fuzzy Systems, Vol.1, pp.447-452, San Francisco, Ca, USA, 1993

5.        T. Yamakawa, A Fuzzy Inference Engine in Nonlinear Analog Mode and Its Application to a Fuzzy Logic Control, IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, Vol.4, No.3, May 1993


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17.

Authors:

Bishal Poudel

Paper Title:

BER Analysis of an Optical Cross-Connect Due to Cross-talk in DWDM System

Abstract:    This paper focus on analysing the Bit Error Rate of an optical cross connect due to cross-talk in Dense Wave Length Division Multiplexing system.

Keywords:
   Bit Error Rate, Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), Optical Cross-Connect(OXC), Wave length division multiplexing(WDM).


References:

1.        Boby Barna, Monirnl Islam, “Evaluate The Effect Of Stimulated Raman Scattering In Dwdm Transmission System With Direct Detection Binary Wsk Receiver” Iee/Osa/Iapr International Conference On Infomatics, Electronics & Vision Iciev    2012
2.        Mizrahi et al., “The future of WDM systems,” in Proc. ECOC 1997,1997, pp. 137- 141

3.        Gurmeet Kaur, M. L. Singh and M. S, Patterh "Theoretical investigations of the combined effect of fiber nonlinearities,amplifier and receiver noise in a DWDM
transmission" Journal of Optical and Fiber Communications Research Volume 6,   Numbers 1-6, pp-I-I 0, 2007.

4.        K, A Taher, "Minimization of the effect of Cross PhaseModulation in a WDM Optical Transmission System",M,Sc,Thesis, dept. of EEE, BUET, 2005.

5.        E. Iannone, and R. Sabella, “Optical path technologies: Acomparison among different cross-connect architectures,J.Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2184 - 2194, Oct. 1996

6.        J. Zhou, et al., “Crosstalk in multi wavelength optical cross-connect networks,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, no. 6, pp.1423 - 1435, June 1996

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18.

Authors:

C.Kadhiravan, P.Mahendra Peruman

Paper Title:

High Efficiency AC–AC Power Electronic   Converter Applied To Domestic Induction Heating

Abstract:    Induction heating is a well-known technique to produce very high temperature for applications. A large number of topologies have been developed in this area such as voltage and current source inverter. This project presents the analysis and design of a new ac–ac resonant converter applied to domestic induction heating. The proposed topology, based on the half-bridge series resonant inverter, uses only two diodes to rectify the mains voltage.The proposed converter can operate with zero-voltage switching during both switches-on and switch-off transitions.  This topology doubles the output voltage, and therefore, the current in the load is reduced for the same output power. As a consequence, the converter efficiency is significantly improved.The output power is controlled using the PWM technique. This results in an increase of the net efficiency of the induction heating system. The circuit is simulated using MATLAB. The circuit is implemented using PIC controller. Both simulation and hardware results are compared.

Keywords:
   Home appliances,induction heating, inverters, resonant power conversion


References:

1.        J.Acero, J. M. Burdio, L.A. Barragan, D. Navarro, R.Alonso, J. R. Garcia,F. Monterde, P. Hernandez, S. Llorente, and I. Garde, “Domestic induction appliances,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 39–47, Mar./Apr.2010.
2.        H. Fujita, N. Uchida, and K. Ozaki, “A new zone-control induction heatingsystem using multiple inverter units applicable under mutual magnetic coupling conditions,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 2009–2017, Jul. 2010.

3.        I. Mill´an, J. M. Burd´ıo, J. Acero, O. Luc´ıa, and S. Llorente, “Series resonant inverter with selective harmonic operation applied to all-metal domestic induction heating,” IET Power Electron., vol. 4, pp. 587–592, May 2011.

4.        R. L. Steigerwald, “A comparison of half-bridge resonant converter topologies,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 174–182, Apr. 1988.

5.        H. W. Koertzen, J. D. van Wyk, and J. A. Ferreira, “Design of the halfbridge series resonant converters for induction cooking,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf. Records, 1995, pp. 729–735.


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19.

Authors:

Ashish Gupta

Paper Title:

Improvised Temperature Sensing In Efficient Dynamic Devices

Abstract:    The document here describes the method of accurate and efficient temperature sensing using multiple thermistors and then it suggests the method to mathematically analyze these incoming data and getting the final accurate result. This method of temperature sensing would prove to be very useful at instances where the temperature probes cannot remain intact with the subject at all times, moreover it also addresses issues of probe detachment and error handling.        

Keywords:
   Probe detachment, thermistors, temperature.


References:

1.       S. M. Metev and V. P. Veiko, Embedded Assisted Microtechnology, 2nd ed., R. M. Osgood, Jr., Ed.  Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1998.
2.       IEEE Paper on Developing an Intermediate Embedded-Systems Course with an Emphasis on Collaboration. vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 668–679, October 20011.

3.       Yoann Pign´e, Gr´egoire Danoy and Pascal Bouvry, “A Platform for Realistic Online sensor Network Management”, IEEE International Workshop on Management
of Emerging Networks and Services, 2010

4.       Matta, N., “Representing Experience on sensor array Management”, 2012 IEEE 21st International Workshop on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE),, 2012

5.       T.H. Law, Radin Umar R. S., “The Development of temperature Management System for Safety Analyses and Improvement”, Device Safety Research Centre, Malaysia.

6.       Mike Van Tonder, “The Role of intelligent Systems in sensing  technology” ,IEEE MEITF Conference, 2012.

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20.

Authors:

Khollam.S.C, Mhaske M S, Belkar S B

Paper Title:

A Method to Optimize Brass Type Single Synchronizer Ring for Manual Gearbox

Abstract:   Global automotive industry is growing rapidly in recent years. Increased torque range with deeper transmission ratio as well as overall vehicle refinements in modern trucks places higher demands on transmission and its components. Changing market requirement and driver comfort is also a new challenge in commercial market. With this overall effects design and development of transmission and its components plays a major role for performance, comfort and economically driven market. Synchronizer is one of the critical components which need to look upon. Synchronizer plays a vital role for gear shifting performance in manual gearbox without any shifting assistance. Synchronizers primary function is to reduce the rpm difference between two gears before gear shifting subject to time and more comfort. Increasing demand for performance, enhance life, less shift effort, less synchronization time, optimum size of Synchro pack and low cost has become an interesting area for engineer for improvement. More over existing synchronizer can be economically re-engineered into more efficient designs with the help of new mathematical tools and techniques. A mathematical optimization model can be developed to establish optimum cone parameter. A model of relationship can built between cone angle and sleeve champers angle, synchronizer size, coefficient of friction, cone torque and index torque. In this study a model was built in Matlab optimization toolbox pattern-search solver to find global minimum value of Cone angle which satisfy set of given and known design constrains. This Model can be used to select first cut synchro parameter with moderate accuracy. These Values can be then finer tune by customized and specialized software’s. It is not easy to study the entire gear-changing process from clutch till wheels, dynamical behavior of manual gearbox is too complicated to simulate, owing to the large number of elements involved in it. This study considers only major parameter involved in synchronization. Also generous experience and data is required to accurately select parameter with desired Shift feel and comfort.

Keywords:
   Synchronizer, Matlab, Blocker ring, optimization Gearbox.


References:

1.       Socin R.J. and Walters L.K 1968 Manual, Transmission Synchronizers SAE 680008
2.       Razzacki, S. T. (DaimlerChrysler Inc.) (2004): Synchronizer Design: A Mathematical and Dimensional Treatise. Technical Report 2001-01-1230. SAE Technical
Paper Series, 2004. Reprinted from: Transmission & Driveline Symposium 2004 (SP-1817).

3.       ANA PASTOR BEDMAR: Synchronization processes and synchronizer mechanisms in manual transmissions

4.       Laszlo LOVAS, Daniel PLAY, János MÁRIALIGETI and Jean-François RIGAL: Modeling Of Gear Changing Behavior

5.       Andreas Gustavsson: Development and Analysis of Synchronization Process Control Algorithms in a Dual Clutch Transmission

6.       T. M. Manoz, Kumar, Sandeep D’mello and V. Pattabiraman: Optimization of Synchronizer of a Typical 5-Speed Manual Shift Synchromesh Transmission Using Statistics

7.       Daniel Angstrom and Mikael Nordlander: Development of a Program for Calculating Gearbox Synchronization, Master of Science in Engineering Technology Mechanical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics

8.       David Kelly Christopher Kent, Gear Shift Quality Improvement in Manual Transmissions Using Dynamic Modeling


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21.

Authors:

Firas Shawkat Hamid , Thakwan Akram Jawad, Ersun Iscioglu

Paper Title:

Study and Analysis New Algorithm for Effective Cryptographic in Telemedicine Purposes Using Hill Cipher after Modification

Abstract:   Nowadays, digital exchanges of medical images are frequently used throughout the world in a fraction of a second via the Internet. These data can be read or modified during their transmission via a non-controlled channel. Therefore, it becomes very important to protect this private information against unauthorized viewers by using cryptography. This work presents a cryptography method that uses the properties of Hill Cipher algorithm for medical images. The fast evolution of digital data exchange, security information becomes much important in data storage and transmission. Image, which covers the highest percentage of the multimedia data, its protection is very important.  This can be achieved by image encryption.  As  the  use  of  digital techniques  for  transmitting  and  storing  image  are  increasing,  it becomes an important issue that how to protect the confidentiality,  integrity, and authenticity of image. Each type of data has its own features; therefore various techniques which are discovered from time to time to encrypt the images should be used to protect confidential image data from unauthorized access and to make images more secure. Image encryption techniques scrambled the pixels of the image and decrease the correlation among the pixels, so that we will get lower correlation among the pixel and get the encrypted image. Encryption is used to securely transmit data in open networks. The Hill cipher algorithm is one of the symmetric key algorithms that have several advantages in data encryption. However, a main drawback of this algorithm is that it encrypts identical plaintext blocks to identical ciphertext blocks and cannot encrypt images that contain large areas of a single color. Thus, it does not hide all features of the image, which reveals patterns in the plaintext. Moreover, it can be easily broken with a known plaintext attack revealing weak security. This paper presents a variant of the Hill cipher that overcomes these disadvantages, has been proposed new encryption algorithm using modify the existing Hill cipher to decrease the susceptibility to known plaintext attacks. This is achieved by randomizing the information locations for the whole image. So, even if the attacker can guess the key, the decryption still give false information. Both of Hill image cipher and the proposed modification on it (termed MHill in this paper) are suitable for all images block encryption. The proposed algorithm is carried out via two approaches that is through comparative study and statistical analysis. Results from this comparative have shown that Hill cipher with randomized approach has greatest the Number of Pixels Changed Rate (NPCR) and the Unified Averaged Changed Intensity (UACI) value are two most common

Keywords:
   The proposed algorithm is carried out via two approaches that is through comparative study and statistical analysis.


References:

1.        Bharti Ahuja, Rashmi Lodhi, “Different Algorithms used in ImageEncryption: A review”, International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Technology (IJCSET), Vol. 4 No. 07 2013, pp.: 861-864.
2.        P. P. Dang and P. M. Chau, “Image Encryption for Secure Internet Multimedia Applications,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, 2000, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 395-403.

3.        William Stallings, 2011. Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practices, Fifth edition, Chapter 2, pp.: 37.

4.        Eskiciogiu,A. Litwin,L “ Cryptography and Network Security” LOS Alamitos,CA: IEEE computer society press, Issue:1,1987, pp: 36-38.

5.        Pooja Mishra, Biju Thankachan, “A Survey on Various Encryption and Key Selection Techniques”, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), 2013, Volume 2, Issue 7, pp.: 141-145.

6.        Stinson, D.R., 2002. Cryptography Theory and Practice (2nd Ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

7.        S. Zhang and M. A. Karim, “Color image encryption using double random phase encoding,” MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, Vol. 21, No. 5, 1999, pp.: 318-322

8.        Yi Kai-Xiang and Sun Xing et al., “An image encryption algorithm based on chaotic sequences”, Journal of Computer Aided Design and Computer Graphics, Vol. 12, No. 9, 2000, pp. 672-676.

9.        Li. Shujun, and X. Zheng "Cryptanalysis of a chaotic image encryption method," Inst. of Image Process, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi, This paper appears in: Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2002. IEEE International Symposium , 2002, Vol. 2, 2002, pp. 708-711.

10.     A. Sinha, K. Singh, “A technique for image encryption using digital signature,” Optics Communications, 2003, pp. 1-6.

11.     S.S. Maniccam, N.G. Bourbakis, “Lossless image compression and encryption using SCAN”,  Pattern Recognition, Vol. 34, 2001, pp. 229-1245.

12.     A. Sinha, K. Singh, "Image encrypt ion by using fractional Fourier trans form and Jigsaw transform in image bit planes," Source: optical engineering, spie-int society optical engineering, vol. 44, no. 5 , 2005, pp.:15-18.

13.     V.U.K. Sastry and N. Ravi Shankar,” Modified Hill Cipher for a Large Block of Plaintext with Interlacing and Iteration”, Journal of Computer Science 4 (1) , 2008:pp. 15-20.

14.     A. Mitra, Y. V. Subba Rao and S. R. M. Prasanna, " A New Image Encryption Approach using Combinational Permutation Techniques" World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 14, pp.919–923, 2008.

15.     Saroj Kumar Panigrahy, Debasish Jena,Sathya Babu Korra, and Sanjay Kumar Jena, “On the Privacy Protection of Biometric Traits: Palmprint, Face, and Signature”, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, CCIS 40, pp. 182–193, 2009.

16.     H. H. Nien, W. T. Huang, C. M. Hung, S. C. Chen, S. Y. Wu,“ Hybrid Image Encryption Using Multi-Chaos-System”, IEEE 2009, pp.1-5.

17.     G. Zhi-Hong, H. Fangjun, and G.Wenjie , "Chaos - based image encryption algorithm," Department of Electrical and computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada. Published by: Elsevier, 2009, pp. 153-157.

18.     Zhu Yu, Zhou Zhe, Yang Haibing, Pan Wenjie, Zhang Yunpeng,"A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform", IEEE 2010.

19.     Zhengjun Liu, Lie Xu, Jingmin Dai, Shutian Liu,"Image encryption by using local random phase encoding in fractional Fourier transform domains" Elsevier, Optik, vol 123, 2012, pp. 428– 432.

20.     Panduranga H T and  Naveen Kumar S K, "Advanced Partial Image Encryption using Two-Stage Hill Cipher Technique",    International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 60– No.16, 2012.

21.     Somdip Dey, "SD-AEI: An Advanced Encryption Technique For Images", IEEE 2012, Second International Conference on Digital Information Processing and Communications (ICDIPC2012), Lithuania, pp. 68-73.

22.     Cherif Moumen, Malek Benslama and Mekhilef Saad, “Cryptography of the Medical Images”, PIERS Proceedings, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA, 2012, pp.: 42-48.

23.     Vinay pandey , Angad Singh, Manish Shrivastava, “Medical Image Protection by Using Cryptography Data-Hiding and Steganography”, International Journal of
Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering , 2012, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp.: 106-109.

24.     Ashtiyani, M.,  Birgani, P.M. and Hosseini, H.M., “Chaos-Based Medical Image Encryption Using Symmetric Cryptography”, Information and Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications, 2008. ICTTA 2008. 3rd International Conference on IEEE, in Damascus, 2008, pp.: 1-5.

25.     W. Puech, “Image Encryption and Compression for Medical Image Security”, IPTA'08: 1st International Workshops on Image Processing Theory, Tools and
Applications, Tunisia, 2009, ver.1.

26.     Panduranga H T, NaveenKumar S K, “Selective image encryption for Medical and Satellite Images”, International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), 2013, Vol 5 No 1, pp.: 115-121.

27.     Abrams, M., and Podell, H. “Cryptography” Potentials, IEEE Page No 36-38. Issue:1,Volume: 20, 2001.

28.     Abrams, M., and Podell, H. “Cryptography” Potentials, IEEE 2001, Issue: 1, Volume: 20, pp.: 36-38.

29.     Jinn-Ke Jan and Yuh-Min Tseng, “On the security of image encryption method,” Information Processing Letters, 1996, vol. 60,pp.: 261–265.

30.     Prabir Kr. Naskar,Atal Chaudhuri, “A Secure Symmetric Image Encryption Based on Bit-wise Operation”, International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing (IJIGSP), 2014, Vol. 6, No. 2, PP.: 30-38.

31.     W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice, Prentice- Hall Upper Saddle River, USA, 1999.

32.     Saeednia S. How to Make the Hill Cipher Secure. Cryptologia Journal, 2000, 24, pp.: 353-360.

33.     ISMAIL I.A.1, AMIN Mohammed2, DIAB Hossam2,” How to repair the Hill cipher”, J Zhejiang Univ SCIENCE A 2006 7(12):pp: 2022-2030.

34.     FIPS PUB140-2: Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2001.

35.     A.V.N.Krishna,  K.Madhuravani, “ A Modified Hill Cipher using Randomized Approach”,  Computer Network and Information Security, 2012, 5, pp.: 56-62.

36.     V.U.K.Sastry, Aruna Varanasi and S.Udaya Kumar “A Modern Advanced Hill Cipher Involving a Permuted Key and Modular Arithmetic Addition Operation”, Journal of Global Research in Computer Science, Volume 2, No. 4, 2011.

37.     Ibrahim S I Abuhaiba1 and Maaly A S Hassan, “IMAGE ENCRYPTION USING DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION APPROACH IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN”, Signal & Image Processing : An International Journal(SIPIJ) Vol.2, No.1, 2011, pp.: 51-69.

38.     P.Shanmugam1, C.Loganathan, “INVOLUTORY MATRIX IN VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY”, IJRRAS, 2011, Vol 6, Issue4, pp.: 424-428.

39.     A. Kumar and M. K. Ghose, "Extended substitution-diffusion based image cipher using chaotic standard map," Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, vol. 16, pp. 372-382, 2011.

40.     Yue Wu, Joseph P. Noonan and Sos Agaian “NPCR and UACI Randomness Tests for Image Encryption”, Journal of Selected Areas in Telecommunications (JSAT),  2011,pp: 31-38.

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22.

Authors:

Sriramula Poornima, Lendale Praveen Kumar

Paper Title:

Power Delay Profile Estimation for MIMO-OFDM Systems under LMMSE Channel Estimation Approach

Abstract:    A multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system combined with the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technique can achieve reliable high data rate transmission over broadband wireless channels. But the performance gain depends heavily on accurate channel estimation. In linear-minimum-mean-Square-error(LMMSE) channel estimation for multicarrier system, one needs to know the channel statistics. We propose a power delay profile (PDP) estimation technique to obtain the frequency domain channel statistics at the receiver. The pilot symbols of all transmit antenna ports are used in estimating the PDP. The estimated PDP is used to generate the LMMSE filter Coefficients for data-subcarrier channel estimation. The distortions caused by null subcarriers and an insufficient number of samples for PDP estimation are also considered. The proposed technique effectively reduces the distortions for accurate PDP estimation. Simulation results show that the performance of LMMSE channel estimation using the proposed PDP estimate approaches that of Wiener filtering due to the mitigation of distortion effects.

Keywords:
   Channel estimation, PDP, MIMO, OFDM, LMMSE, 3GPP-LTE.


References:

1.        TS 36.211, “Physical channels and modulation,” in 3GPP TSG RAN1, Rev. 10.1.0, Jan. 2011.
2.        T. W. Yune, C. H. Choi, G. H. Im, J. B. Lim, E. S. Kim, Y. C. Cheong, and K. H. Kim, “SC-FDMA with iterative multiuser detection: improvements on power/spectral efficiency,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 164–171, Mar. 2010.

3.        U. K. Kwon, D. Kim, and G. H. Im, “Amplitude clipping and iterative reconstruction of MIMO-OFDM signals with optimum equalization,” IEEE Trans. Wireless
Commun., vol. 8, pp. 268–277, Jan. 2009.

4.        L. Zheng and D. N. Tse, “Diversity and multiplexing: a fundamental tradeoff in multiple antenna channels,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 49, pp. 1073–1096, May 2003.

5.        H. C. Won and G. H. Im, “Iterative cyclic prefix reconstruction and channel estimation for a STBC OFDM system,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 9, pp. 307–309, Apr. 2005.

6.        T. Yoo and A. Goldsmith, “Capacity and power allocation for fading MIMO channels with channel estimation error,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 52, pp. 2203–2214, May 2006.

7.        M. G. Song, D. Kim, and G. H. Im, “Recursive channel estimation method for OFDM-based cooperative systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1029–1031, Nov. 2010.

8.        S. Omar, A. Ancora, and D. T. M. Slock, “Performance analysis of general pilot-aided linear channel estimation in LTE OFDMA systems with application to simplified MMSE schemes,” in Proc. IEEE PIMRC 2008.

9.        T. Cui and C. Tellambura, “Power delay profile and noise variance estimation for OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 25–27, Jan. 2006.

10.     X. Gong, C. Zhao, W. Xu, and M. Jiang, “Power delay profile estimation for MIMO-OFDM systems over time-varying multipath channels,” in Proc. IEEE ICCT 2010.

11.     K. C. Hung and D. W. Lin, “Pilot-based LMMSE channel estimation for OFDM systems with power-delay profile approximation,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 59, pp. 150–159, Jan. 2010.

12.     Y. Li, J. H. Winters, and N. R. Sollenberger, “MIMO-OFDM for wireless communications: signal detection with enhanced channel estimation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, pp. 1471–1477, Sep. 2002.

13.     R. Horn and C. Johnson, Matrix Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

14.     TS 36.101, “User equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception,” in 3GPP TSG RAN1, Rev. 10.1.0, Jan. 2011.


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23.

Authors:

Chhatrala Nayankumar D.  Bhalodiya Kelvin J. Doshi Kaushal J.

Paper Title:

Improved Disparity Map Estimation from Multiple Images on Hybrid Method

Abstract:    Stereo vision systems aim at reconstructing 3D scenes by matching two or more images taken from slightly different viewpoints. The main problem that has to be solved is the identification of corresponding pixels, i.e. pixels that represent the same point in the scene. In this paper, a stereo matching algorithm based on image segmentation is presented. We propose the hybrid algorithm based on k-means segmentation and refine the disparity map of the stereo image by SSD (sum of squared difference). Firstly; a color based k-means segmentation method is applied for segmenting the stereo images. Segmentation is used to represent, locate and analyze the image. Segmented images are used as input to the local correlation based method for finding the disparity estimation .Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm gives good performance

Keywords:
   Stereo Matching, Disparity Map, RMSE Error, Segmentation, k-means


References:

1.        A New Approach for Disparity Map Determination M. Mozammel Hoque Chowdhury and Md. Al-Amin Bunyan Daffodil International University Journal of Science And Technology, Volume 4, Issue 1, January  2009
2.        A New Stereo Matching Algorithm for Binocular Vision. Tao Hu and May Huang, International Journal of Hybrid Information Technology Vol.3, No.1, January, 2010

3.        SHIMIZU, M., OKUTOMI, M. Calibration and rectification for reflection stereo. In IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition CVPR.

4.        B Anchorage (USA), 2008, p. 1 - 8.. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception. Chicago and London: The

5.        W. E University of Chicago Press, 1971.. L. Grimson, From Images to Surfaces. Cambridge, Mas¬sachusetts: MIT Press, 1981.

6.        H. L. F. V. Helmholtz, Treatise on Physiological Optics. New York: Dover, 1925.

7.        B. K. P. Horn, Robot Vision. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1986.

8.        O. Faugeras, Three-Dimensional Computer Vision: A Geo-metric Viewpoint. MIT Press, 1993.

9.        R. N. Klaus Voss and M. Schubert, Monokulare Rekonstruktion Fur Robotvision. Verlag Shaker, 1996.    

10.     B. Julesz, "Binocular depth perception of computer-generated patterns," Bell System Tech., vol. 39, pp. 1125-1161, Septem-ber 1960.

11.     J. I. Nelson Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 49, pp. 1-xx, 1975.       

12.     P. Dev International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 7, pp. 420-xxx, 1975.      

13.     D. Marr and T. Poggio, "Cooperative computation of stereo disparity," SCIENCE, pp. 283-287, 1976.          

14.     S. T. Barnard and M. A. Fischler, "Computational stereo," Computing Surveys, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 553-572, 1982.             

15.     U. R. Dhond and J. K. Aggarwal, "Structure from stereo - a re-view," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1489-1510, 1989.

16.     An Adaptive K-means Clustering Algorithm for Breast Image Segmentation, Bhagwati Charan Patel Dr. G.R.Sinha International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 10– N.4, November 2010

17.     COLOR IMAGE SEGMENTATION USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING,  Chinki Chandhok, International Journal of VLSI & Signal Processing Applications, Vol 2, Issue 3, June 2012, ISSN 2231-3133 , (241-245)

18.     http://vision.middlebury.edu/stereo/data/scenes2005/ FullSize/Dolls/disp1.png


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Authors:

Anu Joseph Padanilam, R. Meenal

Paper Title:

Simulation of Single Stage Inverter with High Voltage Gain for Distributed Energy Resources Using PSIM

Abstract:    This paper presents the simulation of high voltage gain single stage inverter for distributed energy resources using PSIM software. In this, a Cuk derived circuit is integrated with Fly back auxiliary circuit to achieve high voltage gain. Here the capacitors of Flyback and Cuk circuits are paralleled for charging and connected in series for discharging. Due to capacitive voltage dividing, DC side switch voltage stress is reduced and losses are also reduced, hence gain can be increased. Simulation results are given to show the merits of the inverter.

Keywords:
   Distributed energy resources (DER), Cuk derived voltage source inverter, Flyback auxiliary circuit, high voltage gain, PSIM


References:

1.        Ching-Tsai Pan, Ming Chieh-Cheng and Ching-Ming Lai, “A Novel integrated DC/AC Converter With High Voltage Gain Capability for Distributed Energy Resource Systems” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, Vol.27,No.5,May 2012.
2.        R. I. Bojoi, L. R. Limongi, D. Roiu, and A. Tenconi, “Enhanced power quality control strategy for single-phase inverters in distributed generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 798–806, Mar. 2011.

3.        Y. Xue, L. Chang, S. B. Kjaer, J. Bordonau, and T. Shimizu, “Topologies of single-phase inverters for small distributed power generators: An overview,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1305–1314,Sep. 2004.

4.        S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Blaabjerg, “A Review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Ind.Appl., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1292–1306, Sep./Oct. 2005.

5.        B. S. Prasad, S. Jain, and V. Agarwal, “Universal single-stage gridconnected inverter,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 128–137, Mar. 2008.

6.        J. J. Shieh, “SEPIC derived three-phase switching mode rectifier with sinusoidal input current,” IEE Proc. Electr.Power Appl, vol. 147, no. 4, pp. 286–294, Jul. 2000.

7.        C. T. Pan, C. M. Lai, and M. C. Cheng, “A Novel integrated single phase inverter with an auxiliary step-up circuit for low-voltage alternative energy source application,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 9,pp. 2234–2241, Sep. 2010.


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25.

Authors:

R.Saranya Pon Selvi, C.Akila

Paper Title:

Advanced FCM Algorithm for Segmentation

Abstract:    An advanced FCM Algorithm is introduced to segment the image which is affected by noise, outliers or any other artifacts. In order to segment those images this algorithm is introduced. By using this algorithm both noise can be removed and the segmentation can be made efficiently. The trade-off weighted fuzzy factor and kernel distance measure are both used in the introduced algorithm and both are parameters free. By using the fuzzy factor, the damping extent of the neighbouring pixels can be estimated accurately. The experimental results also show that the algorithm is effective and efficient and it is independent of the type of the noises.

Keywords:
   Fuzzy clustering, gray-level constraint, image segmentation, kernel metric, spatial constraint.


References:

1.        S. Krinidis and V. Chatzis, “A robust fuzzy local information C-meansclustering algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 19, no. 5, pp.1328–1337, May 2010.
2.        X. Yin, S. Chen, E. Hu, and D. Zhang, “Semi-supervised clustering with metric learning: An adaptive kernel method,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 1320–1333, Apr. 2010.

3.        L. Zhu, F. Chung, and S. Wang, “Generalized fuzzy C-means clustering algorithms with improved fuzzy partitions,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., B, Cybern., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 578–591, Jun. 2009.

4.        S. Tan and N. A. M. Isa, “Color image segmentation using histogram thresholding fuzzy C-means hybrid approach,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2011.

5.        C. Li, R. Huang, Z. Ding, J. C. Gatenby, D. N. Metaxas, and J. C. Gore, “A level set method for image segmentation in the presence of intensity inhomogeneities with application to MRI,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 2007–2016, Jul. 2011.

6.        J. Dunn, “A fuzzy relative of the ISODATA process and its use in detecting compact well-separated clusters,” J. Cybern.,  vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 32–57, 1974.

7.        J. Bezdek, Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Function Algorithms. New York: Plenum, 1981.

8.        M. Ahmed, S. Yamany, N. Mohamed, A. Farag, and T. Moriarty, “A modified fuzzy C-means algorithm for bias field estimation and segmentation of MRI data,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 193–199, Mar. 2002.584

9.        S. Chen and D. Zhang, “Robust image segmentation using FCM with spatial constraints based on new kernel-induced distance measure,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., B, Cybern., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1907–1916, Aug. 2004.

10.     L. Szilagyi, Z. Benyo, S. Szilagyii, and H. Adam, “MR brain imagesegmentation using an enhanced fuzzy C-means algorithm,” in Proc. 25th Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE EMBS, Nov. 2003, pp. 17–21.

11.     W. Cai, S. Chen, and D. Zhang, “Fast and robust fuzzy C-means clustering algorithms incorporating local information for image segmentation,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 825–838, Mar. 2007.

12.     M. Gong, Z. Zhou, and J. Ma, “Change detection in synthetic aperture radar images based on image fusion and fuzzy clustering,”IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 2141–2151, Apr.2012.

13.     N. Cristianini and J. S. Taylor, An Introduction to SVM’s and Other Kernel-Based Learning Methods. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.

14.     X. Yang and G. Zhang, “A kernel fuzzy C-means clustering-based fuzzy support vector machine algorithm for classification problems with outliers or noises,” IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 105–115, Feb. 2011.

15.     V. Roth and V. Steinhage, “Nonlinear discriminant analysis using kernel functions,” in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 12, S. A Solla, T. K. Leen,and K.-R. Muller, Eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000, pp. 568–574.

16.     B. Scholkopf, A. J. Smola, and K. R. Muller, “Nonlinear component analysis as a kernel eigenvalue problem,” Neural Comput., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1299–1319, 1998.

17.     K. Wu and M. Yang, “Alternative C-means clustering algorithms,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2267–2278, 2002.

18.     L. Chen, C. Chen, and M. Lu, “A multiple-kernel fuzzy C-means algorithm for image segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., B, Cybern., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1263–1274, Oct. 2011.

19.     T. C. Havens, R. Chitta, A. K. Jain, and J. Rong, “Speedup of fuzzy and possibilistic kernel C-means for large-scale clustering,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Fuzzy Syst., Jun. 2011, pp. 463–470.

20.     D. Tsai and C. Lin, “Fuzzy C-means based clustering for linearly and nonlinearly separable data,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1750– 1760, 2011.

21.     D. Zhang and S. Chen, “Kernel-based fuzzy clustering incorporating spatial constraints for image segmentation,” in Proc. IEEE 2nd Annu. Int. Conf. Mach. Learn. Cybern., Oct. 2003, pp. 2189–2192.

22.     R. Hathaway, J. C. Bezdek, and Y. Hu, “Generalized fuzzy C-means clustering strategies using norm distances,” IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 576–581, Oct. 2000.

23.     T. Przybyla, J. Jezewski, K. Horoba, and D. Roj, “Hybrid fuzzy clustering using LP norms,” in Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Intell. Inf. Database Syst., 2011, pp. 187–196.

24.     K. R. Muller, S. Mika, G. Ratsch, K. Tsuda, and B. Scholkopf, “An introduction to kernel-based learning algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw., vol. 12, no. 2, pp.
181–202, Mar. 2001.

25.     C. Fowlkes, S. Belongie, F. Chung, and J. Malik, “Spectral grouping using the Nystrom method,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 1–12, Feb. 2004.

26.     F. Masulli and A. Schenone, “A fuzzy clustering based segmentation system as support to diagnosis in medical imaging,” Artif. Intell. Med., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 129–147, 1999.

27.     F. Zhao, L. Jiao, H. Liu, and X. Gao, “A novel fuzzy clustering algorithm with non-local adaptive spatial constraint for image segmentation,” Signal Process., vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 988–999, 2011.

28.     MathWorks. (2011). Image Processing Toolbox, Natick, MA [Online].Available: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/14237

29.     C. A. Cocosco, V. Kollokian, R. K.-S. Kwan, and A. C. Evans. (2011). BrainWeb: Online Interface to a 3D MRI Simulated Brain Database [Online]. Available: http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca/brainweb/

30.     H. Zhang, J. Fritts, and S. Goldman, “An entropy-based objective evaluation method for image segmentation,” Proc. SPIE, Storage Retrieval Methods Appl. Multimedia, vol. 5307, pp. 38–49, Jan.2004.

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26.

Authors:

Reena Chandran, Vrinda Prasad, Prima Vincent

Paper Title:

Modeling of Fractional order Buck-Boost Converter

Abstract:    In this paper fractional order mathematical modeling and state space average modeling of Buck-Boost Converter is established in continuous conduction mode. This modeling is based on fractional calculus and an idea about the fractional calculus is describing here. To observe the performance of Buck-Boost converter in the fractional order modeling, simulation is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

Keywords:
   Buck-Boost converter, Fractional order, mathematical model, Sate space average modeling 


References:

1.        Nigmatullin R R, Arbuzov A A, Salehli F, Giz A, BayrakI and Catalgil G L 2007 Physica B 388 418
2.        Westerlund S 1994 IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 1 826

3.        Wu C J, Zhang Y B and Yang N N 2011 Chin. Phys. B 20 060505

4.        Westerlund S 2002 Dead Matter Has Memory! (Kalmar, Sweden: Causal Consulting) Chap. 7

5.        Podlubny I 1999 Fractional Differential Equations (San Diego: Academic Press) Chap. 2

6.        Nakagava M and Sorimachi K 1992 IEICE Trans. Fundam. E75-A 1814

7.        Jonscher A K 1983 Dielectric Relaxation in Solids (London: Chelsea Dielectric Press) Chap. 3

8.        Yang Ning –Ning, Liu Chong-Xin and Wu Chao-Jun ,” Modeling and dynamics analysis of the fractional-order Buck-Boost converter in continuous conduction mode”, Chin.Phys.B Vol.21,2012


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27.

Authors:

Athira P Ashok, Bincy M Mathew, Jiku Thomas

Paper Title:

Stability Analysis and Limit Cycle Behavior in DC-DC Boost Converter

Abstract:    This paper deals with stability analysis and limit cycle behaviors in DC–DC boost converters with a proportional integral (PI) voltage compensator, which is a popular design solution for increasing output voltage in power electronics. The circuit principle is explained with the help of state space averaging. The transfer function of the system is found by the small signal ac modeling of boost converter. The stability of the converter is found by Routh Stability Criterion. The limit cycle behavior is given by the stability analysis.

Keywords:
   Stability, Limit cycle behavior, Boost converter.


References:

1.       H. Zhanga, Xiao-Ping Yangb, Xi-Kui Maa,   BoHea” Analysis of limit cycle behavior in DC–DC boost converters” - Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications 13, 2012, pp. 2049–2062.
2.       T. Kousaka, T. Ueta, Y. Ma, H. Kawakami, “Bifurcation analysis of a piecewise smooth system with non-linear characteristics,” International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications 33, 2005 pp. 263–279.

3.       E. Toribio, A. El Aroudi, G. Olivar, L. Benadero, “Numerical and experimental study of the region of period-one operation of a PWM boost converter,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 15 (2000) 1163–1171.

4.       M. Li, D. Dai, X.K. Ma, “Slow-scale and fast-scale instabilities in voltage-mode controlled full-bridge inverter,” Circuits Systems and Signal Processing 27, 2008, pp. 811–831.


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28.

Authors:

Tushar Bedke, Dhanashree Kutre

Paper Title:

Data Reliance Surveillance

Abstract:   Network Security and Data protection is a very important approach in which the users should be encouraged to turn on the module in order to practically make use of trusted computing against well known data security problems. The best way to deal with such problems is to use this technology that has been found to provide very real benefits in terms of assuring trust between systems and effectively protecting, through hardware based encryption, critical information .Moreover the results should necessary satisfy the requirements of the users in respect of access rights, privacy and interoperability. This paper outlines a client-server system utilizing a Data Reliance Surveillance Module (DRS)-enabled computer to hinder forensic examination. We have explored in detail the entire process from the encryption to the reverse process decryption on different file formats mainly image, audio and text files. We describe and implement an approach on data protection and network security by utilizing trusted computing technology. The system allows for data confidentiality, plausible deniability, and hiding of traces that incriminating data was present on the client.

Keywords:
   This paper outlines a client-server system utilizing a Data Reliance Surveillance Module (DRS)-enabled computer to hinder forensic examination.


References:

1.        National Aeronautics and Space    Administration, “One Policy Approach Regarding Digital Evidence Acquisition and Analysis,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, August, 2007.
2.        J. Morris, “Maintaining System Integrity During Forensics,” Security Focus, August 1, 2003.

3.        Trusted Computing Group, “TCG Specification Architecture Overview Revision 1.4,” Trusted Computing Group, August 2, 2007.

4.        Trusted Computing Group, “Trusted Platform Module () Summary”, Trusted Computing Group, May 5, 2008.

5.        P.C. Leong, “Some impacts of trusted computing on digital forensic,” in Cyber Crime Investigation Workshop 2006, Singapore, November, 2006.

6.        Trusted Computing Group, “TCG Glossary of Technical Terms”, Trusted Computing Group.

7.        R. Sailer, X. Zhang, T. Jaeger and L. van Doorn, “Design and Implementation of a TCG-based Integrity Measurement Architecture, “in 13th Usenix Security Symposium, San Diego, California, August,2004.

8.        B. Parno, “The Trusted Platform Module () and Sealed Storage,”RSA, June 21, 2007.

9.        R. Sailer, “Integrity Measurement Architecture (IMA),” IBM Research.

10.     J.A. Halderman et al, "Lest We Remember: Cold Boot Attacks on Encryption Keys" in 17th USENIX Security Symposium (Sec ‘08), San Jose, California, July 2008.


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29.

Authors:

Kashyap M. Joshi, Vipul Gohil

Paper Title:

Controller Area Network Based Accident Avoidance System

Abstract:    Based on requirements of modern vehicle, in- vehicle Controller Area Network (CAN) architecture has been implemented. In order to reduce point to point wiring harness in vehicle automation, CAN is suggested as a means for data communication within the vehicle environment. The benefits of CAN bus based network over traditional point to point schemes will offer increased flexibility and expandability for future technology insertions. This paper describes system which uses sensors to measure various parameters of the car like speed, distance from the other car, presence of alcohol in car and accidental change of lane and sends a warning signal to the driver if any of the parameter goes out of range to avoid accidents . A situation that provides a good example of how the system works is when a driver is about to change lanes, and there is a car in his blind spot. The sensors will detect that car and inform the driver before he starts turning, preventing him from potentially getting into a serious accident.

Keywords:
   Control Area Network (CAN), collision avoidance system


References:

1.        Li  Ran,  Wu  Junfeng,  Wang  Haiying,  Li  Gechen.  “Design Method of CAN BUS Network Communication Structure for Electric Vehicle”, IFOST 2010 Proceedings IEEE.
2.        Yujia Wang, Hao Su, Mingjun Zhang., “CAN-Bus-Based Communication System Research for Modular underwater Vehicle”, 2011 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICICTA.2011.

3.        Chin E. Lin, S. F. Tai, H. T. Lin, T. P. Chen,  P. K. Chang, C. C. Kao “Prototype Of A Small Aircraft Avionics Using Hybrid Data Bus   Technology” 2005 IEEE

4.        Chin  E.  Lin,  Hung-Ming  Yen,  “A  Prototype  Dual  Can-Bus Avionics  System  For  Small  Aircraft  Transportation  System” 2006 IEEE.

5.        V. Claesson, C. Ekelin, N. Suri, “The event-triggered and time- triggered medium-access methods”, 6th IEEE International Symposium on Object-Oriented Real-Time Distributed computing, May 14-16, 2003, pp. 131-134.

6.        Chris Quigley, Richard McLaughlin, “Electronic System Inte-Gration For Hybrid And Electric Vehicles”.

7.        Chin E. Lin, H. M. Yen, “Reliability And Stability Survey On Can-Based Avionics Network For Small Aircraft” -7803-9307-  4/05/2005 IEEE.

8.        Feng   Xia,   Xiaohua   Dai,   Zhi   Wang,   and   Youxian Sun, “Feedback Based Network Scheduling of Networked Control Systems”2005 IEEE.

9.        Ashwini S. Shinde, Prof. Vidhyadhar B. Dharmadhikari, “Controller Area  Network for Vehicle Automation” International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering  www.ijetae.com ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012.
10.     Mazran Esro, Amat Amir Basari, Siva Kumar S, A. Sadhiqin M I, Zulkifli  Syariff,    “Controller Area Network (CAN) Application in Security System” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 35 2009.


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30.

Authors:

Mohsen Zolfaghari Moghadam, A.R.Teymourtash

Paper Title:

Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method to MHD Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid Aver a Stretching Sheet

Abstract:    In this study, the problem of steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a viscoelastic fluid near a stretching sheet in has been investigated using a simulation method called Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The concept of OHAM is briefly introduced, and then employed it to derive solutions of governing nonlinear equation. The obtained results from this method are compared with those from the numerical solution to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. It is found that the OHAM can achieve suitable results in predicting the solution of such problems. Moreover, the effect of important parameters on temperature distribution, mass transfer as well as stream function along the stretching sheet are presented and discussed in detail.

Keywords:
   MHD flow; viscoelastic fluid; stretching sheet; Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method.


References:

1.       Altan, T., Oh, S., Gegel, H. 1979, Metal Forming Fundamentals and Applications, 1st ed., American Society of Metals, Metals Park, OH.
2.       Tidmore, Z., Klein, I., 1970, Engineering Principles of Plasticating Extrusion, 2nd ed., Polymer Science and Engineering Series, Van Norstrand, New York.

3.       Sakiadis, B.C., 1971, “Boundary layer behavior on continuous solid surfaces: I boundary layer equations for two dimensional and axisymmetric flow,” AIChE 61, 26–34.

4.       Liu, I.C., 2004, “Flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting fluid of second grade over a stretching sheet subject to a transverse magnetic field,” Int J Heat Mass Transf, 47, 4427-4437.

5.       Khan, S.K., Subhas Abel, M., Sonth Ravi, M., 2003, “Viscoelastic MHD flow, heat and mass transfer over a porous stretching sheet with dissipation of energy and stress work,” Int J Heat Mass Transf, 40, 47-57.

6.       A. Rasekh, D.D. Ganji, S. Tavakoli, 2012, Numerical solutions for a nanofluid past over a stretching circular cylinder with non-uniform heat source/sink”, Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer (FHMT), 3, 043003.

7.       Nadeem, S., Hussain, A., Khan, M., 2010, “HAM solutions for boundary layer flow in the region of the stagnation point towards a stretching sheet,” Comm Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul, 15, 475-481.

8.       A. Rasekh, M. Farzaneh-Gord, D.D. Ganji, S.R. Varedi “Analytical solution for Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow and heat transfer over a permeable stretching sheet with chemical reaction”, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 51, 3, (2013) 675-686.

9.       Yazdi, M.H., Abdullah, S., Hashim, I., Sopian, K., 2011, Slip MHD liquid flow and heat transfer over non-linear permeable stretching surface with chemical reaction, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 54, 3214–3225.

10.     Rana, P., Bhargava, R., Flow and heat transfer of a nanofluid over a nonlinearly stretching sheet: A numerical study, Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 17 (2012), pp. 212–226.

11.     Javed, T., Abbas, Z., Sajid, M., Ali, N., 2012, Heat transfer analysis for a hydromagnetic viscous fluid over a non-linear shrinking sheet, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
(in press), doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.12.025.

12.     Van Gorder, R.A., Sweet, E., Vajravelu, K., 2010, Nano boundary layers over stretching surfaces, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 15, 1494–1500.

13.     Kechil, S.A., Hashim, I., 2008, Series solution of flow over nonlinearly stretching sheet with chemical reaction and magnetic field, Phys. Lett. A 372, 2258–2263.

14.     Pop I, Na TY. Natural convection of a Darcian fluid about a wavy cone. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer (21) 1994 891–900.

15.     Cheng Ching-Yang. An integral approach for heat and mass transfer by natural convection from truncated cones in porous media with variable wall temperature and concentration. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf (27) 2000 537–48.

16.     E. Magyari, B. Keller, Exact solutions for self-similar boundary-layer flows induced by permeable stretching walls, European Journal of Mechanics B-Fluids 19 (2000).346 109–122
17.     A. Rasekh, D.D. Ganji, S. Tavakoli. “Analytical Solution for natural convection heat transfer about a vertical cone in porous media filled with a non-Newtonian Al2O3-Water nanofluid”, Computational Thermal Science. 5 (1) (2013) 73–82.

18.     J H. He, Homotopy perturbation method for bifurcation on nonlinear problems. Int J Non-Linear Sci Numer Simul 8 (2005) 207–208.

19.     D.D. Ganji, A. Rajabi, Assessment of homotopy perturbation and perturbation methods in heat radiation equations. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 33(2006) 391–400.

20.     A. Rasekh, D.D. Ganji, S. Tavakoli, H. Ehsani, S. Naeejee, “MHD flow and heat transfer of a dusty fluid over a stretching circular cylinder with a convective boundary condition” Heat Transfer - Asian Research. (2013) doi: 10.1002/htj.21073.

21.     I.H. Abdel-Halim Hassan, On solving some eigenvalue-problems by using a differential transformation, Appl. Math. Comput. 127 (2002) 1–22.

22.     A. Rasekh, M. Farzaneh-Gord. “Novel Theoretical Approach on Exergy and Energy Performance Assessment of Cylindrical Solar Water Heater”, Journal of Energy Engineering. 138(3) (2012) 119–124.

23.     C.K. Chen, S.S. Chen, Application of the differential transformation method to a non-linear conservative system, Appl. Math. Comput. 154 (2004) 431–441.

24.     M. Farzaneh-Gord, A.A. Joneidi, B. Haghighi, Investigating the effects of the important parameters on MHD flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet. J Process Mech Eng Part E. 224 (2010) 1-9.

25.     A. Rasekh, D.D. Ganji, B. Haghighi, S. Tavakoli. “Thermal performance assessment of a convective porous fin with variable cross section by means of OHAM”. International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Engineering Science. 3:2 (2011): 181–191.

26.     S J. Liao. On the analytic solution of magnetohydrodynamic flows of non-Newtonian fluids over a stretching sheet. J Fluid Mech 448 (2003) 189–212.

27.     S J. Liao, Cheung KF. Homotopy analysis of nonlinear progressive waves in deep water. J Eng Math 45(2003) 103–16.

28.     V. Marinca, N. Herisanu, Application of Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method for solving nonlinear equations arising in heat transfer. Int Commun Heat Mass
Transf 35 (2008) 710–715.

29.     Abel, M.S., Sanjayanand, E., and Nandeppanavar, M.M. 2008, Viscoelastic MHD flow and heat transfer over a stretching sheet with viscous and ohmic dissipations. Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numerical Simul. 13, 1808–1821.

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31.

Authors:

Abu Bakar Muzamil, Bilal Khurshid

Paper Title:

Analysis of Labour Productivity of Road Construction in Pakistan

Abstract:    Construction industry is one of the most labour incentive industries and human resource covers a large project cost. Labour productivity has always been a key issue for project managers to improve their project results. Now productivity studies are getting special emphasize in developing countries after developed countries. Construction industry is basically composed of building and infrastructure projects. Usually productivity studies are focussed towards overall construction industry or mostly building projects. It's obvious that the impact of factors varies with type of construction and other different aspects of project. This study is specifically carried out to identify the critical factors which are responsible for poor labour productivity of road construction in Pakistan. The study was carried out through questionnaire based survey. Questionnaire was composed of 65 productivity factors they were grouped in 13 categories. Respondents were categorized in 2 groups i.e., management workers and manual workers. Respondents were asked to rank the factors based on their experience of road construction. The number of responses achieved were 212 and results were tabulated based on relative importance index. Top three identified critical factors affecting labour productivity of road construction in Pakistan are poor salary, poor execution planning and inefficient equipment. The researchers and project managers can get assistance from the study to establish reforms for achieving better labour productivity.

Keywords:
   Critical Factor, Productivity


References:

1.       Abdul Kadir, M. R., Lee,W. P., Jaafar, M. S., Sapuan, S. M., and Ali, A. A. A. (2005). “Factors affecting construction labour productivity for Malaysian residential projects.” J. Struct. Surv., 23(1), 42–54.
2.       Ailabouni N., Gidado K. and  Painting N. Factors affecting employee productivity in the uae construction industry. Thesis (Ph.D) - University of Brighton, 2010.

3.       Alinaitwe, H. M., Mwakali, J. A., and Hansson, B. (2007). “Factors affecting the productivity of building craftsmen—Studies of Uganda.” J. Civ. Eng. Manage., 13(3), 169–176.

4.       Alwi, S. (2003). “Factors influencing construction productivity in the Indonesian context.” Proc., 5th Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies (EASTS) Conf., QUT ePrints, Brisbane, QLD, 1557–1571.

5.       Ameh, O.J., & Osegbo, E.E. (2011). Study of relationship between time overrun and productivity on construction sites.International Journal of Construction Supply Chain Management 1 (1). 56-67.

6.       Attar A.A., Ghupta A.K. & Desai D. B. A Study Of Various Factors Affecting Labour Productivity And Methods To Improve It. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. ISSN: 2278-1684, PP: 11-14

7.       Ball, R. (1981) Employment created by construction, expenditures, Monthly labour Review, 104, 38-44.

8.       Bon, R. (1992). The future of international construction: secular patterns of growth and decline. Habitat International, 16(3), 119–28 Census and Statistics Department of HKSAR (1985–2002) Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics, Census and Statistics Department of HKSAR, Hong Kong.

9.       Borcherding, J. D. Improving productivity in industrial construction. Journal of the Construction Division, 1976, 102 (C04), p. 599–614.

10.     Dai, J., Goodrum, P., Maloney, W., and Srinivasan, C. (2009). ”Latent Structures of the Factors Affecting Construction Labor Productivity.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 135(5), 397–406.

11.     Dozzi, S. P., and AbouRizk, S. M. (1993). Productivity in construction, Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

12.     Durdyev, S., and Mbachu, J. (2011). “On-site labour productivity of New Zealand construction industry: Key constraints and improvement measures.” Aus. J. Constr. Econ. Build., 11(3), 18–33.

13.     Ellis, R. D., and Lee, S. (2006). “Measuring project level productivity on transportation projects.”Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 132(3), 314–320.

14.     Enshassi, A., Mohamed, S., Abu Mustafa, Z., Mayer, P. E. (2007). “Factors affecting labour productivity in building projects in the Gaza Strip.” J. Civ. Eng. Manage., 13(4), 245–254.

15.     Gomar, J. E., Haas, C. T., and Morton, D. P. (2002). “Assignment and allocation optimization of partially multiskilled workforce.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage.,10.1061/(ASCE)07339364(2002)128:2(103), 103–109.

16.     Hanna, A. S., Taylor, C. S., and Sullivan, K. T. (2005). “Impact of extended overtime on construction labor productivity.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 131(6), 734–739.

17.     Hinze, J. W. (1999) Construction planning and scheduling. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

18.     Horner, R. M.W., Talhouni, B. T., and Thomas, H. R. (1989). “Preliminary results of major labour productivity monitoring programme.” Proc., 3rd Yugoslavian Symp. on Construction Management, Zagreb Univ., Croatia, 18–28.

19.     Jarkas, A. M., and Bitar, C. G. (2012). “Factors affecting construction labor productivity in Kuwait.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 10.1061/(ASCE)CO .1943-7862.0000501, 811–820.

20.     Kaming, P. F., Olomolaiye, P. O., Holt, G. D., and Harris, F. C. (1997). “Factors influencing craftsmen’s productivity in Indonesia.” Int. J. Proj. Manage., 15(1), 21–30.

21.     Kazaz, A. Ulubeyli, S (2004) “A different approach to construction labor in Turkey: comparative productivity analysis”, Journal of Building and Environment 39(1): 93–100.

22.     Kazaz, A., and Ulubeyli, S. (2007). “Drivers of productivity among construction workers: a study in a developing country.” Building and Environment, 42, 2132-2140.

23.     Kazaz, A., Manisali, E., and Ulubeyli, S. (2008). “Effect of basic motivational factors on construction workforce productivity in Turkey.”J. Civil Eng. Manage., 14(2), 95–106.

24.     Khan, M. S. 1993. Methods of motivating for increased productivity, Journal of Management in Engineering 9(2): 148–156

25.     Lean, S.C. (2001), Empirical tests to discern linkages between construction and other economic sectors in Singapore, Construction Management and Economics, 13, 253-262

26.     Lim, E. C., and Alum, J. (1995). “Construction productivity: Issues encountered by contractors in Singapore.” Int. J. Proj. Manage., 13(1), 51–58.

27.     Lema NM (1995). Construction of labour productivity modeling. University of Dar Elsalaam.

28.     Makulsawatudom, A., Emsley, M., and Sinthawanarong, K. (2004). “Critical factors influencing construction productivity in Thailand.” J. King Mongkut’s Univ. Technol., 14(3), 1–6.

29.     M.R. Abdul Kadir, W.P. Lee, M.S. Jaafar, S.M. Sapuan, A.A.A. Ali, (2005) "Factors affecting construction labour productivity for Malaysian residential projects", Structural Survey, Vol. 23 Iss: 1, pp.42 - 54

30.     Ng, S.T. and Skitmore, R.M. and Lam, K.C. and Poon, A.W.C. (2004) "Demotivating Factors Influencing the Productivity of Civil Engineering Projects", International Journal of Project Management 22(2):pp. 139-146.

31.     Ofori, G., Chan, W. T., and Cheah, W. B. (2003). Productivity of the construction industry in Singapore, research rep., Dept. of Building,School of Design and Environment, National Univ. of Singapore, Singapore

32.     Olomolaiye, P.; Wahab, K. and PRICE, A. Problems influencing craftsmen productivity in Nigeria. Building and Environment, 1987, 22(4), p. 317–323.

33.     Park, S.H. (1989) Linkages between industry and services and their implications for urban employment generation in developing countries. Journal of Development Economics, 30(2), 359–79.

34.     Parviz Ghoddousiand Mohammad Reza Hosseini. " A survey of the factors affecting the productivity of construction projects in Iran ",Technological and Economic Development of Economy, Vol. 18, Iss. 1, 2012.

35.     Pietroforte, R. and Bon, R. (1995) An input–output analysis of the Italian construction sector, 1959-1988. Construction Management and Economics, 13(3),253–62.

36.     Polat, G. and Arditi, P. The JIT management system in developing countries. Construction Management andEconomics, 2005, 23(7), p. 697–712.

37.     Rivas, R., Borcherding, J., González, V., and Alarcón, L. (2011). ”Analysis of Factors Influencing Productivity Using Craftsmen Questionnaires: Case Study in a Chilean Construction Company.” J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 137(4), 312–320.

38.     Soekiman, K. S. Pribadi, B.W. Soemardi, R.D. Wirahadikusumah "Factors relating to labor productivity affecting the project schedule performance in Indonesia" J. Of Const. & Manage. 14 (2011) 865–873.

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40.     Thomas H.R., Minchin R.E., Chang D., Role of Workforce Management in Bridge Superstructure LaborProductivityJ. Manage. Eng. 2003.19:9-16.

41.     Zakeri, M., Olomolaiye, P. O., Holt, G. D., and Harris, F. C. (1996).“A survey of constraints on Iranian construction operatives’ productivity.” J. Constr. Manage. Econ., 14(5), 417–426.


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32.

Authors:

Khaled Zaher Abdalla, Sarah Mohamed Sharaf

Paper Title:

Cost Optimization of Sewerage Systems in Rural Areas in Egypt

Abstract:    Collection of wastewater is considered  one of the major environmental problems in Egypt. More than 50% of Egypt villages have no facilities of wastewater collection. Small bore sewer system is a good alternative for wastewater collection system especially in rural areas because the construction cost of small bore sewer system is cheaper than that of conventional sewer system. However, detailed analysis is required to determine the optimum conditions at which small bore sewer system will be a better choice. This paper aims to provide an estimation of total costs for both small bore sewer systems and conventional sewer systems using data of  eight different villages in rural areas in Egypt. The villages were chosen in Menofyia and Assuit governorates.  Two equations were obtained that can be used to obtain the total costs of both small bore sewer systems and conventional sewer systems for rural areas of similar characteristics to those studied. The optimum population values, at which the small bore sewer system will be the best alternative, were obtained.

Keywords:
   Collection systems; Conventional sewer system; Cost; Rural areas; Small bore sewer system


References:

1.       Barreto M. L., Genser B., Strina A., Teixeira M. G., Assis A. M. O., Rego R. F., Teles C. A., Prado M. S., Matos S. M. A., dos Santos L. A. and Cairncross S. (2007). Effect of city-wide sanitation programme on reduction in rate of childhood diarrhoea in northeast Brazil: assessment by two cohort studies. Lancet, 370, 1622–1628. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61638-9.
2.       Cross, P. and Coombes, Y. (2013). Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa: Where do We Stand?.

3.       Erbe, V., Risholt, L.P., Schilling, W., Londong, J., 2002. Integrated modelling for analysis and optimisation of wastewater systems — the Odenthal case. Urban Water 4, 63–71.

4.       McGhee, T. J., & Steel, E. W. (1991). Water supply and sewerage (Vol. 6). New York: McGraw-Hill.

5.       Metcalf & Eddy (2003), “Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse”, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill York, USA.

6.       Ahmed, S., Abdelhalim, H., & Rozaik, E. (2013), Treatment of Primary Settled Wastewater Using Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor Seeded with Activated EM. Civil and Environmental Research, 3(11), 130-136.

7.       Grigg, N.S., 2003. Water, Wastewater, and Storm Water Infrastructure Management. Lewis Publishers, Florida.

8.       Swamee, P. K., & Sharma, A. K. (2012). Optimal design of a sewer line using Linear Programming. Applied Mathematical Modelling.

9.       Swedish Association of Local Authorities, 1990. Sanitation Manual Design Procedures. Technical Manuals and Guidelines for Infrastructure Projects – Manual 5. Swedish Association of Local Authorities. Sweden.

10.     Ilesanmi, I.J., 2006. Pre-Feasibility Assessment of Onsite and Decentralised Sanitation Systems for New Satellite Settlements in Abuja, Nigeria. Hamburg, Germany.

11.     Fadel, A. (2001). Low cost technologies for water treatment and wastewater collection and treatment. Fourth International Water Technology Conference IWTC 99, Alexandria, Egypt

12.     Otis, R. J., & Mara, D. D. (1985). The design of small bore sewer systems. World Bank.

13.     Little, C. J. (2004). A comparison of sewer reticulation system design standards gravity, vacuum and small bore sewers. Water S. A., 30(5), 685-692.

14.     Harindi, F., & Kamil, I. M. (2008). Application of small bore sewer system in Kecamatan Jatinagor, Kabupaten Sumedang.

15.     Engin, G. O., & Demir, I. (2006). Cost analysis of alternative methods for wastewater handling in small communities. Journal of environmental management, 79(4), 357-363.

16.     Bakir, H.A., 2001. Sustainable wastewater treatment management for small communities in the in the Middle East and North Africa. Journal of Environmental Management 61 (4), 319–328.

17.     LaGro Jr., J.A., 1996. Designing without nature: unsewered residental development in rural Wisconsin. Landscape and Urban Planning 35 (1), 1–9.

18.     Hoffmann, B., S, B., Nielsen, M., Elle, S., Gabriel, A.M., Eilersen, M., Henze, S., Mikkelsen, 2000. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems: a context-oriented planning approach. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 20, 347–357.

19.     Mara, D., Drangert, J., Viet Anhc, N., Tonderski, A., Gulyas, H., Tonderski, K., 2007. Selection of sustainable sanitation arrangements. Water Policy 9, 305–318.

20.     Chinyama, A., Chipato, P. T., & Mangore, E. (2012). Sustainable sanitation systems for low income urban areas–A case of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C.

21.     Sharaf. S., Abdalla, K.Z., Abdelhalim, H.(2013), Cost Optimization of Sewer Systems in Rural Areas in Egypt, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt.

22.     Hamilton, B. A. (2004). Valuing decentralized wastewater technologies: A catalog of benefits, costs, and economic analysis techniques. US Environmental Protection Agency: Rocky Mountain Institute.

23.     Pinkham, R. D., Magliaro, J., & Kinsley M. (2004). Case studies of economic analysis and community decision making for decentralized wastewater systems. Project No. WU-HT-02-03, National Decentralized Water Resources Capacity Development Project, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, Rocky Mountain
Institute, Snowmass, Colorado, SAD.

24.     Vouk, D. (2006). The selection of the best available technology in wastewater collection, treatment and disposal for rural areas. Master Thesis, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Zagreb, Croatia.

25.     Vouk, D., & Malus, D. (2007). Key economic aspects in valuing wastewater systems for small rural areas. Wastewater treatment in small communities. In Nogueira, Hermelindo Castro (ur.), Centro de las Nuevas Technologias del Aqua (CENTA), Seville, Spain

26.     Vouk, D., Malus, D., & Kesetovic, E. (2008). Multicriteria analysis in valuing small and decentralized wastewater systems. Advances in hydro-science and engineering/ Tsujimoto, Tetsuro, Nagoya, Nagoya University, pp. 2055–2064.

27.     Vouk, D., Malus, D., & Halkijevic, I. (2011). Neural networks in economic analyses of wastewater systems. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(8), 10031-10035.


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33.

Authors:

Patel Vibha, Hardik B.Ramani

Paper Title:

Review on Combine Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Inlet Air Pressure on Performance and Emission of Diesel Engine

Abstract:   Concern of environmental pollution and energy crisis all over the world have caused the research attention on reduction of  diesel engine exhaust emissions and saving of energy simultaneously. Better fuel economy and higher power with lower maintenance cost has increased the popularity of diesel engine vehicles. Diesel engines are used for bulk movement of goods, powering  stationary/mobile equipment, and to generate electricity more economically than any other device in this size range. As we know that the diesel engine are known for their high NOx formation and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is being used widely to reduce and control the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission from diesel engines. EGR controls the NOx because it lowers oxygen concentration and flame temperature of the working fluid in the combustion chamber.However, the use of EGR leads to a trade-off in terms of soot emissions moreover it exhausted more unburned hydrocarbons (20–30%) compared to conventional engines and it also affect the volumetric efficiency and BSFC of engine performance. The increased in inlet air pressure results in better scavenging and reduced exhaust temperature in the engine, better  mechanical efficiency and improved volumetric efficiency. Therefore, by using EGR with pressurized inlet air have different effect on both engine emission such as CO, UHC and NOx and on the engine performance such as BSFC, torque, thermal and volumetric efficiency.

Keywords:
   Exhaust gas recirculation, Diesel engine, Inlet air pressure, Emission.


References:

1.       AnnualDieselReport <http://www.ricardo.com/pages/dieselreport.asp>.
2.       K.M. Stewart, Health effects of diesel exhaust. Report from American Lung Association of Pennsylvania, 2001.

3.       Y.A. Levendis, I. Pavlatos, R. Abrams, Control of diesel soot, hydrocarbon and NOx emissions with a particulate trap and EGR.

4.       N. Ladommatos, R. Balian, R. Horrocks, L. Cooper, The effect of exhaust gas recirculation on combustion and NOx emissions in a high-speed direct injection diesel engine.

5.       S. Sasaki, D. Sawada, T. Ueda, H. Sami, Effect of EGR on direct injection gasoline engine. Abu-Hamdeh, Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions.

6.       Zelenka P, Aufinger H, Reczek W, Catellieri W. Cooled EGR––a key technology for future efficient HD Diesels. Desantes JM, Galindo J, Guardiola C, Dolz V. Air   mass flow estimation in turbo charged diesel engine from in cylinder pressure measurement.

7.       Kreso AM, Johnson JH, Gratz LD, Bagley ST, Leddy DG. A study of the effects of exhaust gas recirculation on heavy-duty Diesel engine emissions.

8.       J. Kusaka, T. Okamoto, Y. Daisho, R. Kihara, T. Saito, Combustion and exhaust gas emission characteristics of a diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas.

9.       G.H. Abd-Alla, Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines.

10.     Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh, Effect of cooling the recirculated exhaust gases on diesel engine emissions.

11.     Ming Zheng, Graham T. Reader, J. Gary Hawley, Diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation.

12.     Avinash Kumar Agrawal, Shrawan Kumar Singh2, Shailendra Sinha And Mritunjay Kumar Shukla, Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity in compression ignition engines.

13.     Colban, W.F., P.C. Miles, and S. Oh, Effect of Intake Pressure on Performance and Emissions in an Automotive Diesel Engine .Operating in Low Temperature Combustion Regimes.

14.     M.M.Z. Shahadat, M.N. Nabi, M.S. Akhter, M.S.H.K. Tushar, Combined Effect of EGR and Inlet Air Preheating on EnginePerformance in Diesel Engine.

15.     Mustafa Canakci, An experimental study for the effects of boost pressure on the performance and exhaust emissions of a DIHCCI gasoline engine.

16.     Rizalman Mamat, Nik Rosli Abdullah, Hongming Xu, Miroslaw L. Wyszynski, Athanasios Tsolakis, Effect of Air Intake Pressure Drop on Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine Operating with Biodiesel and Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel (ULSD).

17.     Simon Reifarth, EGR-Systems for Diesel Engines.

18.     Jaffar Hussain , K. Palaniradja, N. Alagumurthi, R. Manimaran, Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Performance and Emission characteristics of a Three Cylinder Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine


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34.

Authors:

Anuradha Kasande, A.A. Agarkar

Paper Title:

An Enhancement in Quality of image & Anti- Steganalysis by Using Optimizing Image Steganography

Abstract:    Picture quality and statistical undetectability are two main issues related to steganography techniques. In this paper, a closed-loop computing framework is proposed that iteratively searches proper modifications of pixels/coefficients to enhance a base steganographic scheme with optimized picture quality and higher anti-steganalysis capability. To achieve this goal, an anti-steganalysis tester and an embedding controller based on the optimization algorithm with a cost function are incorporated into the processing loop to conduct the convergence of searches. The cost function integrates several performance indices, namely, the mean square error, the human visual system (HVS) deviation, and the differences in statistical features, and guides a proper direction during optimization.

Keywords:
   steganalysis, steganography, optimization


References:

1.       Y.-T. Wu and F. Y. Shih, “Genetic algorithm based methodology for breaking the steganalytic systems,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. B,            vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 25–31, Feb. 2006.
2.       A Framework of Enhancing Image Steganography With Picture Quality Optimization and Anti-Steganalysis Based on Simulated Annealing Algorithm Guo-Shiang Lin, Yi-Ting Chang, and Wen-Nung Lie.

3.       Quantization-Based Image Steganography without Data Hiding Position Memorization Yusuke SEKI, Hiroyuki KOBAYASHI†, Masaaki FUJIYOSHI and Hitoshi KIYA Department of Electrical Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192–0397, Japan

4.       Blind Image Steganalysis Based on Statistical Analysis of Empirical Matrix Xiaochuan Chen1, Yunhong Wang2, Tieniu Tan1, Lei Guo11 National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences

5.       The JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard Gregory K. Wallace Multimedia Engineering Digital Equipment Corporation Maynard, Massachusetts Submitted in December 1991 for publication in IEEE        Transactions on Consumer Electronics

6.       Hudson, G.P. The development of photographic videotex in the UK. In Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, IEEE Communication Society, 1983, pp. 319-322

7.       Hudson, G.P.,Yasuda, H., and Sebestyén, I. The international standardization of a still picture compression technique. In Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, IEEE Communications Society, Nov. 1988, pp. 1016-1021

8.       Image and Video Compression for Multimedia Engineering: Fundamentals By Yun Q. Shi, Huifang Sun

9.       A Secure Steganography Method based on Genetic Algorithm Shen Wang, Bian Yang and Xiamu Niu School of Computer Science and Technology Harbin Institute of Technology 150080, Harbin, China

10.     Léger, A., Omachi, T., and Wallace, G. The JPEG still picture compression algorithm. In Optical Engineering, vol. 30, no. 7

11.     Blind Image Steganalysis Based on Statistical Analysis of Empirical Matrix Xiaochuan Chen1, Yunhong Wang2, Tieniu Tan1, Lei Guo11 National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences

12.     Huffman, D.A. A method for the construction of minimum redundancy codes. In Proceedings IRE, vol. 40, 1962, pp. 1098-1101.

13.     Léger, A., Omachi, T., and Wallace, G. The JPEG still picture compression algorithm. In Optical Engineering, vol. 30, no. 7 (July 1991), pp. 947-954.

14.     Structural, Syntactic, and Statistical Pattern Recognition: Joint IAPR edited by Niels da Vitoria Lobo, Takis Kasparis, Michael Georgiopoulos, Fabio Roli, James Kwok

15.     A survey of very large-scale neighborhood search Techniques Ravindra K. Ahuja Ozlem Ergun, James B. Orlin, Abraham P. Punnen

16.     Steganographic Techniques of Data Hiding using Digital Images Babloo Saha and Shuchi Sharma Institute for Systems Studies and Analyses, Delhi – 110 054, India

17.     Mean Squared Error: Love It or Leave It? By Zhou Wang and Alan C. Bovik


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35.

Authors:

Ravi Kumar, Santosh G. Taji, GVS Sastry

Paper Title:

Deployment of Scroll Compressor in an Air Conditioning System of an SUV

Abstract:    Most current Sports Utility Vehicles in India use fixed or variable displacement type piston compressors in air conditioning system which consumes a lot of power from engine. The AC compressor is the highest consumer of engine power among all the air conditioning system components. It is evident that any effort of reducing power consumption will not have fruitful result without reducing compressor power consumption. The conventional piston compressors are not only higher in weight, its volumetric efficiency is less too. The objective of this work is to derive analytical methodology to select a suitable Scroll Compressor without having any compromise on cooling performance of the vehicle and to articulate benefits by giving objective values for weight reduction, parasitic load reduction and above all fuel economy improvement of the vehicle. In cognizance of the Scroll technology, in the current work piston compressor has been replaced with an energy efficient Scroll compressor of an existing SUV vehicle to achieve weight reduction of 2 Kg, power consumption reduction up to 0.4 Kwatt which has resulted in fuel economy improvement by 0.5 Kmpl. Unlike previous works done on this topic the compressor selection procedure can be applied to all kinds of passenger vehicle to achieve similar objectives.

Keywords:
   Climate Control, Scroll Compressor, Piston Compressor.


References:

1.       S. Barbusse, L. Gagnepain, “Automobile Air-conditioning Its Energy and Environmental Impact”.
2.       M. Wang, M. J. Zima and P. S. Kadle, “Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning Systems Utilizing Pneumatic Variable Compressor”.

3.       M. Takeuchi, T. Ukai, H. Yamazaki, K. Watanabe, T. Moro , S. Mishima, “An Environmentally Friendly, Highly Efficient, Lightweight Scroll Compressor for Car Air Conditioners”.

4.       S. H. Kapoor, S. Paramane, G. Arora, “Application of Energy Efficient Scroll Compressor for Small Cars”.

5.       J. P. Elson, and S.W. Vehr “Horizontal Scroll Compressor for Transport Application”.

6.       “Automotive Air-Conditioning and Climate Control” by Steven Daly

7.       “Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning” Haynes Techbook.

8.       “Automotive Air-Conditioning Training Manual” Aria Zone

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36.


Authors:

Palagati Harish, K.Priya

Paper Title:

Survey on Intruder Detection from Surveillance Videos

Abstract:    Surveillance cameras are the main source to detect   malpractices, thefts, intruders in our daily life. These cameras records large volumes of data in video format. The data recorded by surveillance cameras are just stored and they are not processed. Several methods are introduced to track and extract the features from these videos to detect intruder. But, the detection will mismatch in crowded areas. Detection of human activity is complex in such areas. Semantic Content Mining (SCM) is proposed to extract the semantic content like objects and events from the video. This method is useful for the detection of human activity and his behavior. Construction of ontology provides spatial and temporal relations between different video frames. This provides the events or actions performed by intruders.

Keywords:
   Semantic content; Ontology; Human activity recognition; Spatial and Temporal Relations


References:

1.       Kanchan Gaikwad & Vaibhav Narawade, “The human activity detection from video surveillance based on HMM for Future Development in Computer Environment,” International Journal of Computer Science and Informatics (IJCSI) ISSN (PRINT): 2231 –5292, Vol-II, Iss-4, 2012
2.       B. Karasulu and S. Korukoglu, Performance Evaluation Software, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6534-8_2, © The Author(s) 2013.

3.       Hao Zhang and Lynne E. Parker, “4-Dimensional Local Spatio-Temporal Features for Human Activity Recognition,” Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Francisco, CA, 2011.

4.       Joo-heon Park, Youn-chul Shin, Jae-won Jeong, Myeong-jin Lee, ”Detection and Tracking of Intruding Objects based on Spatial and Temporal Relationship of Objects,” ISA 2013, ASTL Vol. 21, pp. 271 - 274, 2013 © SERSC 2013.

5.       Manya V. Afonso, Jacinto C. Nascimento and Jorge S. Marques, "Automatic Estimation of Multiple Motion Fields From Video Sequences Using a Region Matching Based Approach," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MULTIMEDIA, VOL. 16, NO. 1, JANUARY 2014

6.       Victor Escorcia and Juan Carlos Niebles, "Spatio-Temporal Human-Object Interactions for Action Recognition in Videos," funded by a Google Research Award. V.E. is supported by Colciencias Young Scientist and Innovator Fellowship. J.C.N. is supported by a Microsoft Research Faculty Fellowship.

7.       Neelam V. Puri 1 and Prof. P. R. Devale, " Development of Human Tracking in Video Surveillance System for Activity Analysis," IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSRJCE)ISSN: 2278-0661 Volume 4, Issue 2 (Sep.-Oct. 2012), PP 26-30

8.       A.R.Revathi and Dhananjay Kumar," A Survey of Activity Recognition and understanding the Behavior in video surveillance "

9.       Helly Patel, Mahesh P.` Wankhade,"Human Tracking in Video Surveillance," International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 1, Issue 2, December 2011)

10.     A. Vasanth Kumar, A. D. Saravanan and S. R. Vinotha,"  Human Activity Recognition Based on Spatial Transform in Video Surveillance" International Conference on Computational Techniques and Artificial Intelligence (ICCTAI'2011)


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37.

Authors:

Shyam K. Dabhi, Nilesh J. Parekh, Bindiya A. Parikh

Paper Title:

CFD Simulation and Analysis of Lubricating Oil for 4-Speed Automobile Gearbox

Abstract:    Gear box performance is dependent on viscosity of lubricant oil and due to the thermal effect of heat generated in side of an oil span of gear box. Thus if we change properties of an oil, the performance of gear box does change. The effect on gear box performance will be studied by CFD Analysis. The equations of fluid mechanics which have been known for over a century are solvable only for a limited no. of flows. The known solutions are extremely useful in understanding fluid flow but rarely used directly in engineering analysis or design. CFD makes it possible to evaluate velocity, pressure, temperature, and species concentration of fluid flow throughout a solution domain, allowing the design to be optimized prior to the prototype phase.

Keywords:
   Modelling, Ansys, HG(high grade oil), CO(Commercial oil).


References:

1.       Seetharaman, S., Kahraman, A., Bednarek, G. and Rosander, P., 2008, “A Model to Predict Mechanical Power Losses of Manual Transmissions,” Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift, April 2008, Issue4, pp. 346-357.
2.       Seetharaman, S., Kahraman, A., 2008,“Load Independent Spin Power Losses of a Spur Gear Pair: Model Formulation,” (in review) Journal of Tribology.

3.       Seetharaman, S., Kahraman, A., Moorhead, M. D., and Petri-Johnson, T. T., 2008, “Load Independent Spin Power Losses of a Spur Gear Pair: Experiments and
Model Validation,” (in review) Journal of Tribology.

4.       Martin, K. F., 1978, “A Review of Friction Predictions in Gear Teeth,” Wear, 49, pp. 201-238.

5.       Yada, T., 1997, “Review of Gear Efficiency Equation and Force Treatment,” JSME Int. J., Ser. C, 40, pp. 1-8.

6.       Li, Y., and Seireg, A. A., “Predicting the Coefficient of Friction in Sliding-Rolling Contacts,” Tribology Conference, K18

7.       Heingartner, P, and Mba, D., 2003, “Determining Power Losses in the Helical Gear Mesh,” Gear Technology, September/October 2005, pp. 32-37.
8.       Prakash D. Patel, “An Experimental investigation of power losses in manual transmission gear box. IJARME ISSN: 2231 –5950, Volume-2, Issue-1, 2012


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38.

Authors:

P.K Sharma, Nilesh J. Parekh, Darshit Nayak

Paper Title:

Optimization and Stress Analysis of Chassis in TATA Turbo Truck SE1613

Abstract:    Truck chassis forms the structural backbone of a commercial vehicle. The main function of the truck chassis is to support the components and load that mounted on it. The chassis is experienced a stress whether when it is moving or in a static condition. This thesis presents an analysis of the static stress that acting on the upper surface of the truck chassis. These projects study the distributions of the stress that acting on the chassis. Critical parts that will lead to failure are also observed. The method used in this numerical analysis is finite element analysis (FEA). Finite element analysis helps in accelerating design and development process by minimizing number of physical tests, thereby reducing the cost and time for analysis. 3-D model of the truck chassis is made using ProE before analyzed. Modal updating of truck chassis model is prepared adjusting the selective properties such as mass density and Poisson’s ratio. Numerical results showed that critical part was at the mounting bracket of the tire and also at the front part of the chassis.

Keywords:
   Modelling, ansys, chassis, frame work.


References:

1. “STRESS ANALYSIS OF HEAVY DUTY TRUCK CHASSIS AS A PRELIMINARY DATA FOR ITS FATIGUE LIFE PREDICTION USING FEM” Roslan Abd Rahman, Mohd Nasir Tamin, Ojo Kurdi* Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008, No. 26, 76 – 85
2.        “APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC CORRELATION TECHNIQUE AND MODEL UPDATING ON TRUCK CHASSIS” Izzuddin bin Zaman @ Bujang* , Roslan Abd. Rahman+

3.        “STRUCTURAL DURABILITY OF FORGED AUTOMOTIVE ALUMINIUM CHASSIS COMPONENTS SUBMITTED TO SPECTRUM LOADING AND SALT-CORROSION BY THEEXAMPLE OF A TENSION STRUT” N. Hägele a, c.m. Sonsino ba*

4.        “USE OF FINITE ELEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES” R. Ali University of Technology, Loughborough, Leicestershire LEII 3TU, U.K.

5.        “STRESS ANALYSIS OF TRACTOR TRAILER CHASSIS FOR SELF WEIGHT REDUCTION” N.K.Ingole N.K.Ingole et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

6.        Pro-E Software

7.        Ansys 12.V.1.1

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39.

Authors:

Rency Roy, Priyanka K, Soumya Sunny

Paper Title:

Modelling of Capacitively Smoothed Dual-Output Resonant Converter

Abstract:    Modelling of dual-output dc-dc resonant power converter is analysed in this paper. Application of the technique, and the benefits afforded by the  modelling methodologies, are demonstrated through the analysis of a capacitively smoothed dual-output converter.

Keywords:
   DC power supply, dual-output, resonant converter, state- space modelling.


References:

1.        Y. Xi and P. K. Jain, “A forward converter topology with independently and precisely regulated multiple outputs,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 648–658, Mar. 2003.
2.        S. Pan and P. K. Jain, “A precisely-regulated multiple output forward converter with automatic master-slave control,”in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 2005, pp. 969–975.

3.        Ferreres, J. A. Carrasco, E. Maset, and J. B. Ejea, “Small-signal   modeling of a controlled transformer parallel regulator as multiple output converter high efficiency post-regulator,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 183–191, Jan. 2004.

4.        S. C. Wong and C. K. Tse, “Application of novel D2T control to single switch two-output switching power converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 870–876, Jul. 2005.

5.        J. M. Burd´ıo, F. Monterde, J. R. Garc´ıa, L. A. Barrag´an, and A. Mart´ınez, “A two-output series-resonant inverter for induction-heating cooking appliances,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 815–822, Jul.2005.

6.        I. Batarseh, C. Q. Lee, and A. K. Upadhyay, “Multi-output LLCC-type parallel resonant converter,” in Proc. 16th Annu. Conf. IEEE Ind. Electron.Soc., Nov. 1990, vol.
2, pp. 850–856.

7.        R. Liu, C. Q. Lee, and A. K. Upadhyay, “A multioutput LLC-type parallel resonant converter,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 28, no. 3,pp. 697–707, Jul. 1992.


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40.

Authors:

Chinnu P Ravi, J Jency Joseph

Paper Title:

A Novel High Performance Flyback CCM Inverter Scheme for AC Module Application

Abstract:    In a Grid Connected Photo-voltaic System maximum power is to be drawn from the PV array and has to be given to the Grid using suitable maximum power point tracking algorithms, converter topologies and control algorithms. Usually converter topologies such as buck, boost, buck-boost, sepic, flyback, push pull etc are used. In Flyback converter the source and load side are separated via a capacitor thus energy transfer from the source side to load side occurs through this capacitor which leads to less current ripples at the load side. Thus in this paper, a Simulink model PV panel with  Flyback converter is being designed, simulated and for tracking the maximum power point the most common and accurate method called incremental conductance algorithm is used and the inverter control is done.

Keywords:
   Photovoltaic, Flyback Converter, Maximum power point tracking, Incremental conductance algorithm.


References:

1.        A.Pradeep Kumar Yadav, S.Thirumaliah, G.Haritha(2012) “Comparison of MPPT Algorithms for DC-DC Converters Based PV Systems,” international journal of advanced research in electrical, electronics and instrumentation engineering Vol. 1, issue 1, July 2012
2.        A. C. Kyritsis, E. C. Tatakis, and N. P. Papanikolaou, “Optimum    design of the current-source flyback inverter for decentralized grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 23, no. 1,pp. 281–293, Mar. 2008.

3.        Pandiarajan and Ranganath Muthu (2011) “Mathematical Modeling of Photovoltaic Module with Simulink” In International Conference on Electrical Energy Systems.

4.        M S Syam, T.Sreejith Kailas,(2013) “Grid Connected PV System using Cuk Converter,” International Conference on Microelectronics, Communication and Renewable Energy (ICMiCR-2013).

5.        Yanlin Li, Ramesh Oruganti, (2012) “A Low Cost Flyback CCM Inverter for AC Module Application,” ieee transactions on power electronics, vol. 27, no. 3, march 2012.

6.        Araujo S. V., Zacharias P., And Sahan B. (2008) “Novel Grid-Connected No isolated Converters for Photovoltaic Systems with Grounded Generator,” In Proc.IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (Pesc), Pp. 58–65.

7.        Ji Y.-H, Jung D.Y, Kim J.H, Won C.-Y., And Oh D.-S.,(2010) “Dual Mode Switching Strategy Of Flyback Inverter For Photovoltaic Ac Modules,” In Proc. Int. Power Electron. Conf. (Ipec), Pp. 2924–2929.

8.        Kerekes T., Teodorescu R., And Borup U. (2007) “Transformerless Photovoltaic Inverters Connected To The Grid,” In Proc. 22nd Annu. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. (Apec), Pp. 1733–1737.

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41.

Authors:

Deo Raj Tiwari, Gopal P. Sinha

Paper Title:

Performance and Emission Study of LPG Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Abstract:    This paper presents observations, results and their analysis with respect to the experiments conduced on fuel mix used in a set up on CI engine. LPG air mixes have been used in the air intake manifold at different concentration level while the diesel injection through injector at the end of compression stroke has remained undisturbed at the original level. The experiments were conducted at different loads. The objective of the study has been to minimize the pollutant emission. Observations were also taken for the impact on thermal effiencey and the power developed. Results have shown an all round favourable impact of LPG injection.Further; prospects of optimisation have been indicated on which the experiments have been initiated. The results, analyses and recommendation will be reported in our next paper.

Keywords:
   LPG, Performance, Emission, Combustion, Pollution


References:

1.       P. Vijayabalan and G. Nagarajan, “Performance, Emission and Combustion of LPG diesel dual fuel engine using glow plug”, Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2009.
2.       G.A. Rao, A.V.S. Raju, K. Govinda Rajulu and C.V. Mohan Rao, “Performance Evaluation of a Dual Fuel Engine (LPG+Diesel)”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 3, March 2010.

3.       M.P. Poonia, A. Bhardwaj, A.S. Jethoo and U. Pandel, “Experimental Investigations on Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions in an LPG Diesel Dual Fuel Engine”,  International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol: 2, No. 6, December 2011

4.       Emad  elnajjar, Mohamed Y.E. Selim and Farag Omar, “Comparison Study Of Dual Fuel Engine Performance And Overall Generated Noise Under Different Dual Fuel Types And Engine Parameters”, International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 11 No. 03, June 2011.


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42.

Authors:

R. Vaira Vignesh, G. Gnana Kumar

Paper Title:

Synthesis of Hybrid Black Toner from Waste Toner Using Nano Technology – Optimization Technique

Abstract:   The toner is used in photocopiers to form the latent electrical image on the drum. The paper picks up the toner particles (image), when it slides over the drum. Approximately 10% of toner particles are left over the drum due to specific factors. This left out toner is cleaned by the unit to ensure the copy quality of the proceeding copies. This left out toner is called as waste toner and is collected in cleaner sump. If this waste toner is used in the photocopiers, the quality of the copier is reduced. The waste toner is mixed in proportion with Carbon Black Nano powder and original toner to get Hybrid Carbon Black Toner. The original toner is the toner prescribed for the photocopier by the manufacturer. By implementation of this technique, the cost of photocopy can be reduced and the quality of the photocopy can be increased.

Keywords:
   Original toner, Waste toner, Carbon Black Nano powder, Hybrid Black Toner


References:

1.       Adhesion of Photo Electrographic Toner on Paper* – Hartus. T - Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Automation and System Technology, Laboratory of Media Technology, Finland. *Paper presented in Finnish Chemical Congress, Kemia 2001, Helsinki
2.       Particle Emission Characteristics of Office Printers CONGRONGHE, LENTAPLIN, LENTAPLIN – International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health  – Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane  QLD 4001, Australia and Queensland Department of Public works, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia.

3.       Hazards of Toner particles, By Siobhan Egan

4.       US Research Nano materials, Inc – Source for the properties of nano phased chromium oxide

5.       Nakamura Y, Kutsuwada N, (October 1-5, 1989). “Direct measurement of toner particle size”. Industry Applications Annual meeting, 1989. IEEE XPLORE pp.2239-2242

6.       “Photocopier and Laser Printer Hazards”. London Hazards Centre. 2002.

7.       “Electro Photographic Toner with Magnetic Particle additive” US Patent Number: 5641601 – Shiumitum, Kazllhlro, Nakazawa etal, Japan

8.       7120380 Electrostatographic apparatus having transport member with oil – absorbing layer; Inventor: Ferrar, et al. Filed: October 14, 2004.

9.       List of printers that do not display tracking dots http://www.eff.org/Privacy/printers/list.php

10.     Kittelberger, Steve and Sacripante, Guerino, "Easily deinkable toner: A solution to the deinking problem for small mills". Pulp & Paper Canada. 104:5, (2003) p.37.

11.     Material Safety Data Sheet – EP L Toner Cartridge; ST9152 MICR Toner Cartridge

12.     SEM and EDAX analysis are made in Karunya University, Coimbatore.


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43.

Authors:

Haris P. A, Sen Jose

Paper Title:

Implementation of Selected Mapping and Clipping for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Communication Systems

Abstract:   In the recent times, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been under intense research for broadband wireless transmission due to its robustness against multi-path fading. In this paper, a joint selected mapping and clipping method is proposed to reduce the peak-to-average ratio of OFDM signal. Here cyclically shifted mapping data is used to generate a set of data blocks which represent the original information. This will increase the data rate when compared with the conventional SLM technique. Then clipping operation has done to reduce the PAPR further. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme may obtain significant PAPR reduction while maintaining good performance in the BER compared to other methods.

Keywords:
   (OFDM), SLM, PAPR, BER.


References:

1.        R. V. Nee and R. Prasad, “Ofdm wireless multimedia communications artech house,” 2000.
2.        S. H. Han and J. H. Lee, “An overview of peak-to-average power ratio reduction techniques for multicarrier transmission,” IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 56–65, 2005.

3.        Di xiao Wu, “Selected mapping and partial transmit sequence schemes to reduce papr in ofdm systems,” International Conference on Image Analysis and Signal Processing (IASP), pp. 1–5, 2011.

4.        N.V. Irukulapati, V.K. Chakka, and A. Jain, “Slm based papr reduction of ofdm signal using new phase sequence,” Electronics Letters, vol. 45, no. 24, pp. 1231–1232, 2009.

5.        Reena Chackochan and Dr. Himanshu Soni, “Peak to average power ratio (papr) reduction in ofdm for a wlan network using slm technique,” International Conference on Electronics Computer Technology (ICECT), vol. 3, pp. 57–59, 2011.

6.        Xiaowen Gu, Seungmin Baek, and Suwon Park, “Papr reduction of ofdm signal using an efficient slm technique,” The 12th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), vol. 1, no. 24, pp. 324–328, 2010.

7.        Gwo-Ruey Lee, Chia-Hsin Cheng, and Ho-Lung Hung, “Selected mapping applied scheme for papr reduction in ofdm communication systems,” Sixth International Conference on Networked Computing and Advanced Information Management (NCM), pp. 752–755, 2010.

8.        Wen-Xiang Lin, Jia-Chin Lin, and Yu-Ting Sun, “Modified selective mapping technique for papr reduction in ofdm systems,” 12th International Conference on ITS Telecommunications (ITST), pp. 764–768, 2012.

9.        Y.-C.Wang and Z.-Q. Luo, “Optimized iterative clipping and filtering for papr reduction of ofdm signals,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 59, no. 1, 2011.

10.     L. Wang and C. Tellambura, “A simplified clipping and filtering technique for par reduction in ofdm systems,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 453–456, 2005.
11. J. Armstrong, “Peak-to-average power reduction for ofdm by repeated clipping and frequency domain filtering,” Electron. Lett, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 246–247, 2002.


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44.

Authors:

Negin Keshavarznia

Paper Title:

Physical Impacts of Second Home Development on Damash Village in Gilan Province, Iran

Abstract:    One of the most important issues which have received particular attention from geographers is examining the effects of spending times on taking vacation and tourism. This issue has led to development of second homes in rural and urban areas. Emphasizing the physical effects of second home expansion, this research is aimed at studying the impact of such holiday homes on rural areas of Damash Village in Gilan Province, Iran. Present applied study was conducted based on descriptive- analytical methodology; also, the required data were gathered through two questionnaires, one designed for rural people (170 families) and the other for nonnative owners of second homes (60 families). The findings showed that second home development had by far much more negative impacts on rural communities were than the positive ones.

Keywords:
   physical Impact, Second home, Damash, Gilan,


References:

1.       M. R. Rezavani . The analysis of formation and development of second homes in Tehran rural areas, Researches in Geography, 2003 45, 56-69.
2.       P. Fesharaki. Rural geography. Tehran: Azad University Publication Center.1994.

3.       F. N. Aligholizadeh. Tourism impacts on rural areas (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. 2008.

4.       G. H. Rostami, & L. Ramazanzadeh. Tourism and development. Noor Elm Publication Ind. 2011.

5.       May V Tourism, environment and development: Values, sustainability and stewardship, Tourism Management, Volume 12, Issue 2, June 1991, Pages 112-118.

6.       D. Fennel. Ecotourism an introduction, Rutledge, London. 1999.

7.       R. J. Johnston. Dictionary of Human Geography. Second Edition. Oxford: Blackwell.1988.

8.       Z. Ghaderi. Principles of sustainable development planning in rural areas. Tehran: The Organization for Iranian Municipalities. 2004.

9.       Z. Salehinasab. Tourism of second homes and their impacts on rural areas (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. 2005.

10.     S. Benjamin & Weagraff. The Contribution of Second Homes to Rural Economies. A thesis in Agricultural, Environmental, and Regional Economics Master of Science the Pennsylvania State University. 2004.


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45.

Authors:

A. El Abbassi, A. El Amrani

Paper Title:

Conceptualization and Simulation of an Error Detection and Correction Code for Baseband Data Transmission

Abstract:   The purpose of channel coding is to protect emitted information against perturbations (noise) in the transmission channel, which may alter the contents of the information. This consists of adding redundancies to the signal in order to detect and eventually correct reception errors. In this study, we present a detection and correction code dedicated to baseband transmission. Along this line, we implant a code in a microcontroller circuit both at the emission and reception ends. A coded message is then sent via a simulated chain of transmission and received with an accumulated error. The error is detected and automatically corrected.

Keywords:
   Channel code, redundancy, microcontroller.


References:

1.        F. A. B. Edoukou. “Codes correcteurs d’erreurs définies à partir des variétés algébriques’’, PhD  Thesis, Université  de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France, 2007.
2.        A. Spataru, “Fondements de la théorie de la transmission de l’Information’’, Ed.  Presses Polytechniques Romandes, 1987.

3.        Shu Lin, Daniel J. Castello, Jr. “Error control coding: Fundamentals and Applications’’, Prentice-Hall Serie in Computer Applications in Electrical Engineering, 1983.

4.        F. Montero, A. Dandache, A. M’Sir and B. Leply, “A fast CRC implementation on FPGA using piplined architecture for the polynomial division” 8th ICECS, St Julian, Malta, 2001.

5.        Pierre Ccillag, “Introduction aux codes correcteurs’’, Edition Marketing, 1990.

6.        V. Capellini, “Data compression and Error control Techniques with Applications’’, Edition Academic press, Ed.Academic Press, 1985.

7.        A. J. Viterbi “Error bounds for convolutional codes and asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm”,  IEEE Trans. On Inf. Theory, IT-13, 260-269, April 1967.

8.        E. R. Berlkamp, R. E. Peile and S. P. Pope, “The Application of Error Control to Communication”, IEEE commun. Mag., vol. 25, pp. 44-57,  1987.

9.        M. K. Simon and J. G. Smith, “ Alternate Symbol inversion for improved symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded system”, IEEE Trans. Commun., COM-28, 1980.

10.     J. G. WADE,  “Codage et Traitement du Signal, L’exemple des systèmes Vidéo Numériques’’,  Ed. Masson, 1991.

11.     G. Ungerboeck,  and I. Csajka, “ On improving data link performance by increasing the channel alphabet and introducing sequence coding”, IEEE Int. Symp.  On Inf. Theory, Ronneby, Sweeden, 1976.

12.     D. Divsalar and F. Pollara, “On the design of Turbo codes”, JPL TDA Progress Report 42-123, Pasadena, California, pp. 99-121, 1995.

13.     G. D. Forney, “Concatenated Codes”, MA: MIT Press, Cambridge, 1966.

14.     C. Berrou, A. Glavieux, R. Pyndiah, “Turbo-codes : Principes et Applications“, GRETSI’95, Juan-les-pins, France, 1995.

15.     S. A. Barbulescu, R. Chang and S. Yaghmour, “Turbo codec-QPSK modem for INTELSAT digital Services “, The 2nd Int. Symp. On Turbo Codes, Brest, France, pp.
487-490, 2000.


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46.

Authors:

Osama Z. El-Abdien, Yassien M. Temerk, Ibrahim D. Abdullah, Sherif T. Amin

Paper Title:

Design and Evaluation of a Full Control Program for Sucrose Crystallization Based on Soft Sensor Approach

Abstract:    The well-controlled sugar crystallization process is a success key for all sugar production industries to achieve maximum production rate and minimum cost so this work aims to crystallization control improvement.Solubility and supersaturation coefficient curves of pure sucrose and technical sugar solution achieved using sugar solubility values of both Vavrinecz and Bubnik through this the feed control parameters (e.g. seed brix, end boiling brix) concluded by mathematical formulas. Setting up an integrated controlling program with using other formulas that control liquor feed and crystallization rates based on the required sugar quality and batch time. Another mathematical model for online calculation of crystal content, supersaturation, crystal size, mother liquor purity, and evaporation rate incorporated. The main advantages are the auto scientific selection of all crystallization parameters needed for controlling feed rate based on safe limits of supersaturation and achievement the required batch time and sugar quality. Further it monitors all strike’s parameters e.g. sugar and massecuite quantity, level, brix and purity, syrup brix and purity, supersaturation, crystal content, crystal size, evaporated water quantity,…etc. followed by correction any deviation in the superstauration or crystallization rat. Overview of crystallization theoretically done by the program for both refined and recovery sugars at the United Sugar’s refinery and the findings from simulation were presented and next stage is the practical implementation.

Keywords:
   Crystallization control, crystallization parameters, online monitoring of crystallization parameters, soft sensor approach, supersaturation control.


References:

1.       Rozsa.L. (2003) Sensor selection: Still an issue in sugar crystallization control. Prod. Philippine Sugar Technologist's Convention, Bacolod City, Philippines.
2.       Charles D.F. (1960): Solubility of pure sucrose in water. Int. sugar i.62, 126-131.       

3.       Van der poel P.W.: Schiweck H.: Schwartz T. (1998): Sugar Technology. Verlage.Dr.A. Bartens, Berlin.

4.       Vavrinecz, G. (1978/79): Sugar Technol. Rev.6.117-129.

5.       Chou C.C. and Chen, J.C.P. (1993) editors, Cane Sugar Handbook, 12th edition, John Wiley and Sons Y.

6.       Honig, P., Alewin, P.F. (1959) in: Honig, P. (Ed.): Principals of sugar technology. Vol.2. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 352-364 ICMSA (1998): ICUMSA Methods Books. Supplement. ICUMSA Publications Dep., Norwich.

7.       Madsen, R.F.; MΦller, G.R. (1978): Sugar J.41, No.6 (Nov.), 11-16 Rafrord, D.J.; Tayfield, D.J., Cox, M.G.S. (1978): Int. Sugar J.91.52-59.

8.       ALLISON S. CHANG (1964): Mathematical Approach to Determine Vacuum Pan Boiling Time for Full Seeding Method using Milled Fondant.

9.       D. J. RADFORD and M.G. S. COX (1986): THE USE OF ELECTERIC PROPERTIES MEASURED AT RADIO FREQUANCIES FOR PAN BOILING & BIX CONTROL.
Tongaat-

10.     Hulett Sugar Limited.

11.     Jan Michal, Milos Kminek. and Pave1 Kminek (1993): Expert Control of Vacuum Pan  Crystallization.

12.     Rozsa L. (1998) The Seed Master device for on-line supersaturation measurement and Automatic crystallizer seeding Int. Sugar Journal, 100 (1200), pp.601-607.

13.     P .Lauret, H. Boyer and J. C. Gatina (2000): Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process Laboratoire de Génie Industriel, Faculte des Sciences, Université de La Réunion, 15 Avenue René Cassin- BP 71515 S.

14.     Vu, T. T. L. and Schneider, P. A. (2000): Operability Analysis of an Industerial Crystallizer - An Optimal Control Approach, CHEMECA Proceeding 2000.

15.     Vu, T. T. L. and Schneider, P.A.(2001): Controllability Analysis of an Industrial Crystalliser, Proceedings of the 6th World Congress in Engineering, Melbourne, September 2001.

16.     Michael Sasks: Boiling point elevation of technical sugarcane solutions and its use in Automatic pan boiling, International Sugar Journal, 2002, 104, 1247, pp 500-507.

17.     Schneider, P.A. (2003): Evaluation of an alternative vacuum pan control Scheme, Proceeding of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, Vol. 25.

18.     Pawan Kapur, VL Patil, GK Gautam, and GN Acharya (2003): Microprocessor-based Vacuum pan monitoring system for sugar crystallization, Centeral Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, Rejasthan 333031,India.

19.     P. Georgievaa, M.J. Meirelesb, S. Feyo de Azevedoa (2003): Knowledge-based hybrid modeling of a batch crystallisation when accounting for nucleation growth
and agglomeration phenomena, Chemical Engineering Science, 58, 3699-3712.

20.     A. Simoglou, P. Georgieva, E. B. Martin, A. J. Morris, S. Feyo de Azevedo (2005): On-line  monitoring of a sugar crystallization process, Computer and Chemical
Engineering, 29,1411-1422.

21.     Jianiun Su, Yanmei Meng, Huaqiang Qin and Xu Kai (2006): Research of parameter Monitoring System in Sugar Boiling Process, IFIP International Federation for Parameter Processing, 2006, volume 207/2006, 582-590, DOI: 10.1007/0-387-34403-9_80.

22.     Vytautas Galvanauskas, Petia Georigieva and Sebastião Feyo de Azevedo (2006): Dynamic Optimisation of Industrial Sugar Crystallization Process based on a hybrid   (mechanistic+ANN) Model, 2006 International Joint Conference on Networks, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

23.     I. D. Mironescu, Vionela Mironescu (2006): IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR CRYSTTALIZATION PROCESS CONTROL, Journal of Agroalimentary Process and Technologies,Volume XII,  No. 1, 7-12.

24.     P. Georgieva and S. Feyo de Azevdo (2007): Neural Network-Based Control Strategies Applied to a Fed-Batch Crystallization Process, International Journal of Computational  Intelligence 3; 3.

25.     Audley B. Darmand, Romaindra S. Mohabir, and Victor H. Watt (2007): Supersaturation for crystallization process control optimization of raw cane sugar at Worthy Park Estate, ASM     '07 The 16th IASTED International Conference On Applied Simulation And Modelling,  ACTA Press Anaheim CA, USA, 2007.

26.     Rozsa, L. (2008) Sugar crystallization: Look for the devil in the details-Part 2, Int. Sugar J, 110 (1320), pp. 729-739.

27.     Cédric Damour, Michel Benne, Brigitte Grondin-Perez, and Jean-Pierre Chabriat (2009): Model based Soft-Sensor for industrial Crystallization, On-line Mass of Crystals and  Solubility Measurement, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 54.

28.     Xiaofeng Lin, Heg Zhang and Li Wei (2009): Optimal Control for Industrial Sucrose Crystallization with Action Dependent Heuristic dynamic Programming, I.J. Image, Graphics and Signal Processing, 1, 33-40.

29.     Bubnik, Z.; Kadlec, P.; Urban, D.; Bruhns, M (1995): Sugar Technologists Manual. Dr. Albert Bartens, Berlin, 207-225.


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47.

Authors:

J. Lydia Jeba, R. Nandhini

Paper Title:

A Novel Approach Of MPAC Model For Online Social Network

Abstract:    Online Social Networks (OSNs) have increased and become a concerning fact for billions of internet users like Facebook, Twitter, My space, etc. In OSNs the shared data are restricted by the user and currently for the  multiple users they do not provide any mechanism. To overcome this issue we propose a model for the multiple users of shared data in OSNs. For multiparty authorization, policy specification scheme and policy enforcement mechanism we formulate an access control model to capture the essence of multiparty.

Keywords:
   Multiparty access control, Authorization, Policy  specification and Management.


References:

1.       J. Choi, W. De Neve, K. Plataniotis, and Y. Rio. Collaborative face recognition for improved face annotation in personal photo collections shared on online social networks. Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on, 13(1):14–28, 2011.
2.       P. Fong. Relationship-based access control: Protection model and policy language. In Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Data and application security and privacy, pages 191–202. ACM, 2011.

3.       B. Qureshi, G. Min, and D. Kouvatsos. Collusion detection and prevention with fire+ trust and reputation model. In Computer and Information Technology (CIT), 2010 IEEE 10th International Conference on, pages 2548–2555. IEEE, 2010.

4.       G. Ahn, H. Hu, J. Lee, and Y. Meng. Representing and reasoning about web access control policies. At Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), 2010 IEEE 34th Annual, pages 137–146. IEEE, 2010.

5.       G. Wondracek, T. Holz, E. Kirda, and C. Kruegel. A practical attack to  die anonymous social network users. In 2010 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pages 223–238. IEEE, 2010.

6.       Ch. Aruna, G. Mine, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) Vol. 3, Issue. 5, Sep - Oct. 2013 pp-2808-2812.

7.       A. k. Rachel Praveena, B. Dr. S. Durga Bhavani,C.k.Suresh Babu,International journal of computer science & Network Solutions December.2013-Volume 1. No4  ISSN 2345-3397.


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48.

Authors:

Clustering Data Objects Using Collective Fuzzy C-means Algorithm

Paper Title:

A.Nellai Archana, K.Mohana Prasad

Abstract:    Clustering is a collection of objects which are similar between them and dissimilar to the objects. Three steps to form cluster is to initialize data, select data randomly and use distance metrics to form optimal solution. In this paper fuzzy c-means algorithm is proposed. It is a kind of partitional clustering algorithm because it partition the data sets into several subsets. It allows one part of data in which it belong to two or more cluster. Data sets are taken as input value. There are many data sets so randomly select the variables to form the cluster group. It gives more efficient and effective clustering.

Keywords:
   Clustering, Collective fuzzy c-means, K-harmonic means


References:

1.       K.Thangavel and N.Karthikeyani Visalakshi ,”Ensemble based Distributed k-Harmonic Means Clustering “ International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol  2 , No. 1 , November (2009)
2.       Zhou, H., &Lin, Y.H(2008). “Accurate integration of multi-view range images using k-means clustering” Pattern Recognition, 41(1), 152-175

3.       Cui, X.,&Potok, T.k “ Document Clustering using Particle Swarm Optimization “, In IEEE swarm intelligence symposium Pasadena, California(2005)

4.       Jyothi Bankapali et al/International Journel on Computer Science and Engineering(IJCSE) , “Combining K-harmonic mean and hierarchical algorithm for robust and
efficient data clustering with cohesion self-merging” ISSN:0975-3397, Vol3. No 6 June(2011)

5.       Huiqin Chen, Sheng Li and Zheng Tang,”Hybrid Gravitational Search Algorithm with Random-key Encoding Scheme Combined with Simulated Annealing”IJCSNS International Journel of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.!! No.6,June2011

6.       Esmat Rashedi, Hossein Nezambadi-pour,Saeid Saryazdi, “A Gravitational Search Algorithm”, Information Sciences 179(2009)

7.       Mohammad Doraghinejad,Mailhe maghfoori, Hossein Nezambadi-pour,”A Hybrid Algorithm Based on Gravitational Search Algorithm for Unimodal Optimization”, Shahid Bahonor University of Kerman,Iran(2012)

8.       Unler, A., & Gungor, Z(2008), Applying K-harmonic means clustering to the part-machine classification problem. Expert Systems with Applications, doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2007.11.048

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49.

Authors:

M.Nandhini, K.Mohana Prasad

Paper Title:

An Effective Method for Clustering Using an Algorithm Stimulated By the Decision Making Processes of Bee Swarms

Abstract:    Cluster is the task of grouping a set of objects into a different cluster. Objects in a cluster are more similar when compared with those object in the other in the cluster in some sense or the other Applications of clustering in biomedical research include gene expression data analysis, genomic sequence analysis, biomedical document mining and MRI image analysis . In data mining, clustering is used for scalability, interpretability and usability, insensitive to order of input records and high dimensionality. In this paper we proposed Correlative Artificial Colony where we consider more relationship between the employ bees and onlookers and extend the exploitation capacity of the ABC algorithm. The result shows that the proposed algorithm reduces computation time, increases the exploitation ability of ABC and produces a good solution in a limited amount of time.

Keywords:
   artificial bee colony,clustering,correlative artificial bee colony .


References:

1.       M. Divyavani and T.Amudha “Comparing the Clustering Efficiency of ACO and K-Harmonic Means Techniques”International Journal of Computer Science, Engineering and Applications (IJCSEA) Vol.1, No.4, August 2011.
2.       Sumit Vashishta, Dr. Yogendra Kumar Jain ,”Efficient Retrieval of Text for Biomedical Domain using Data Mining Algorithm”(IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2011

3.       Salima Ouadfel ,Mohamed Batouche and Abdlemalik Ahmed ,“Automatic image clustering using a swarm intelligence approach”,IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues,Vol.8,Issue 5,No 3,September2011.

4.       Tianwu Zhang, Hongshan Qu,“An Improved Clustering Algorithm”,Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Computer Science and Computational Technology(ISCSCT ’10) August 2010 pp. 112-115

5.       Hesam Izakiana,, Ajith Abrahamb “Fuzzy C-means and fuzzy swarm for fuzzy clustering problem”Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 1835–1838

6.       Mohammad Ali Shafia1 a, Mohammad Rahimi Moghaddam1, Rozita Tavakolian, “A Hybrid Algorithm for Data Clustering Using Honey Bee Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and K-Means Method ” Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Technology Research 1 (2011) 110-125


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50.

Authors:

V. Selvan, R. Sundararajan

Paper Title:

Experimental Study of Torsional Reinforcement in R.C. Slab with Four Edges Discontinuous

Abstract:    The twisting moments can become significant at points along the slab diagonals and the variation of principal moments is along and across a diagonal of simply supported and uniformly loaded square slab of homogeneous material, as obtained from an elastic analysis. If downward reactions cannot be developed at the supports, the corners will be lifted up. By providing torsion reinforcement, corners are usually prevented from being lifted up. In such cases the corners have to be suitably reinforced at top and also at bottom otherwise cracks are liable to be formed at the corners. The present investigation is intended to study the influence of torsion reinforcement in reinforced concrete slab with end condition all ends discontinuous under uniformly distributed load.  Slabs with torsion reinforcement varying from 20% to 35% were casted and tested. Increasing in the torsion reinforcement controls the deflection of the slab element. As the torsion reinforcement increases the corners are being held down. At the maximum of 35% of main reinforcement was provided as torsion reinforcement corners are not held down completely and there is a considerable decrease in central deflection also.

Keywords:
   Torsion reinforcement, central deflection, Slabs.


References:

1.       Abdel Wahid., and Prabhakara Bhatt., “Tests on reinforced concrete slabs designed by direct design procedure”, ACI journal, November- December 1986, pp 916-923
2.       ACI Committee 435, “State-of-the-Art Report on Control of Two-way Slab Deflections”, ACI Structural Journal, V.88, No.4, July-august 1991, pp 501-514.

3.       A.G. Aghayere and J.G. Macgregor, “Analysis of Concrete Plates under combined in-Plane and Transverse Loads” ACI Structural Journal, September-October 1990, pp 539-547

4.       David P.Thompson., and Andrew Scanlon., “Minimum Thickness Requirements for control of Two-way slab deflections”, ACI- Structural Journal, Jan-Feb 1988,

5.       R.I.Gilbert and X.H.Guo., “Time-dependent deflection and deformation of reinforced concrete flat slabs- an experimental study”, ACI structural journal, V.102, No
3 May-June 2005, pp 363-373.

6.       Gene Alan Metz., “Flexural failure tests of reinforced concrete slabs”, Proceedings, ACI, January 1965, 105-114

7.       M. Holmes, “ Upper and lower bound solutions to the collapse of a continuous slab under uniform load” Magazine of concrete research, V 16, No 47, June 1964, pp 39-44.

8.       IS a 456:2000 ‘code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete’ Bureau of Indian standard, New Delhi, 2000.

9.       V.Kumar., B.D.Nautiyal., and R.K.Choudhary., “ Yield line analysis of two-way reinforced concrete slab with coraner opening- part II: Design tables and application”, Journal of Structural Engineering ( Madras)”, Vol 31, No 3, October-December 2004, pp.197-206

10.     S.S.J.Moy., and B.Mayfield., “Load – deflection characteristic of rectangular reinforced concrete slabs”, Magazine of concrete research, V 24 No 81 , December 1972, pp209-219

11.     H.Marzouk., and Hussein., “Experimental investigation on the behaviour of high-strength concrete slabs”, ACI structural journal V 88, No 6, November-December 1991, pp 701-713

12.     O.O. Olufumi and K.L. Cheung, K.M.A. Hossain, “Limit Load Equations for Partially Restrained RC Slabs”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics Vol. 19, No.1, 2002, pp 1-20.

13.     R.Park, “ The behavior strength and long term behavior of uniformly loaded, two-way concrete slabs  with partial lateral restrained at all edges”, Magazine of concrete research, V 16, No 48, September1964, pp 139-152.

14.     Philippe Menetrey, “Relationship between Flexural and Punching Failure”, ACI Structural Journal, V.95. No.4, July-August 1998, pp 412-419.

15.     B.C.Punmia., “Reinforced Concrete Structures”.

16.     Robert Park, “Ultimate strength of rectangular concrete slabs under short term loading with edges restrained against lateral movement”, paper no 6705, proceedings, ACI, 1964, pp 125-150

17.     Sidney H Simmonds., and Amin Ghali., “Yield line design of slabs”, Journal of structural division, ASCE, V 102, No ST1, January 1976, pp.109-123

18.     Seong-Tae YI, Jang-Ho Jay Kim, and Jin-Keun Kim, “Effect of Specimen sizes on ACI Rectangular Stress Block for Concrete Flexural Members” ACI Structural Journal, V.99, No.5, September-October 2002, pp 701-708.

19.     SP 34 : 1987., “ handbook on concrete reinforcement and detailing”, Bureau of Indian standards

20.     V. Shivakumar., “State-of-art on computation of deflections in two-way slabs”, Journal of structural Engineering (Madras), V 31, No 4, January-March 2005, pp. 205-314.

21.     R. Taylor., D.R. H. Maher., and B.Hayes., “Effect of the arrangement of reinforcement on the behavior of reinforced concrete slab”, Magazine of concrete research: Vol18, No.55, June1966, Pg 85-94

22.     B. Vijaya Rangan ., “Prediction of long term deflections of flat pates and slabs”, ACI journal, April 1976, pp.223-226.


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51.

Authors:

Aaisha Jabeen Siddiqui, Praveen Sen, Aarti Ravindrasingh Thakur, Ashwini L. Gaur, Priyanka Chandrakant Waghmare

Paper Title:

Use of Improved Rabin Algorithm for Designing Public Key Cryptosystem for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:    Wireless Sensor Networks are one of the most popular areas of research now days. These types of networks have observed a wide variety of applications in security areas such as defense, ecological etc. These applications are highly dependent on monitoring sensitive information such as movement of particulars, detecting and tracking of location etc. Providing security in such complications has made Wireless Sensor Networks security a challenge. As sensor nodes are powered by batteries, energy efficiency becomes a critical aspect in such type of networks and because of this many security protocols proposed earlier for Wireless Sensor Networks are proved out to be expensive. In this paper, we have focused on a security protocol which provides a strong level security and also uses the battery of the sensor nodes efficiently. The proposed work is tested on confidentiality and integrity of data and authenticity in communication. This system tracks the location of sensor nodes and the location of the nodes will become the input for key generation phase. The communication between the server and the sensor will take place by encrypting the location address of the respected sensor.

Keywords:
   Security in WSN, Rabin public key cryptosystem, CRT, Java Eclipse, Android SDK.


References:

1.        Garcia-Hernandez, C. F., Ibarguengoytia-Gonzalez, P. H and Perez-DiaZo J. A 'Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications: A Survey', IJCSNS, 7(3),264-273 (2007)
2.        V. C  Shekhar, Mrudala Sarvabhatla , ‘Security in WSNs with Public Key Techniques’, ICCCI-(2012), Jan 10-12,  Coimbatore, India

3.        P. Mohanty, N. Sarma, S. Panigrahi, S. S. Satapathy, ‘A Symmetric Key based secured data gathering protocol for WSN’, ICCCI-(2012), Jan 10-12,  Coimbatore, India

4.        K .Saravana selvi T. “Rabin Public Key Cryptosystem for Mobile Authentication.”. IEEE- (ICAESM -2012) March 30, 31, 2012.

5.        Dr. Lawrence Washington.” Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Its Applications to Mobile Devices.” Wendy Chou, University of Maryland, College Park. Department of  Mathematics.

6.        Dr. R. Shanmugalakshmi ,"Research Issues on Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Its applications - IJCSNS, VOL.9 No.6, June 2009,

7.        Gaoxiang Chen, Gelian Song, Tao Zhuang, ‘An identity Authentication Scheme in Wireless Peer-to-Peer Network’, IEEE (2010), Oct 3, 2010

8.        Lein Harn & Thomas Kiesler “Two New Efficient Cryptosystems Based on Rabin's Scheme: Alternatives to RSA Cryptosystem “.Computer Science
Telecommunications Program University of Missouri - Kansas City Kansas City, MO 64110. 1990 IEEE.

9.        C. Karlof, N. Sastry, and D. Wagner, "TinySec: a link layer security architecture for wireless sensor networks," in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04), pp. 162-175, Baltimore, Md, USA, November 2004.

10.     S. Prasanna Ganesan ” An Asymmetric Authentication Protocol for Mobile Devices Using HyperElliptic Curve Cryptography.” India. 2010 IEEE.

11.     A Perrig, R Szewczyk, J. D. Tygar, V. Wen, and D. E. Culler, "SPINS: security protocols for sensor networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 521-534, 2002.

12.     M. J. Beller, L. F. Chang, and Y. Yacobi, "Privacy and authentication on a portable communications system, " IEEE J. Set. Areas Commun. , vol. 11, pp. 821-829, 1993

13.     A Performance Comparison of Data Encryption Algorithms, IEEE [Information and Communication Technologies, 2005. ICICT 2005. First International Conference ,2006-02-27, PP. 84- 89

14.     W.-B. Lee and C.-K. Yeh, "A new delegation-based authentication protocol for use in portable communication systems, " IEEE Trans. Wireless Communication. , vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 57-64, 2005.

15.     Jian-zhu Lu and Jipeng Zhou” On the Security of an Efficient Mobile Authentication Scheme for Wireless Networks.” Department of Computer Science University of Jinan Guangzhou, Guangdong, China 510632. 2010 IEEE

16.     Dr. G. Padmavathi, Mrs. D. Shanmugapriya, ‘A Survey of Attacks, Security Mechanisms and Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks’, (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 4, No. 1 & 2, 2009


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52.

Authors:

Dakshayani.G, Amol P Pande

Paper Title:

Mean Probabilistic Approach for Risk Estimation in MANET

Abstract:    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile hosts without the required intervention of any existing infrastructure or centralized access point such as a base station. MANET has the dynamic infrastructure hence it is highly vulnerable to attacks. Several attacks are possible in MANET networks and among them routing attack could cause the worst damage. There are several solutions available for mitigating the routing attacks based on the intrusion response techniques but most of them isolate the malicious node only based on the binary decisions taken for severity in attacks. This will cause additional damage to the network. Risk mitigating techniques is one of the important factor in MANET environment. This paper is about exchange of data between the various nodes in a MANET in a secure manner. we have designed an approach for fusing the evidences so that risk can be assessed effectively  and decision of whether an attacker node has to isolated or not. Since always isolation of attacker could result in more serious damages. Therefore our approach isolates only the fake links established by the attacker, unless the attacker is causing more devastating damages.

Keywords:
   MANET, Routing attacks, routing protocols, Evidence, Risk.


References:

1.        Zhao, Ziming, Hongxin Hu, Gail-Joon Ahn, and Ruoyu Wu. "Risk-Aware Mitigation for MANET Routing Attacks." Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on 9, no. 2 (2012): 250-260.2.        Wadbude, Durgesh, and Vineet Richariya. "An Efficient Secure AODV Routing Protocol in MANET." International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1 (2012).
3.        Sabahi, F., and A. Movaghar. "Intrusion detection: A survey." In Systems and Networks Communications, 2008. ICSNC'08. 3rd International Conference on, pp. 23-26. IEEE, 2008.

4.        Sentz, Kari, and Scott Ferson. Combination of evidence in Dempster-Shafer theory. Vol. 4015. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Sandia National Laboratories, 2002.

5.        Sun, Lili, Rajendra P. Srivastava, and Theodore J. Mock. "An information systems security risk assessment model under the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions." Journal of Management Information Systems 22, no. 4 (2006): 109-142.

6.        Shafer, Glenn. A mathematical theory of evidence. Vol. 1. Princeton: Princeton university press, 1976.

7.        Shilpa, S. G., Mrs NR Sunitha, and B. B. Amberker. "A Trust Model for Secure and QoS Routing in MANETS." Intl. J. of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (IJITCE) 1 (2011).


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53.

Authors:

Tauseef Amin Azmi

Paper Title:

Physical Design Implementation of Processor Torpedo at Different OCV Scenarios -40, 25, 125 Degree Celsius of an ASIC Design Chip

Abstract:   This Paper basically studies the physical design implementation of torpedo processor which incorporates 32 macros in overall and 43000 cell instances .We had 5 clocks ,3 propagated and 2 generated clock in a die size of 5.9 mm square which operated at a frequency of 400 megahertz having a supply voltage of 1.8 volts .The technology which we worked was 180 nm technology and working on the IC Compiler tool from synopsys and then moving on to static timing analysis part on the Prime time tool from synopsys and then further moving on to drc/lvs checking on the tool Calibre from mentor graphics. The foundry which supplied us the 180 nm technology documents was Jazz semiconductors INC.The earlier work on this project that were carried out were at different scenarios and hence the results were with different optimization ,here in our study we had made a comprehensive and mature step to achieve the maximum optimization of the placement of the standard cells and therefore in our effort we had chosen the three scenarios for our thesis which were three operating conditions :function minimum, function maximum , CTS  maximum. The temperature that we worked on the physical design implementation of this block level subsystem were -40 degree celcius , 25 degree celcius ,125 degree celcius. The three scenarios supply voltages were 1.65 volts ,1.8 volts and 1.9 volts respectively and the power dissipation was 300 milliwatts  with a pre cts derate of 15 % and post cts derate of also 15% respectively. The thesis was not so easy to carry out as we had several problems occurring at every step like the IR DROP was exceeding the limit which was provided as 5% of the total VDD+VSS supposed to be within 90 mv also errors from routing congestion and DRC errors were prompt.

Keywords:
   ASIC Design, OCV,VLSI,Physical design,Scenarios.


References:

1.       Naveed sherwani ,a dissertation submitted at the summit of open silicon  December1999 .
2.       Venkatesh Prasad and Srinath b k a design for the issues in the torpedo processor ,RV VLSI design centre Bangalore year 2007 bangalore India .

3.       S.Chien, S.Ma and L.Chen, “Efficient Moving Object Segmentation Algorithm Using Background Registration Technique”, IEEE transcript on circuits and systems, July 2002.

4.       J.Moon, D.Kim and R.Park, “Video Matting Based on Background Estimation”, Enformatic Transactions on Engineering, December 2004.

5.       R.C. Gonzalea and R.E. Woods, Digital Image Processing (2nd Edition), Prentice Hall, 2002.

6.       Andreas Koschan and Mongi Abidi, “Comparison of Median Filter Techniques for Noise Removal in Color Images”, Imaging Robotics and Intelligent Systems Laboratory, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

7.       Abdessamad Ben Hamza, “Removing Noise and Preserving Details with Relaxed Median Filters”, Dept. de Fiscia Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, Spain, 2009.

8.       Pawan Patidar, Manoj Gupta and Sumit Srivastava, “Image De – Noising by Various Filters for Different Noise”, International Journal of Computer Application, November 2010.

9.       D.Maheswari and Dr. V.Radha, “Noise Removal in Compound Image Using Median Filter”, International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, 2010.


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54.

Authors:

Mrs. Sonia, Nisha Malik, Preet Kanwar Singh Rekhi, Sukhvinder Singh Malik

Paper Title:

Uplink Power Control Schemes in Long Term Evolution

Abstract:     in multi user environment, number of users share the same radio resources. The shared channels cause the signal intended for a certain user to reach other users and introduce interference in their path and degrade the signal quality. Power control needs to reduce inter-cell interference level and at the same time achieve a required SINR level. To achieve this SINR level eNodeB sends Transmit Power Control (TPC) Command in Downlink in PDCCH and UE sends Power Head Room (PHR) stating how more it can transmit to reach maximum power.  In this paper, authors have worked upon the PUSCH Power control, LTE power control mechanism, TPC Command and Power Headroom Reporting. They also found the optimum value of Path Loss Compensation Factor “α”.

Keywords:
   LTE, Uplink, Open Loop Power Control, Close loop Power Control, Fractional Power Control, and Inter-Cell Interference.


References:

1.      Lte - The Umts Long Term Evolution from Theory To Practice 2nd Edition by  Stefania Sesia , Issam Toufik, Matthew Baker
2.      3GPP TS 36.213 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) Physical layer procedures”.

3.      3GPP TS 36.221  “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification”

4.      R1-074850 “Uplink Power Control for E-UTRA – Range and Representation of P0”

5.      R1-073036 “Intra-cell Uplink Power Control for E-UTRA – Evaluation of Fractional Path Loss Compensation”

6.      3GPP, TR 25.814 v7.1.0. Physical layer aspects for Evolved UTRA

7.      W. C. Jakes. Microwave mobile communications. John Wiley & ¬¬-Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1974

8.      R4-081162 “LS on power headroom reporting”


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55.

Authors:

Aishvarya Bansal

Paper Title:

Brick and Click Model: An important Tool for Web Marketing

Abstract:    This paper emphasizes on web marketing as an important tool for the marketers to offer goods and services. Products are now increasingly sold online and not just confined to local stores as in the traditional brick and mortar firms. The brick & click model helps web marketers by combining online capabilities with the traditional bricks-and-mortar firms. This paper will keep an eye on the brick and click model as an important tool for the marketers for technology driven consumers who want goods conveniently and easily at their doorsteps. With an increase in number of online users and products offered online the collaboration of a web marketer through partnership or joint venture as in brick and click firms prove more profitable in terms of wider coverage and economies of scale.

Keywords:
   Brick and Click model, Brick and Mortar firms, Supply chain management, Web marketer.


References:

1.        Handbook by Sushila Madan, Electronic Commerce
2.        Amor, Daniel-Pearson Edude.E Business R (Evolution)

3.        Greenstein & Feinman, Electronic Commerce

4.        Economic times article January 2014 on online marketing

5.        Economic times article December 2013 on online marketing

6.        http://economictimes.indiatimes.com


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56.

Authors:

Hannah Monica Anoop, S. Paul Sathiyan

Paper Title:

Modelling and Simulation of Modified Flyback Converter for HID Lamp

Abstract:    This paper presents an electronic ballast for High Intensity Discharge lamp. The modified flyback converter is used to produce Low-Frequency Square-Waveform inorder to avoid acoustic resonance. The converter has the advantages of only two active switches for current control and a single choke. The design of the converter is presented. The converter is simulated in PSIM and the simulation results are shown.

Keywords:
   Acoustic Resonance (AR), High Intensity Discharge (HID), Low-Frequency Square-Waveform (LFSW), Power Control (PC), Power Factor Correction (PFC).


References:

1.        Douglas Pappis, AndressaColveroSchittler,  Jonas Ritter Pause, Marco A. Dalla Costa, Alexandre Campos, and J. Marcos Alonso, 2013, “Modified flyback for HID lamp supply: Design, Modeling, and Control”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 739–749, Mar./Apr. 2013.
2.        M. A. Dalla Costa, M. Alonso, J. Cardesin, J. Garcia, and D. G. Lamar, 2008 , “A single-stage high-power-factor electronic ballast based on integrated buck flyback converter to supply metal halide lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 1112–1122, Mar. 2008.

3.        M. A. Dalla Costa, M. Alonso, T. B. Marchesan, M. Cervi, and R. N. Prado, 2011 , “Electronic ballasts for HID lamps,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 54–59, Mar./Apr. 2011.

4.        Cervi, T. B. Marchesan, A. Campos, and R. N. do Prado, 2007, “A comparative analysis of HID lamp electronic ballasts based on differential connection of two DC/DC,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, 2007, pp. 457–462.

5.        C. Schittler, D. Pappis, A. Campos, and M. A. Dalla Costa, “Interleaved buck converter applied to high power HID lamps supplying: Design, modeling and control,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting, Oct. 201, pp. 1–7.

6.        M. Shen, Z. Qian, and F. Z. Peng, 2003, “Design of a two-stage low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast for HID lamps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 424–430, Mar./Apr. 2003.
7.        Andre L.Kirsten, Jacob Hansen, Paulo C. V. da Luz, CassinoRech, Ricardo N. do Prado, Marco A. D. Costa, 2011 , “Modeling and Control Strategy of HPS Electroni Ballast Considering the Dynamic Model of the Lamp, IEEE conf. 2011.

8.        E. Deng and S. Cuk, 1997, “Negative incremental impedance and stability of fluorescent lamps,” in Proc. IEEE APEC, 1997, pp. 1050–1056.


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57.

Authors:

Snehal Ghormade, Bhagwat Kakde

Paper Title:

Comprehensive Information Hiding in an Image Using Wavelet Transform

Abstract:    This research paper is concerned with the steganography in a digital image. Steganography is always preferred upon encrypting the secret information because hiding arouses less suspicion as it conceals its very existence. The techniques developed in the past mainly comprises of hiding only a text or an image within an image. The scheme presented here is an attempt to achieve an efficient wavelet based technique for hiding different forms of multimedia information within an image. This system will certainly provide additional intelligence as audio, text and image are embedded in a single image concurrently. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can be successfully implemented with very high quality and imperceptibility. Further, the approach used here provides an additional security which prevents the intruder from retrieving the secret information even if the existence of secret information is noticed.

Keywords:
   Discrete wavelet transform, Image Processing, Information Hiding, Steganography, Secured Digital Communication.


References:

1.       Gunjal and R. Manthalkar, “ An Overview of Transform Domain Robust Digital Image Watermarking Algorithms,” J. Emerging Trends in Computing and Inform. Sci. vol. 2, no. 1, 2011, pp.37-42.
2.       R. van Schyndel, A. Tirkel, and C. Osborne, “A digital watermark,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, vol. 2, pp. 86–90, 1994.

3.       W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, A. Lu, “Techniques for data hiding,” IBM Systems Journal, vol. 35, nos. 3,4, pp.313-336,1996.

4.       F. Hartung and M.Kutter, “Multimedia watermarking techniques,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, pp. 1079–1107, July 1999.

5.       B. Kaur, A. Kaur, J. Singh, “Steganographic Approach For Hiding Image In Dct Domain,” Intl. Journal Of Advances In Engineering & Technology, Vol. 1,Issue 3,pp.72-78, July 2011.

6.       I. Cox, J. Kilian, F. Leighton, and T. Shamoon, “Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking For Multimedia,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 6, pp. 1673–1687, Dec. 1997.

7.       X. Xia, C. Boncelet, and G. Arce, “A Multiresolution Watermark For Digital Images,” in  Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, vol. 1, pp. 548–551, Oct. 1997.

8.       M. Barni, F. Bartolini, and A. Piva, “Improved Wavelet-Based Watermarking Through Pixel-Wise Masking,” IEEE Trans. Image processing, vol. 10, no. 5, 2002, pp.783-791.

9.       G. Bhatnagar and B. Raman, “A New Robust Reference Watermarking Scheme Based on DWT-SVD,” Computer Standards and Interfaces, vol.31, no.5, pp. 1002-1013, 2009.

10.     K. Ramani, E. V. Prasad, Dr. S. Varadarajan, “Steganography Using BPCS To The Integer Wavelet Transformed Image,” Intl. Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol.7 no.7, pp. 293-302,July 2007.

11.     A. Singh and A. Mishra, “Wavelet Based Watermarking On Digital Image,” Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering,Vol 1 No 2, pp. 86-91,2011.

12.     L. Feng, L. Zheng and P. Cao, “A DWT-DCT Based Blind Watermarking Algorithm for Copyright Protection,”  Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Science and Information Tech., vol.7, pp.455-458, July 2010.

13.     N. Jayant, J. Johnston, and R. Safranek, “Signal compression based on models of human perception,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 81, pp. 1385–1422, Oct. 1993.


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58.

Authors:

B. Lakshmana Nayak

Paper Title:

Desing, Modeling and Simulation of VAR Compensation Using Fuzzy Control Svc in Long Transmission Line

Abstract:   In this paper, FACTS technology is used to transmission capabilities, transmission flexibility, independent operation, power system individual units, without effect of stability temperature can be limited and reactive power control either or both FACTS devices and Static VAR Compensator (SVC). This paper attempts to design and simulate the Fuzzy logic control of firing angle for SVC in order to achieve better, smooth and adaptive control of reactive power. The design, modeling and simulations are carried out for λ /8 Transmission line and the compensation is placed at the receiving end (load end).

Keywords:
   Fuzzy Logic, FACTS and SVC.


References:

1.       Narain. G. Hingorani, “Understanding FACTS, Concepts and Technology Of flexible AC Transmission Systems”, by IEEE Press USA.
2.       Bart Kosko, “Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems A Dynamical Systems Approach to Machine Intelligence”, Prentice-Hall of India New Delhi, June 1994.

3.       Timothy J Ross, “Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications”, McGraw-Hill, Inc, New York, 1997.

4.       Laboratory Manual for Transmission line and fuzzy Trainer Kit  Of Electrical Engineering Department NIT Warangal

5.       SIM Power System User Guide Version 4  MATLAB Manual Periodicals and Conference Proceedings:

6.       S.M.Sadeghzadeh  M. Ehsan “ Improvement of Transient Stability Limit in Power System Transmission Lines Using Fuzzy Control of FACTS Devices ,IEEE Transactions on Power System Vol.13 No.3 ,August 1998

7.       Chuen Chien Lee “Fuzzy Logic in Control Systems: Fuzzy Logic Controller”.  Part I and Part II. IEEE R. IEEE transactions on system, man ,and cybernetics ,vol.20 March/April11990

8.       A.M. Kulkarni, “Design of power system stabilizer for single-machine system using robust periodic output feedback controller”, IEE Proceedings Part – C, Vol. 150, No. 2, pp. 211 – 216, March 2003. Technical Reports: Papers from Conference Proceedings  unpublished):

9.       U.Yolac,T.Talcinoz Dept. of Electronic Eng.Nigde 51200,Turkey “Comparison Compariiison of Fuzzy Logic and PID Controls For TCSC Using MATLAB”

10.     Jaun Dixon ,Luis Moran, Jose Rodrfguz  ,Ricardo Domke “Reactive power compensation technology  state- of- art- review”(invited paper) Electrical Engineering Dept Pontifica Universidad Catolica De CHILE.


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59.

Authors:

Mohammad Ali Adelian, Rahul S.Desai

Paper Title:

Optimal Reliability and Line Loss in Distribution Networks

Abstract:    In this paper, both Distributed Generators (DG) and capacitors are allocated and sized optimally for improving line loss and reliability. The objective function is composed of the investment cost of DGs and capacitors along with loss and reliability which are converted to the genuine dollar. The bus voltage and line current are considered as constraints which should be satisfied during the optimization procedure. Hybrid. Particle Swarm Optimization as a heuristic based technique is used as the optimization method. The IEEE 69-bus test system is modified and employed to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The results illustrate that the lowest cost planning is found by optimizing both DGs and capacitors in distribution networks.

Keywords:
   distribution network, optimization methods, Reliability


References:

1.        C. L. T. Borges, D. M. Falcao, “Optimal Distributed Generation Allocation for Reliability, Losses and Voltage Improvement”, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 28, Issue 6, July 2006, PP. 413-420.
2.        Jen-Hao Teng, Yi-Hwa Liu, Chia-Yen Chen, “Value-Based Distributed Generator Placements for Service Quality Improvements”, International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 29, Issue 3, March 2007, PP. 268-274

3.        C. Wang, M. H. Nehrir, “Analytical Approaches for Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation Sources in Power Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 19, No. 4, November 2004, PP. 2068-2076.

4.        H. Hedayati, S. A. Nabaviniaki, A. Akbarimajd, “A Method for Placement of DG Units in Distribution Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 23, No. 3, July 2008, PP. 1620-1628.

5.        Soo-Hyoung Lee, Jung-Wook Park, “Selection of Optimal Location and Size of Multiple Distributed Generators by Using Kalman Filter Algorithm”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 24, No. 3, August 2009, PP. 1393-1400.

6.        R. A. Jabr, B. C. Pal, “Ordinal Optimization Approach for Locating and Sizing of Distributed Generation”, IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 3, Issue 8, August 2009, PP. 713-723.

7.        L. Wang, C. Singh, “Reliability-Constrained Optimum Placement of Reclosers and Distributed Generators in Distribution Networks Using an Ant Colony System Algorithm”, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, And Cybernetics-Part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol. 38, No. 6, November 2008, PP. 757-764.

8.        Chung-Fu Chang, “Reconfiguration and Capacitor Placement for Loss Reduction of Distribution Systems by Ant Colony Search Algorithm”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2008, 23, (4), PP. 1747-1755.

9.        M. A. S. Masoum, M. Ladjevardi, A. Jafarian, “Optimal Placement, Replacement and Sizing of Capacitor Banks in Distorted Distribution Networks by Genetic Algorithms”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 2008, 19, (4), PP. 1794-1801.

10.     M. Ladjevardi, M. A. S. Masoum, “Genetically Optimized Fuzzy Placement and Sizing of Capacitor Banks in Distorted Distribution Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 2008, 23, (1), PP. 449-456.

11.     Z. Q. Wu, K. L. Lo, “Optimal Choice of Fixed and Switched Capacitors in Radial Distributors with Distorted Substation Voltae”, IEE Proceedings of Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 1995, 142, (1), PP. 24-28.

12.     J. Kennedy, R. Eberhart, “Particle Swarm Optimization”, Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, PP. 1942-1948.

13.     M. R. Alrashidi, M. E. El-Hawary, “A Survey of Particle Swarm Optimization Applications in Electric Power Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, Vol. 13, Issue 4, August 2009, PP. 913-918.

14.     Y. Del Valle, G. K. Venayagamoorthy, S. Mohagheghi, “Particle Swarm Optimization: Basic Concepts, Variants and Applications in Power Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation”, Vol. 12, No. 2, April 2008, PP. 171-195.


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60.

Authors:

Nithin T Abraham, Shaema Lizbeth Mathew, C.A Pradeep Kumar

Paper Title:

Design and Implementation of Solar PV Poultry Incubator

Abstract:    Incubation of poultry egg is very important these days as the demand for chicken is increasing day by day. But the process of hatching eggs by the conventional method is very difficult as well as it consumes much power. In short conventional method of egg hatching requires continuous supply of power. In this paper a new method of solar poultry incubator design is suggested which could be used to hatch eggs from solar pv  and hence could reduce the usage of power and can maximize the usage of solar power which is a renewable source of energy. By implementing this method of solar poultry incubator we will be able to reduce the power consumption of the incubator by 75% and the cost involved in the design also yields profit and hence could bring out a revolution in this field.

Keywords:
   Battery, Charge Controller, Hatching, PV panel


References:
1.       J. W. I. Okonkwo, and O. C. Chukwuezie. Characterization of a Photovoltaic Powered Poultry Egg Incubator
2.       Abiola SS (1999). Effects of turning frequency of hen’s eggs in electric table type incubator on weight loss, hatchability and mortality. Niger. Agric. J. 30: 77-82. 
3.       W. I. Okonkwo. Design of solar Energy Egg Incubator. Unplished undergraduate project, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agriculture,  Makurdi, Nigeria. 1989.

4.       A. H. Lourens. van den Brand, R. Meijerhof, and B. Kemp Effect of Egg Sizeon Heat Production and  theTransition of Energy from Egg to Hatchling. Poult. Sci.
2005, 83:705-712.


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61.

Authors:

C.A.Pradeep Kumar, A.Benuel Sathish Raj

Paper Title:

Comparative Study between Wind and Fuel Cell by Using Fuzzy Logic Control

Abstract:    Due to ever increasing energy consumption, rising public awareness of environmental protection, and steady progress in power deregulation, alternative (i.e., renewable and fuel cell based) distributed generation (DG) systems have attracted increased interest. Wind and photovoltaic (PV) power generation are two of the most promising renewable energy technologies. Fuel cell (FC) systems also show great potential in DG applications of the future due to their fast technology development and many merits they have, such as high efficiency, zero or low emission (of pollutant gases) and flexible modular structure. This study presents different power management strategies of a stand-alone hybrid power system and controlled by using fuzzy logic control. The system consists of two power generation systems, a wind turbine and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Wind turbine is the main supply for the system, and the fuel cell performs as a backup power source. Different energy sources in the system are integrated through an AC bus. Therefore, continuous energy supply needs energy storing devices. The state of charge (SOC), charge-discharge currents are affecting the battery energy efficiency. The control algorithm is simulated using Matlab-Simulink.

Keywords:
   Wind, Fuel cell, Fuzzy, Dynamic Simulation, MAT LAB Simulink modeling.


References:

1.       Comparative evaluation of different power management strategies of a stand-alone PV/Wind/PEMFC hybrid power system. Sci Verse Science Direct, Electrical Power  and Energy Systems 34 (2012) 81–89.
2.       Thanaa F. El-Shatter, Mona N. Eskander, Mohsen T. El- Hagry “Energy flow and management of a hybrid wind/PV/fuel cell generation system” Science Direct, Energy Conversion and Management 2006 pages 1264–1280

3.       Caisheng Wang, “Modeling and control of hybrid wind/photovoltaic/ fuel cell distributed generation systems”, Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering, Montana  state
university, Bozeman, July 2006.

4.       E. Hau. Wind turbines: fundamentals, technologies, application, economics. Springer Verlag BerlinHeidelberg, 2000

5.       M. Hashem Nehrir, Senior Member, IEEE, and Steven R.  Shaw, Member, IEEE Dynamic Models and Model Validation for PEM Fuel Cells Using Electrical Circuit Caisheng Wang, Student Member, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 20, NO. 2, JUNE 2005.

6.       First K.V.Hari Prasad ; Second CH.Uma Maheswar Rao; Third A.Sri Hari; International Journal of Advanced Technology & Engineering Research (IJATER) ISSN NO: 2250-3536 VOLUME 2, ISSUE 3, MAY 2012 218         Design And Simulation Of A Fuzzy Logic       Controller For Buck & Boost Converters

7.       Sk.Gouse Basha and P.D.V.S.K. Kishore Implementation and   Performance of Fuzzy Logic Controller on DC- DC  Boost Converter

8.       Fuzzy Logic Controller on Dc - Dc Boost Convereter ”,  N.F Nik Ismail, I. Musirin, D.Johari, 2010 International Conference

9.       Gaiceanu, M.& Fetecau G. (2007b). Grid connected Wind turbine-Fuel Cell Power System having Power Quality Issues, EPQU’07 Barcelona, pp.7-13, 2007. ISBN 978-84-690-9441-9

10.     Gaiceanu M. (2007a) Inverter Control for Three-Phase Grid Connected Fuel Cell Power System, The 5th  International IEEE Conference CPE 2007, Compatibility in Power Electronics


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62.

Authors:

A. D. Dighe, A. K. Mishra, V. D. Wakchaure

Paper Title:

Investigation of Wear Resistance and Torque Transmission Capacity of Glass Filled Polyamide and PEEK Composite Spur Gears

Abstract:  Polymer & polymer composite gears find increasing application because of the low material manufacturing cost, light weight & quiet operation compared with metal gears. Generally thermoplastic polymers like acetal polymer & nylon polymer are used for gear applications. But acetal and nylon gears have low load carrying capacity. To improve the performance of gears, geometry modification had been done like tooth width modification & cooling holes on tooth surface. But, for high power applications, these materials show poor performance. Therefore, it is necessary to select the polymer which has good mechanical properties & good thermal stability. Poly-ether-ether-Ketone (PEEK) has high strength & stiffness, low coefficient of thermal expansion which is required for gears. The comparative performance spur gears of 30% glass filled PA66 and 30% glass filled PEEK was investigated in this study. The results shows that 30% glass filled PEEK gears have high wear resistance and high torque transmission capacity as compare with 30% glass filled PA66 gears.

Keywords:
   Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK), Polyamide 66 (PA66), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).


References:

1.       Y.K. Chen, S.N. Kukureka, C.J. Hooke, M. Rao, Surface topography and wear mechanisms in polyamide 66 and its composites, Journal of Materials Science 35 (2000) 1269-1281.
2.       M.H. Tsai, Y.C. Tsai, A method for calculating static transmission errors of plastic spur gears using fem evaluation, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 27 (1997) 345-357.

3.       A.D. Lina, J.H. Kuang, Dynamic interaction between contact loads and tooth wear of engaged polyamide gear pairs, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 205-213.

4.       C.H. Kim, Durability improvement method for polyamide spur gears, Tribology International 39 (2006) 1454-1461.

5.       S.N. Kukureka, C.J. Hooke, M. Rao, P. Liao, Y.K Chen, The effect of fibre reinforcement on the friction and wear of polyamide 66 under dry rolling-sliding contact, Tribology International 32 (1999) 107-116.

6.       M. Kurokawa, Y. Uchiyama, T. Iwai, S. Nagai, Performance of polyamide gear made of carbon fibre reinforced polyamide 12, Wear 254 (2003) 468-473.

7.       K. Mao, A numerical method for polyamide composite gear flash temperature prediction, Wear 262 (2007) 1321-1329.

8.       K. Mao, A new approach for polyamide composite gear design, Wear 262 (2007) 432-441.

9.       S. Senthilvelan, R. Gnanamoorthy, Damage mechanisms in injection moulded unreinforced, glass and carbon reinforced nylon 6/6 spur gears, Applied Composite Materials 11 (2004) 377-397.

10.     S. Senthilvelan, R. Gnanamoorthy, Damping characteristics of unreinforced, glass and carbon fibre reinforced nylon 6/6 spur gears, Polyamide Testing 25 (2006) 56-62. [12]

11.     S. Senthilvelan, R. Gnanamoorthy, Effect of rotational speed on the performance of unreinforced a glass fibre reinforced nylon 6 spur gears, Materials and Design 28 (2007) 765-772.

12.     M. Taburdagitan, M. Akkok, Determination of surface temperature rise with thermo-elastic analysis of spur gears, Wear 261 (2006) 656-665.

13.     C.J. Hooke, K. Mao, D. Walton, Measurement and prediction of the surface temperature in polymer gears and its relation to surface wear, Journal of Tribology
115 (1995) 119-124. [15]

14.     A.R. Breeds, S.N. Kukureka, K. Mao, D. Walton, C.J. Hook, Wear behaviour of acetal gear pairs, Wear 166 (1993) 85-91.

15.     N. Tsukamoto, H. Maruyama, H. Mimura, Effect of reducing friction of polyacetal in gears, Transactions of JSME International Journal Series C 57 (1985) 230-235.

16.     A manual for guide of plastic gear, SABIC Innovative plastic, pp 2-17.

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63.

Authors:

Kamal Kashyap, D.G.Mahto

Paper Title:

Analysis of Hooks Joint Using Ansys by Von-Mises Method

Abstract:    Hooks joint (universal Coupling) is a very important for transmitting power from one shaft to another. Sometimes the failure in this assembly takes place due to improper design and analyzing .The aim of this paper is to present a finite element analysis predicting the behavior of hooks joint under different loads on different parts. The software package ANSYS is used to model the joint.   This paper may help to improve the quality of hooks joint.

Keywords:
   hooks joint, ANSYS, Finite element analysis ,Von Mises Equation.


References:

1.       www.sdp-si.com
2.       www.learnengineering.org

3.       Vedam, K., Naganathan, N., Szadkowski, A., and Prange, E., "Analysis of an Automotive Driveline with Cardan Universal Joints," SAE Technical Paper 950895, 1995, doi:10.4271/950895.

4.       A.N. Sherbourne, M.R. Bahaari, 3D simulation of end-plate bolted connections, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE 120 (11) (1994) 3122–3136

5.       Elsayed Mashaly”finite element alalysis of beam to column joints in steel frames under cyclic loading”,Alexandria EngineeringJournal (2011) 50,91–104.


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64.

Authors:

Kung’u Beatrice Wanjugu, Z.Abiero Gariy, S.M.Mulei

Paper Title:

Utilization of Shredded Waste Plastic Bags and Waste Sugar Cane Ash in Bitumen & Bituminous Mix for Improved Road Performance

Abstract:   With the expansion of road network in Kenya, care should be taken to construct road pavement that will last their designed life if not to outlive it. Bitumen is a major component in road construction material providing its ability to sustain traffic road. Bituminous paved road fail or get damaged if it is no longer able to sustain traffic or other environmental loading. They fail through poor road maintenance, pot-hole development, overloading among other factors. Convectional bitumen can be modified using waste sugar cane ash (WSCA) and shredded waste plastic bags (SWPB) to improve its mechanical properties as well as solving the disposal issue. The main objective of this study is to understand the fundamental behaviour of modified bitumen, evaluate its mechanical property, and determine optimum mix proportion of the waste to modify bitumen. The modified bitumen and aggregates used in this study were taken through the standard tests to ascertain their suitability in road construction. Marshall Stability test was conducted to determine bitumen optimum content, stability and flow on the modeled briquette The results gotten from the modified bitumen and aggregates were within the recommended standard specifications. The optimum bitumen content is 5.4% and a stability of 12600N. Penetration index (ranges 61-68) and softening point (51.3 – 57.8). The aggregates strength (20.6%), water absorption (0.69%) and weathering (2%). The modified bitumen has the ability to withstand high temperature, heavy load and this will minimize the development of rutting and cracking of the wearing course reducing seepage through the pavement surface. It should be recommended that the convectional bitumen commonly used in Kenya 80/100 should be modified using WSCA and SWPB to make it a better binder for road construction

Keywords:
   Modified bitumen, shredded waste plastic bags, waste sugar cane ash, mixed design, road design lif

References:

1.       Emeritus C.A. O’flaherty, A.M, (2002 Highway location, design, construction and maintenance of road pavement, fourth Edition  pp 145-155
2.       Gichaga, F.J, (1987) Strength of Bituminous Mixes in Flexible Road Pavemen. Kenya Journal of Sciences, Series A: 8(1-2):PP. 59-77

3.       Gupta B.L and Gupta Amit, (2010). Highway and Bridge Engineering. 3rd Edition. Pp 355-370

4.       John Hodges, Overseas Road Note 19, (2002). Guide to the design of hot mix asphalt in tropical and subtropical countries; pp 19-25

5.       Journal of Scientific & Industrial research Vol. 68, November, 2009 pp. 975-979

6.       Konsta-Gdoutos MS, Shah SP, Battacharja S (2002). Development and performance of cement Kiln dust-slag cement. In Proceedings of the international Conference of Challenges of Concrete Construction. Scotland, UK: Dundee. pp 130-140

7.       Mwero J N, G.O.Rading & S.M.Mumenya, (2010). The Behaviour of Sugar Cane Waste fibre Ash as a Cementing Material pp 10-11

8.       Prithvi S. Kandhal, Cynthia Y. Lynn, Frazier Parker, (2007) Characterization Tests for mineral fillers Related to Performance of Asphalt Paving Mixtures, Transport Research Records, pp 305-330

9.       Sreejith. P, (2010). Use of Plastic Waste in Bitumen Road, pp 50-67

10.     Vivian W.Y. Tam, C.M Tam, (2006). A review on the viable technology for construction waste recycling, Elsevier, Resources, Conservation and Recycling. pp25-40

11.     Wilson S.K. Wasike, (2001). Road infrastructure Policies in Kenya, Historical Trends and current Challenges pp 20-24

12.     Chief Engineer, Ministry of Transport and communication, (1981). Road design manual Part III, materials and pavement design for new Roads. pp 7.22


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65.

Authors:

M. Ramya, E. Thenmozhi

Paper Title:

An Efficient Converse Mapping Technique in Modern Information Retrieval

Abstract:    A traditional forward dictionary maps from words to their definitions. Unlike a regular dictionary, the reverse dictionary performs converse mapping that maps from definitions to words. The user input phrase describes the definition of desired concept, and returns an efficient candidate word that satisfies the input phrase. The reverse dictionary addresses the widespread problem of knowing the meaning of a word, but unable to recall the appropriate word on demand. The converse mapping technique finds the exact result for the user entered keyword by comparing the partitioned input with dictionary database. The partitioning method increases the overall scalability and distributes the data across multiple threads. The efficiency of the reverse dictionary can be improved by reducing the set of definitions in the comparison process. The query expansion technique is used to improve the potential of reverse dictionary and increases the probability of identifying relevant definition. The approaches of reverse mapping provide significant improvements in the performance scale. The converse mapping technique in modern information retrieval extracts the best matched result without sacrificing the quality of the solution.

Keywords:
   Dictionaries, thesauruses, search process, web-based services


References:

1.       D.M. Blei, A.Y. Ng, and M.I. Jordan, “Latent Dirichlet Allocation”, J.Machine Learning Research, vol. 3, pp. 993-1022, Mar. 2003.
2.       J. Carlberger, H. Dalianis, M. Hasssel, and O. Knutsson, “Improving Precision in Information Retrieval for Swedish Using Stemming”, Technical Report IPLab-194, TRITA-NA-P0116, Aug. 2001.

3.       T. Dao and T. Simpson, “Measuring Similarity between Sentences”, http://opensvn.csie.org/WordNetDotNet/trunk/Projects/ Thanh/Paper/WordNetNet_Semantic_Similarity.pdf, 2009.

4.       J. Ponte and W. Croft, “A Language Modeling Approach to Information Retrieval”, Proc. 21st Ann. Intl’l ACM SIGIR Conf. Research and Development in
Information Retrieval, pp.275-281, 1998.

5.       J. Earley, “An Efficient Context-Free Parsing Algorithm”, Comm.ACM, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 94-104, 1970.

6.       James P. Callan, “Passage- Level Evidence in Information Retrieval”, Proc. 17th Ann. Intl’l ACM SIGIR Conf. Research and Development in Information Retrieval, July 1994.

7.       T. Hofmann, “Probablistic Latent Semantic Indexing”, SIGIR’99: Proc. 22nd Ann. Int’l ACM SIGIR Conf. Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 50-57, 1999.

8.       J. Lafferty and C. Zhai, “Document Language Models, Query Models, and Risk Minimization for Information Retrieval”, Proc. 24th Ann. Int’l ACM SIGIR Conf. Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pp. 111-119, 2001.

9.       Z. Wu and M. Palmer, “Verbs Semantics and Lexical Selection”, Proc. 32nd Ann. Meeting Assoc. for Computational Linguistics, pp. 133-138, 1994.

10.     R. Zwick, E. Carlstein, and D.Budescu, “Measures of Similarity Among Fuzzy Concepts: A Comparative Analysis”, Int’l J. Approximate Reasoning, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 221-242, 1987.


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66.

Authors:

Sreerag R.S., Joshy R.S., Regi KumarV.

Paper Title:

Review of Logistics Parameters for Achieving Resilience and Coordination in Indian Supply Chains

Abstract:    Supply chain management is one of the thrust areas for competitiveness and growth of industries. Supply chain management emphasizing logistics parameters yields well optimized delivery of goods, services and information from supplier to customer. An effective supply chain makes industries competitive and profitable. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in India face problems in coordinating their supply chain due to lack of proper identification and utilization of logistics parameters and infrastructure. Latest and the state of art technologies and management tools have to be used for improving the performance of supply chain and logistics management in India with proper identification and treatment of appropriate logistics parameters. In this paper a review of factors affecting or influencing resilient logistics and various mechanisms for coordination of supply chains in Indian scenario is done.

Keywords:
  (SMEs)


References:

1.       Arshinder., Arun Kanda., and S.G. Deshmukh., 2008. “Supply chain coordination: Perspectives, emperical studies and research directions”. International journal of
production economics, pp. 316–335.

2.       Arend, R.J., and Wisner, J.D., 2005. “Small business and supply chain management: is there a fit?” Journal of business venturing, Vol.20 No.3, pp.403-36.

3.       Fugate, Brian., Sahin, Funda., and Mentzer, John T.,2006.“Supply chain management coordination  mechanisms”. Journal of business logistics, 27.2, pp. 129-VII.

4.       Li, X., and Wang, Q., 2007. “Coordination mechanisms of supply chain systems”. European journal of operational research, Vol.179 ,pp.1-16.

5.       Sahin, F., Robinson, P., 2002. “Flow Coordination and information sharing in supply chains: Review, implications and directions for future research”. Decision sciences, Vol.33 (4),pp.505-536.

6.       Singh, Rajesh, K., 2011. “Developing framework for coordination in supply chain of SMEs”. Business process management journal 17.4 ,pp.619-638.

7.       Venkataremana, Reddy., Raju, N.V.S.,2013.  “Issues and challenges of supply chain management in India”. International journal of mechanical and production engineering Vol-2 (1) , pp.619-638.

8.       Falasca, M., Zobel, C.W., and Cook, D., (2008). “A decision support framework to assess supply chain resilience”. Proceedings of the 5th international ISCRAM conference, Washington.

9.       Supply chain resilience 2011, November 2011, Business continuity institute.

10.     Harvard Business Review, October 2005 ,Volume-1: Number 8

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67.

Authors:

Rakesh Gautam, Mangesh J Bhagat, Sudip Dongare

Paper Title:

Modeling of 3 Link Biped Robot using DH Algorithm

Abstract:   This paper aims to develop a simple mathematical modeling of biped series of humanoid robots. Since the introduction of Wabot from Waseda University in 1973, many  humanoid robots have been developed around the world that can walk with stability . Various biped robots have successfully shown their capabilities, bipedal walking methods are still one of the main technical challenges that robotics researchers are trying to solve. For modeling of biped robot or any multi body system different methods are used like Newton-Euler, Lagrange-Euler. By implementing use of Denavit Hartenberg convention for modeling kinematics for biped robots, we give an algorithm for derivation of Lagrange-Euler equations of motions for a general biped  robots. We have considered a biped robot with three links having four degrees of freedom.

Keywords:
   Humanoid, biped , D-H algorithm


References:

1.       Bipedal Walking for a Full-sized Humanoid Robot Utilizing Sinusoidal Feet Trajectories and Its Energy Consumption by jeakweon Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
2.       Modeling, identification and stability of humanoid robots with a case study on humanoid robot Tulip P.W.M. van Zutven DCT 2009.100

3.       M. Brubaker. Physics based priors for human pose tracking. Master's thesis, University of Toronto, department of Computer Science, 2006.

4.       S. Collins. Flame system identification results.Technical report, Delft University of Technology, 2008.

5.       Bipedal walking for full size Humanoid Robot Utilizing Sinusoidal feet trajectories and Its Energy consumption by Jeakweon Han Dissertation submitted to facultyof the verginia polytechnic institute and state university in requirement of degree of Doctor of Philosophy in mechanical engineering.

6.       J.A.J. Baelemans, P.W.M. van Zutven, H. Nijmeijer, Model parameter estimation of humanoid robots using static contact force measurements  in IEEE International Symposium on Safety Security and Rescue Robotics, Linköping, Sweden, 6, (2013)

7.       J. Denavit and R.S. Hartenberg. A kinematic notation for lower-pair mechanisms based on matrices. ASME Journal of applied mechanics, page 215221, 1955.

8.       P.W.M. van Zutven, D. Kostić, H. Nijmeijer, Foot placement for planar bipeds with point feet, in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Editor: Paul Y. Oh, Saint Paul, USA, 983-988, (2012)

9.       T.M. Assman, P.W.M. van Zutven, H. Nijmeijer, Qualitative validation of humanoid robot models through balance recovery side-stepping experiments  IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Editor:


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68.

Authors:

Nilesh Patil, Mohit Udani, Rushi Bhusari

Paper Title:

Delay Compensation for DC Servo Motor using Smith Predictor Scheme

Abstract:    Feedback control systems wherein the control loops are closed through a real time network are called Networked Control System (NCS). The defining feature of a NCS is that information (reference input plant output control input,etc.) is exchanged using a network among control system components (sensors, controller,actuator,etc.).Time delay occurs in the networked control system when the exchange of data among sensors, actuators and controllers takes place. Such delays result in Performance degradation and the reduced stability or total instability of the closed-loop system. In order to compensate time-delay in the networked control system (NCS),different time delay compensation schemes are available i.e. PID controller, LQR controller, Fuzzy controller, etc. In this paper PID controller is used for compensating the time delays in the NCS. Mathematical Modeling for DC Servo Motor have been presented.The main objective of this paper is to compensate the delay in the servo feedback loop by using Smith Predictor compensation scheme.

Keywords:
   Servo Motor, Smith Predictor,PID Controller.


References:

1.        G. P. Liu and D. Rees and S. C. Chai “Design and Practical Implementation of  Networked Predictive Control Systems” 0-7803-8812-7/05/$20.00 02005 IEEE.
2.        W. Zhang, M. S. Branicky, and S. M. Phillips, “Stability of Networked Control  Systems,” in IEEE Control Systems Magazine, vol. 21, pp. 84–99, February 2001.

3.        Won-jong Kim,Kun Ji and Ajith Ambike “Real-Time Operating Environment for Networked Control Systems”. IEEE transactions on automation science and  engineering,vol.3,NO.3,JULY 2006.

4.        Senchun Chai, Guo-Ping Liu, David Rees, and Yuanqing Xia “Design and Practical Implementation of Internet-Based Predictive Control of a Servo System” IEEE transactions on control systems technology, vol. 16, no. 1, January 2008.

5.        Y.Tipsuwan,M.Y.Chow,“Control methodologies in networked control systems”,Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 11, pp. 1099-1111, 2003

6.        M. Wu, Y. He, J.-H. She, G.-P. Liu, “Delay-dependent criteria for robust stability of time varying delay systems”, Automatica, Vol. 40, pp. 1435-1439, 2004

7.        Tuning PID Controller for Speed Control of DC Motor Using Soft Computing Techniques-A Review.

8.        Karl Johan Astrom, Tore Hagglund (1988) Automatic Tuning of PID Controllers,Instrument Society of America.


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69.

Authors:

Anoop A.T., Nithin Joseph, Regi Kumar V.

Paper Title:

Review of Green and Sustainable Indicators for Indian Supply Chain Networks

Abstract:    Sustainability and Green are the thrust areas rising to prominence across every part of business, environment and society in the twenty first century. The mounting anxiety with the environment, in particular the possibility of climate change due to global warming has led to the attention on how human and economic activity has the potential to harmfully impact the sustainability of the planet. In this age of ambiguity, with the scarcity of resources and competing demands, finding the identical resources is the key challenge that supply chain managers are facing. The supply chain fulcrum that balances the demand and supply defines sustainability as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs”. This paper reviews a set of open, inclusive and natural set of indicators to measure sustainability of the supply chains. The main objective of this study is to differentiate the green and sustainable concepts in the literature and to identify the stand alone indicators in association with the future supply chain models. This study reviews a publically available indicator set and provides a categorization of indicators that are quantifiable and clearly related to supply chains. The work is also envision to establish an integrated sustainability indicator array as means to provide a common access for academicians to learn about current indicators and measures of sustainability. This paper considers Indian scenarios of growth as the reference framework for sustainability and development.

Keywords:
   Green, Sustainability, Sustainable Development, Sustainability Indicators, Sustainable Supply Chains


References:

1.       Rajesh Kumar, Rituraj Chandrakar, “Overview of Green Supply Chain Management: Operation and Environmental Impact at Different Stages of the Supply Chain”, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-1, Issue-3, February 2012.
2.       Noor Aslinda Abu Seman, Norhayati Zakuan, Ahmad Jusoh, Mohd Shoki Md Arif  “Green supply chain management: Review and research direction” in International Journal on managing value and supply chains (2012) Vol. 3, No.1

3.       Chiau-Ching Chen, Hsu-Shih Shih, Huan-Jyh Shyur, Kun-Shan Wu, “A business strategy selection of green supply chain management via an analytical network process”       in  Computers and Mathematics with Applications 64 (2012) 2544–2557

4.       McCool,S., Stankey G. “Indicators of sustainability: challenges and opportunities at the interface of science and policy” in Environmental Management 33(3) (2004) 294-305

5.       Katarzyna Grzybowska, “Sustainability in the Supply Chain: Analysing the Enablers”.  Available:  http://www.springer.com/978-3-642-23561-0

6.       Che B. Joung, John Carell, Prabir Sarkar, Shaw C.Feng “Categorization of indicators for sustainable manufacturing” in Ecological Indicators 24 (2012) 148-157

7.       Aref A. Hervani and Marilyn M. Helms, “Performance measurement for green supply chain management”, The Emerald Research Register. Available: www.emeraldinsight.com/researchregister

8.       Ali Diabat, Kannan Govindan, “An analysis of drivers affecting the implementation of green supply chain management” in Resources, in Conservation and Recycling 55 (2011) 659-667

9.       Mary J. Meixell, Vidyarnya B. Gargeya “Global supply chain design: Literature review and critique” in Transportation research E41(2005) 531-550

10.     Yijie Dou , Qinghua Zhu , Joseph Sarkis, ” Evaluating green supplier development programs with a grey-analytical network process-based methodology”, in European Journal of Operational Research  (2013)

11.     Susana G. Azevedo, Helena Carvalho, V. Cruz-Machado, “Proposal of a conceptual model to analyse the influence of large practices on manufacturing supply chain performance”, Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, ISSN 1548-6583, February 2012, Vol. 8, No. 2, 174-184.

12.     Helena Carvalho and V. Cruz-Machado, “Integrating Lean, Agile, Resilience and Green Paradigms in Supply Chain Management (LARG_SCM)”, InTechOpen (2011)

13.     Environmental Signals, Canada’s National Environmental Indicator Series2003,(2013, December). Available:http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/En40-775-2002E.pdf 

14.     CSD Indicators of Sustainable Development – 3rd edition, (2013, December). Available: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/factsheet.pdf

15.     A Framework for Sustainability Indicators at  PA, (2013, December) Available: http://www.epa.gov/sustainability/docs/framework-for-sustainability-indicators-at-epa.pdf

16.     Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, (2013, December). Available: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/guidelines.pdf.

17.     Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies, (2013, December). Available:
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/guidelines.pdf

18.     Ana Marie Francia,” Indicators of Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Methodologies”. Available: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/publications/indisd-mg2001.pdf.

19.     Industry for inclusive and sustainable development, United Nations Industrial Development Organization.  Available: http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media_upgrade/Who_we_are/Industry_for_inclusive_and_sustainable_development.pdf

20.     Gyaneshwar Singh Kushwaha, “Sustainable Development Through Strategic Green Supply Chain Management”, International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing Science., VOL. 1(1): 7-11 ISSN 2229-600X.

21.     José Antonio Ocampo, Aaron Cosbey, Martin Khor, “The Transition to a Green Economy: Benefits, Challenges and Risks from a Sustainable Development Perspective” (2010). Available: http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Portals/88/documents

22.     John Elkinjton,” Partnerships from Cannibals with Forks: The Triple iottom line of 2 1 st=Century Business”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1998) 1088-1913/98/0801037-15.

23.     Fortes, J., (2009) “Green Supply Chain Management: A Literature Review”, Otago Management Graduate Review, 7, pp 51-62.

24.     Srivastava, S.K., (2007) “Green supply-chain management: a state-of-the-art literature review”, International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp 53–80.

25.     Diabat, A. & Govindan, K., (2011) “An Analysis of the Drivers Affecting the Implementation of Green Supply Chain Management”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 55, pp 659-667.

26.     Darnall, N., Jolley, G.J. & Handfield, R., (2006) “Environmental management systems and green supply chain management: complements for sustainability?” Business Strategy and the Environment, article in press, DOI: 10.1002/bse.557.

27.     Eltayeb, T. K. & Zailani, S.H.M., (2011) “Greening Supply Chain through Supply Chain Initiatives towards Environmental Sustainbility”. International Journal of Managing Value and Supply Chains (IJMVSC) Vol. 3, No. 1, March 2012
28.     Zhu, Q., Sarkis, J. & Lai, K., (2008) “Green supply chain management implications for ‘‘closing the loop’’, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Vol. 44, No.  1, pp 1–18.

29.     OECD Sustainable Manufacturing Toolkit, Seven steps To Environmental Excellence. Available:

30.     http://www.oecd.org/innovation/green/toolkit/48661768.pdf

31.     Martin Christopher, “Logistics and Supply Chain Management”, Financial Times (2011). Fourth edition, Pearson education limited


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70.

Authors:

Kamal Kashyap, D.G.Mahto

Paper Title:

Improvement in Production and Quality of Fork Using CAD/CAM

Abstract:    This paper presents improvement of Fork of a universal coupling by process monitoring using CAM. Now days every part must be made so accurate so that it may give assurance to the manufacturer of quality. The cardinal purpose of this project is to identify the process sequence, machining time and accuracy of the finished product by using CAM. To get the perfect result the entire process is simulated by using NX software every aspect is determined like cutting tool, spindle speed and machining parameters, finally software simulates the entire sequence of processes resulting to give us a program from which the same product can be made in the best machining time.

Keywords:
   simulation, process sequence, machining parameters, machining time.


References:

1.        www.engineersaustralia.org.au.
2.        Leatham-Jones, Barry. Introduction to Computer Numerical Control. Singapore: Longman. 1986

3.        Raid Al-Aoma and Ala’a Al-Okaily, A GA-based parameter design for single machine turning process with high-volume production. Journal of Computers & Industrial Engineering 2006; 8: 317-337.

4.        Amic, Peter J. Computer Numerical Control Programming. USA: Prentice-Hall. 1997. 

5.        S. Sulaimana*, Tang S Honga, S. Pawanchia, G. R. Esmaeiliana, M.K.A. Ariffinaa, B.T.H.T. Baharudin, “Improvement of Tops Spinning Manufacturing with CNC Lathe”,Procedia Engineering 15(2011) 3886-3890.


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71.

Authors:

Arvind Jain, Amita Mahor, Parikshit Bajpai

Paper Title:

The State of Art of Reduction of Leakage Current in Grid Connected Inverters for PV System

Abstract:    Depletion of fossil fuel, unremitting increase in power demand and environmental concern develops a thought among power community to adopt new sources of power generation i.e. renewable energy sources. Due the abundance of solar energy PV systems are more popular, which can isolate from grid with the help of transformer. These transformers increase the cost and make the system more complex with decrease of efficiency. At the same time absence of transformer in grid connected system injects the leakage current in the inverter and increases the electromagnetic emissions, harmonics and losses in the system. To address the above many research have been done related to eliminate this leakage current. In this paper an exhaustive review has been done in the subject area.

Keywords:
   leakage current, photovoltaic (PV) systems, transformerless inverter.


References:

1.        S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Blaabjerg, “A review of single phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,” IEEETrans.Ind.Appl., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1292–1306, Sep. 2005.
2.        Y. Xue, L. Chang, S. B. Kjaer, J. Bordonau, and T. Shimizu, “Topologies of single-phase inverters for small distributed power generators : An overview,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1305–1314,Sep. 2004.                                                                           

3.        F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, and A. V. Timbus, “Overview of control and grid synchronization for distributed power generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1398–1409,Oct. 2006.                        

4.        R. Gonzalez, J. Lopez, P. Sanchis, and L. Marroyo, “Transformerless inverter for single-phase photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 693–697, Mar. 2007.                                                          

5.        S.M.Araujo, P. Zacharias, and R. Mallwitz, “Highly efficient single-phase Transformerless inverters for grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3118–3328, Sep. 2010.                       

6.        T. Kerekes, M. Liserre, R. Teodorescu, C. Klumpner, and M. Summer,“Evaluation of three-phase transformerless photovoltaic inverter topologies,”IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 2202–2211, Sep.2009.               

7.        T. Kerekes, R. Teodorescu, and M. Liserre, “Common mode voltage in case of transformerless PV inverters connected to the grid,” in Proc. IEEE,ISIE, Jun. 2008, pp. 2390–2395.                                                                         

8.        O. Lopez, R. Teodorescu, F. Freijedo, and J. Doval-Gandoy, “Eliminating ground current in a transformerless photovoltaic application,” in Proc.IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meet., Jun. 2007, pp. 1–5.                                                           

9.        Lopez, R. Teodorescu, and  J. DovalGandoy,"Multilevel transformer -lesstopologies for singlephase grideonnected converters," in 33rd Annual Conference ofIEEE Industrial Electronics Society. IECON'06, Paris,Nov. 7-10 2006, pp. 5191-5196.                                                       

10.     T. Kerekes, R. Teodorescu, and U. Borup, “Transformerless photovoltaic inverters connected to the grid,” in Proc. APEC, Feb. 25–Mar. 1, 2007,pp. 1733–1737.                                                                                 

11.     Y. Murai, T. Kubota, and Y. Kawase, “Leakage current reduction fora high-frequency carrier inverter feeding an induction motor,” IEEETrans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 28, pp. 858–863, July/Aug. 1992.

12.     S. Ogasawara  and H. Akagi, “Modeling and damping of high-frequency leakage currents in PWM inverter-fed ac motor drive systems,”  in IEEE IAS Conf. Rec., 1995, pp. 29–36.                                                                             

13.     S. Busquets-Monge, J. Rocabert, P. Rodriguez, S. Alepuz, and J. Bordonau, “Multilevel diode-clamped converter for photovoltaic generators with independent voltage control of each solar array,” IEEE Trans.Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2713–2723, Jul. 2008.

14.     R. Gonzalez, E. Gubia, J. Lopez, and L. Marroyo, “Transformerless single-phase multilevel-based photovoltaic inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2694–2702, Jul. 2008.

15.     M. C. Cavalcanti, K. C. de Oliveira, A. M. de Farias, F. A. S. Neves, G. M. S. Azevedo, and F. C. Camboim,  “Modulation techniques to eliminate leakage currents in transformerless three-phase photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1360–1368, Apr. 2010.                                                                           

16.     M. Cacciato, A. Consoli, G. Scarcella, and A. Testa, “Reduction ofcommon-mode currents in PWM inverter motor drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 469–476, Mar./Apr. 1999.

17.     E. Ün and A. M. Hava, “Performance analysis and comparison of reduced common mode voltage PWM and standard PWM techniques for threephase voltage source inverters,” in Proc. IEEE APEC, 2006, pp. 303–309.   

18.     June-Seok Lee and Kyo-Beum Lee,” New Modulation Techniques for a Leakage Current Reduction and a Neutral-Point Voltage Balance in Transformerless Photovoltaic Systems Using a Three-Level Inverter”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1720–1732, Apr. 2014.                                                                  

19.     A. L. Julian and T. A. Lipo, “Elimination of common mode voltage in three phase sinusoidal power converters,” in IEEE PESC Conf. Rec.,1996, pp. 1968–1972.                                          

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72.

Authors:

Parikshit Bajpai, Amita Mahor, Arvind Jain

Paper Title:

A Comparative Investigation of Reduce Device Count in Inverter Topologies

Abstract:    Industrialization plays an important role for the Economic growth of the country. In industries various convertors are used for the controlling and conversion of power in convertor Circuit. The no. of semiconductor devices are used along with its auxiliary circuit, which makes the system complex. Hence in order to reduce the complexity of converter system, various researchers are suggested different circuit topologies   in order to reduce the complexity of the of the converter system with reduce device count. , and claimed the better performance. This paper is response note of the various work   in the subject area .which has been already done previously.  

Keywords:
   switch count, switch leg structure.


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