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Volume-4 Issue-1 Published on October 30, 2014
Volume-4 Issue-1 Published on October 30, 2014
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S. No

Volume-4 Issue-1, October 2014, ISSN:  2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Vinod Kumar Rajpurohit, N.G.  Gore, V. G. Sayagavi

Paper Title:

Analysis of Structure Supported on Elastic Foundation

Abstract:    This study presents an analysis of beams, columns and raft, in a multistoried building structure, supported by elastic foundation. The structure is analyzed using E-Tab and Safe   software for three different values of modulus of subgrade reaction ‘K’ pertaining to different soil types, and it has been compared with the structure having fixed supports representing rigid base. The analysis highlights the fact that significant alteration of displacements, design forces and moments occur in the beams, columns and raft. The analysis also brings out the fact that settlement in a raft foundation depends on the stiffness of the soil. The settlement of raft at different values of modulus of subgrade reactions were analysed and compare with rigid support raft. The objective of this research is to develop a workable approach for the analysis of plates on elastic foundations that will provide the designer with realistic stress values for use in The design of the plate or, more specifically, reinforced concrete raft slabs.

  Soil - structure interaction,  modulus of subgrade, Winkler model , raft slab.


1.        Bowles J. E., Foundation Analysis and Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1982.
2.        John S. Horvath., “Practical  Subgrade  Model  for  Improved  Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis : Software Implementation,” Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, Vol. 15, No. 4,November 1, 2010.

3.        Civalek O., “Nonlinear analysis of thin rectangular plates on Winkler–Pasternak elastic foundations by DSC–HDQ methods,” Applied Mathematical Modeling 31, 2007. p. 606–624.

4.        Daloglu A. T. and Vallabhan C. V. G., “Values of K for slab on Winkler foundation” Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, Vol. 126, No. 5, 2000. p. 361-371.

5.        Fwa T.F., Shi X.P. and Tan S.A., “Use of Pasternak foundation model in concrete pavement analysis” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 122, No. 4, 1996, p. 323-328.

6.        Horvath J. S., “Modulus of subgrade reaction: new perspective,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 109, No. 12, 1983, p. 1591-1596.                              

7.        Kasmalkar B. J., Foundation Engineering, Pune Vidyarthi Griha Publication, 1991.

8.        Kerr A. D., “Elastic and visco-elastic foundation models.” Journal of Applied Mechanics, ASCE, 31, 1964. p. 491-498.

9.        Liou G. S. and Lai S.C., “Structural analysis model for mat foundations,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 122, No.9, 1996. p. 1114-1117.

10.     Mishra R. C. and Chakrabarti S. K., “Rectangular plates resting on tensionless elastic foundation: some new results”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 122, No.4, 1996.  p. 385-387. 

11.     Nasreddin el Mezaini, “Effects of soil-structure interaction on the analysis of cylindrical tanks” Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, Vol. 11, No.1, 2006.  p. 50-57. 

12.     Shi X.P., Tan S.A. and Fwa T.F., “Rectangular thick plate with free edges on Pasternak foundation” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 120, No.5, 1994. p. 971-988.
13.     Stavridis L. T., “Simplified analysis of layered soil-structure interaction,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.128, No. 2, 2002.  p. 224-230.
14.     Timoshenko S. P. and Goodlier, J. N., Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1970.

15.     Viladkar M. N., Karisiddappa, Bhargava P. and Godbole P.N., 2006, “Static soil–structure interaction response of hyperbolic cooling towers to symmetrical wind loads,” Engineering Structures, Volume 28, Issue 9, Pages 1236-1251.    

16.     Wang C. M., Xiang Y. and Wang Q., 2001, “Axisymmetric buckling of reddy circular plates on Pasternak foundation,” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 127, No. 3.

17.     Yang W., Weiss W. J. and Shah S. P., “Predicting shrinkage stress field in concrete slab on elastic subgrade” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 126, No.1, 2000. p. 35-42.

18.     Yin J-H., “Comparative modeling study of reinforced beam on elastic foundation.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, ASCE, 126(3), 2000. p. 265-271.




Achuthanunni V, Baiju B

Paper Title:

Experimental Investigation of a Diesel-Biodiesel Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

Abstract:    Biodiesel is derived from vegetable oils or animal fats through transesterification process. There are many advantages of biodiesel but it is not so popular because of high  NOx emission. In order to reduce NOx emission from the engine, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperature under control. EGR technique is one of the method to reduce NOx emission as it enables lower flame temperature and oxygen concentration in combustion chamber. The main objective of this paper is to fabricate an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) set up for the CI engine and produce biodiesel from sunflower oil then investigates the usage of biodiesel in the diesel engine without any engine modification. Experiments are conducted in a single cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine with 10 % EGR and without EGR. The result shows that 40% NOx emission is reduced by using EGR and the performance of biodiesel was found to be comparable with diesel at all loads.

   Biodiesel, EGR, Emission, NOX. Nomenclature— MEGR mass of gas re circulated (kg/s) MTOTAL mass of air intake (kg/s)


1.       G. O Pooja Ghodasara, Mayur Ghodasara. Experimental studies on emission and performance characteristics in diesel engine using biodiesel blend and EGR(Exhaust gas recirculation) International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering 2250-2459, 2012.
2.       M. Ahmad, S. Ahmed, F. Ul-Hassan, M. Arashad, M. Khan, M. Zafar, and S. Sultana. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil Bio-diesel. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 8630-8635, 2010.

3.       B. Baiju, M.K. Naik, L.M. Das. A comparative evaluation of compression ignition engine characteristics using methyl and ethyl esters of Karanja oil. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India. Renewable energy 1616-1621, 2009.

4.       H.E. Saleh Experimental study on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction running with jojoba methyl ester by exhaust gas recirculation Fuel 88, 1357–1364, 2009.

5.       B. Baiju, L.M. Das,M.K.G Babu,  The effect of using high FFA rubber seed based biodiesel with cold and hot EGR on performance and emissions of a CI engine Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India. ICES2008-1635, 2008.

6.       N. Saravanan, G. Nagarajan An experimental investigation on performance and emissions study with port injection using diesel as an ignition source for different EGR flow rates international journal of hydrogen energy 33, 4456 – 4462, 2008.

7.       A. Tsolakis, A. Megaritis, M.L. Wyszynski, K. Theinnoi Engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine operating on diesel-RME (rapeseed methyl ester) blends with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) Energy 32, 2072–2080, 2007.

8.       Deepak Agarwal, Shailendra Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Experimental investigation of control of NOx emissions in biodiesel-fueled compression ignition engine Renewable Energy 31 pp 2356-2369, 2006.

9.       Agarwal, D., Singh, S. K., Agarwal, A. K. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on performance, emissions, deposits and durability of a constant speed compression ignition engine, Applied Energy, 88:2900–2907, 2011.




P. Sathia prathap, V. S. K. Vengatachalapathy, K. Planiradja

Paper Title:

Machining of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites and its Further Improvement-A Review

Abstract:    In the present study based on the literature review, the machining of hybrid aluminium metal matrix composite (Al/SiC/B4C) is discussed. These hybrid MMCs can easily be machined by CNC milling and a good surface quality can be obtained by controlling the machining parameters. These hybrid metal matrix composites (hybrid MMCS) are finding increased applications because of improved mechanical and tribological properties than the single reinforced composites. These materials are developed for engine blocks, bearing for steering system, propeller vanes, drive shafts in aircraft. The machining of hybrid MMCs and their improvements by use of CNC milling are discussed.

   Metal matrix composites (MMCs), Ceramics particulates, Hybrid metal matrix composites (HMMCs), Computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine.


1.       Sahin Y.KokM. Celik H.; “Tool wear and surface roughness of Al2O3 particle-reinforced aluminium alloy composites”, Journal of material processing technology 128 (2002) pp. 280-291.
2.       Kok M. Ozdin K.; “Wear of aluminium alloy and its composites reinforced by Al2O3 surface particles”, Journal of material processing technology 183 (2007) pp. 301-309.

3.       Ali Kalkanli. Sencer Yilmaz.; “Synthesis and characterization of aluminium alloy 7075 reinforced with silicon carbide particulates”, (2007).

4.       Suresh Kumar Reddy N. Shin Kwang-Sup.; “Experimental study of surface integrity during end milling of Al/SiC particulate metal-matrix composites”, Journal of material processing technology 201 (2007) pp.574-579.

5.       Manoj single and Deepak dwivedi D.; “Development of aluminium based silicon carbide particulate metal matrix composite”, Journal of Minerals & Material Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 8, No.6, (2009) pp.455-467.

6.       Riaz Ahamed A. Paravasu Asokan. Sivanandan Aravindan M, Prakash K.; “Drilling of Hybrid Al- 5% SiC- 5% B4C particulate metal matrix composite”, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2009) 49:871-877.

7.       Seeman M. Ganesan G. Karthikeyan R. Velayudham A.; “Study on tool wear and surface roughness in machining of particulate aluminum metal matrix composite-response surface methodology approach”, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (2010) 48:613-624.

8.       Sasimurugan T. and Palanikumar K.; “Analysis of the Machining characteristics on Surface Roughness of a hybrid Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (Al6061-SiC-Al2O3)”, Journal of Minerals & Material Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 10, No.13, (2011) pp.1213-1224.

9.       Muthukrishnan N. Paulo Davim J.; “An investigation of the effect of work piece reinforcing percentage on the machinability of Al-SiC metal matrix composites”, Journal of mechanical Engineering Research, Vol. 3(1), pp. 15-24  No.13, (2011).

10.     Arun Premnath A. Alwarsamy T. Abhinav T Adithya Krishnakant C.; “Surface Roughness Prediction by Response Surface Methodology in Milling of Hybrid Aluminium Composites”, Procedia Engineering 38 (2012) pp.745-752.

11.     Uvarja V. Natarajan N.; “Optimization of friction and wear Behavior in hybrid Metal Matrix Composites Using Taguchi Technique”, Journal of Minerals & Material Characterization & Engineering, 2012, 11, pp.757-768.

12.     Pragnesh R. Patel V A.; “Effect of machining parameters on surface roughness and power consumption for 6063 Al alloy TiC Composites”, International Journal of Engineering research and Application Vol. 2, Issue 4, 2012,  pp.295-300.

13.     Mahesh Babu T S. Aldrin Sugin M S. Muthukrishnan N.; “Investigation on the characteristics of surface quality on machining of hybrid metal matrix composite (Al-SiC-B4C)”, Procedia Engineering 38 (2012) 2617-2624.

14.     Wang T. Xie L J. Wang X B.; “surface integrity of high speed milling of Al/SiC/65p aluminium matrix composites”, Procedia CIRP 8 (2013) 475-480.

15.     Rajkumar K. Maria Antony Charles J. Vinoth Kumar K.; “Mechanical and Machining Characteristics of Al/B4C metal Matrix Composites”, Conference on Emerging trends in Mechanical Engineering 2013.

16.     Gopal Krishna U B. Sreenivas Rao K V. Vasudeva B.; “Effect of boron carbide reinforcement on aluminium matrix composites”, International Journal of metallurgical & materials science and Engineering Vol. 3, Issue I, 2012, pp.41-48.

17.     Sourabh Gargatta. RahulR.Upadhye Venkatesh S. Dandagi.; “Preparation and Characterization of Al-5083 Alloy Composites”, Journal of Minerals & Material Characterization & Engineering, (2011), 1, pp.1213-1224.




Rajagopal D, Varun S, Manikanth M, Bysani Somasai Sriram Kumar

Paper Title:

Automobile Leaf Spring from Composite Materials

Abstract:   Automobiles today are over 63% iron and steel by weight .With rising energy and environmental concerns, as well as increases in electronics and other on-board vehicle systems. Vehicle light-weighting continues to be a prominent concern for vehicle manufacturers. New structural materials - metals, ceramics, polymers or hybrid materials derived from these, called composites – open a promising avenue in automobile industries. This paper describes design and experimental analysis of composite leaf spring made of glass fiber reinforced polymer. The objective is to compare the load carrying capacity, stiffness and weight savings of composite leaf spring with that of steel leaf spring and describes the significant economic potential of polymer composite and to replace automobile components (leaf Spring) against the steel.

   polymers, ceramics, composites, leaf spring.


1.        Hawang, W., Han, K. S. Fatigue of Composites – Fatigue Modulus Concept and Life Prediction Journal of Composite Materials, 1986.
2.        Dharam, C. K. Composite Materials Design and Processes for Automotive Applications. The Asme Winter Annual Meeting, San Francisco, 1978. 

3.        Springer, George S., Kollar, Laszloa P. Mechanics of Composite Structures. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2003.

4.        Al-Qureshi, H. A. Automobile Leaf Springs from Composite Materials, Journal of Processing Technology, 2001.




Zar Khitab, Farooq Ahmed Bhatti

Paper Title:

5 GHz Voltage Controlled Oscillations for Frequency Agile RADAR, with Initial Frequency Tuning Capacitor

Abstract:    This Paper presents voltage controlled oscillator at 5GHz, 300 MHz bandwidth, and up to 50 kHz wide pulse repetition frequency, for pulse to pulse frequency agile radar. Negative-resistance method with initial frequency tuning capacitor is used in design. The frequency tuning is based on resonant capacitance for varying controlled voltage. The oscillator peak out power is 7.7 dBm, minimum output power in 300 MHz range is 6.997 dBm.  First harmonic have power -7.793 dBm. Peak voltage deviation of 12249mV occurs for 34.025 MHz band.  The proposed oscillator satisfies standard requirements to generate oscillation frequency for wide band radar systems. Suppressed harmonics and lesser variation in output power throughout 300MHz chip enhances the receive sensitivity of RADAR.  

Keywords:   frequency agile radar, Harmonics, output power variation, Voltage Controlled Oscillator.


1.       Branislav LOJKO, Peter FUCH., “A Contribution to the VCO modeling and simulation.” 2009 IEEE.
2.       Craninckx, J. and Steyaert, M., “Low-noise voltage controlled oscillators using enhanced LC-tanks,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing.  vol.42, no.12, pp.794-804. 1995

3.       Antonio Buonomo, Alessandro Lo Schiavo. “The Effect of Parameter Mismatches in RF VCO.” 2008 IEEE.

4.       Wang Xiantaiy, Shen Huajun, Jin Zhi, Chen Yanhu, and Liu Xinyu, “A 6 GHz high power and low phase noise VCO using an InGaP/GaAs HBT,” Vol.30, No.2 Journal of Semiconductors, 2008 IEEE.

5.       Bharadwaj, kumar vijay mishra and v. chandrasekar, “waveform considerations for dual-polarization doppler weather radar with solid-state transmitters”, 2009 IEEE.

6.       S.Y Lee, S. Amakawa, N. Ishihara, K. Masu, “Low-Phase-Noise Wide-Frequency-Range Differential Ring-VCO with Non-Integral Subharmonic Locking in 0.18 μm CMOS.” Proceedings of the 40th European Microwave Conference. 2010 EuMA.

7.       M. R. Basar, F. Malek, Khairudi M. Juni, M. I. M. Saleh, M. Shaharom Idris. “A Low Power 2.4-GHz Current Reuse VCO for Low Power Miniaturized Transceiver System.” 2012 IEEE International Conference on Electronics Design, Systems and Applications (ICEDSA)

8.       S. L. Jang, S. S. Lin, C. W. Chang, and S. H. Hsu, “Quadrature VCO Formed with Two Colpitts VCO Coupled via an LC-Ring Resonator,”

9.       Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, vol. 24, pp. 185-196, 2011.




P. Roseline, B. Ramesh, Ch. V. V. Manga Lakshmi

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis of Twenty Seven Level Asymmetrical Cascaded H-Bridge Multi Level Inverter Fed Three Phase Induction Motor Drive

Abstract:   Multilevel inverters are suitable of high power handling capacity, associated with lower output harmonics and lower commutation losses. But the main disadvantages of multi level inverters are complexity, requiring a more number of power devices and passive components, and complex control circuitry. Hence a Twenty Seven Level Cascaded H-Bridge multi level inverter (CHBMLI) topology is proposed which requires only twelve switches and those switches are controlled by using of New PWM technique i.e., POD (Phase Opposition Disposition) modulation method whereas Twenty switches are required in the cascaded H- bridge multi level inverter (CHBMLI) for Eleven Level by using of Repeating sequence method. The proposed cascaded H- bridge multi level inverter topology offers strong advantages such as improved output waveforms, smaller filter size, and lower electromagnetic interference. Here an asymmetrical configuration of Twenty Seven-level inverter (TSLI) based Cascaded H-Bridge Multi Level topology fed Three Phase Induction Motor Drive performance is analyzed and compared with CHBMLI with Repeating sequence as switching technique. The performance factors are obtained at both transient and steady state operating conditions with usage of minimum number of switches so that switching losses can be reduced effectively with cascaded H- bridge multi level approach.

   Cascaded H-Bridge Multi Level Inverter, Phase opposition disposition, Twenty seven level inverter, Total harmonic distortion. 


1.        Y. Li, D. M. Vilathgamuwa, and P. C. Loh, ―Design, analysis, and real time testing of a controller for multi bus micro grid system,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1195-1204, Sept. 2004.
2.        N. Hatziargyriou, H. Asano, R. Iravani, and C. Marnay, ―Micro grids,‖ IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 78-94, Jul./Aug. 2007.

3.        F. Katiraei, R. Iravani, N. Hatziargyriou, and A. Dimeas, ―Micro grids management,‖ IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 6, no. 3, pp 54- 65, May/Jun., 2008.

4.        C. L. Chen, Y. Wang, J. S. Lai, Y. S. Lee, and D. Martin, ―Design of parallel inverters for smooth mode transfer micro grid applications,‖IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 6-15, Jan. 2010.

5.        C. T. Pan, C. M. Lai, and M. C. Cheng, ―A novel high step-up ratio inverter for distributed energy resources (DERs),‖ IEEE International Power Electronics Conference-ECCE Asia, pp.1433-1437, 2010.

6.        C. T. Pan, C. M. Lai, and M. C. Cheng ―A novel integrated singlephase inverter with an auxiliary step-up circuit for low-voltage alternative energy source application,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 2234-2241, Sep. 2010.

7.        F. Blaabjerg, Z. Chen, and S. B. Kjaer, ―Power electronics as efficient interface in dispersed power generation systems,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1184-1194, Sep. 2004.

8.        D. G. Infield, P. Onions, A. D. Simmons, and G. A. Smith, ―Power quality from multiple grid-connected single-phase inverters,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1983-1989, Oct. 2004.

9.        S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. Blaabjerg ―A review of singlephase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,‖ IEEE Trans. Industry Applications, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1292-1306, Sep./Oct. 2005.

10.     O. Lopez, R.Teodorescu, and J. Doval-Gandoy, ―Multilevel transformer less topologies for single-phase grid-connected converters‖ IEEE Industrial Electronics Conference, pp. 5191-5196, 2006.

11.     T. Kerekes, R. Teodorescu, and U. Borup, ―Transformer less photovoltaic inverters connected to the grid,‖ IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, pp. 1733-1737, 2007.

12.     G. Ceglia, V. Guzman, C. Sanchez, F. Ibanez, J. Walter, and M. I. Gimenez, ―A new simplified multilevel inverter topology for DC-AC conversion,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1311- 1319, Sep. 2006

13.     N. A. Rahim and J. Selvaraj, ―Multistring five-level inverter with novel PWM control scheme for PV application,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2111-2123, Jun. 2010

14.     C. T. Pan, W. C. Tu, and C. H. Chen, ―A novel GZV-based multilevel single phase inverter, Taiwan Power Electronics conference, pp. 1391- 1396, Sep. 2010.

15.     P. Suresh kumar, J.Hema sundar- Three Phase Multi string Multi level Inverter for Renewable Energy Resources with Induction Motor Drive, (IJLAEEE), Vol-2,Issue-2,2013.

16.     Ch. V.V. Manga Lakshmi, B. Ramesh, Dr. K. Sathyanarayana - Performance Analysis of Eleven Level Asymmetrical Multi String Multi Level Inverter fed Three Phase Induction Motor Drive (IJAST), Volume-7, No.6, pp no.37-46,  Dec.2013.




Hashim Hanif, Yasar Saleem, Zuhaib Aslam Shahid, Abdullah Hanif, Anwar Zeb

Paper Title:

Assessment of Extension of Time Claims in Hydropower Projects of Pakistan

Abstract:    The occurrence of delay in construction industry is a regular trend all over the world which is caused by number of factors. The Hydropower projects are no exception to such delays. It is difficult to find a Hydropower project in Pakistan not experiencing delay. Construction Industry in Pakistan is transforming itself into a very well organized and scientifically managed industry over the past one decade. It is observed that Construction Management issues related to mega projects such as Hydropower Projects, still need to be addressed. First step in finding out the causes of Extension of Time Claims in Hydropower Projects is to identify the factors that significantly contribute towards the deformation of triple constraint (Cost, Scope and Time) of Construction Projects. This research has been carried out on nine (15) Hydropower Projects in Pakistan, which have been completed in last 10 years or are in execution phase of construction. Survey questionnaires were created to collect data from all project stakeholders comprising of clients, consultants and contractors. In addition, these projects were physically visited and Project Management Documents related to all phases were reviewed. The causes leading to delays have been identified and ranked with the help of these questionnaires and reviews. A variety of Techniques have been employed for the assessment of Extension of Time Claims, main purpose of this study was therefore to analyze different Techniques which are used in Pakistan and to probe the reasons for delay in the assessment and submission of EOT. The demographic data of the respondents have also been collected in order to ensure the responses were not biased and to point out the phase that is more prone to delays. They were ranked using the relative importance index (RII) as well as Pareto Analysis. Research revealed that the delay in interim payment certificates, land acquisition problems, delay in issuance of construction drawings, lack of baseline schedule and poor design were among the leading contributing factors leading to Extension of Time Claims. Based on the lessons learnt after conclusion of such projects around the world and experience of managers at all levels associated to Hydropower Projects, this study also recommends measures to curb the causes of delays so that the construction process can be optimized.

   Extension of Time, (EOT), Delay Causes, Construction Industry and Hydropower Projects


1.       T. Williams, “Assessing extension of time delays on major projects.”  International Journal of Project Management. vol. 21, pp. 19-26,
2.       Lew Yoke-Lian. Assessment of Extension of Time Claims in Malaysian Construction industry. International Journal of Engineering & Technology Vol 4, No 4, August, 2012.

3.       Assaf S.A. and Al-Hejji S. (2006). Causes of delay in large building construction projects. International Journal of Project Management 24(4):pp. 349-357.

4.       Fugar, F D K and AgyakwahBaah, A B (2010) ‘Delays in building construction projects in Ghana’, Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 10 (1/2) 103116

5.       Fagbenle, O.I., Adeyemi, A.Y., and Adesanya, D.A. (2004) ‘The impact of non-financial incentives on briclayers’ productivity in Nigeria’, Construction Management and Economics, 22, 899-911

6.       Aibinu,  Jagboro GO. The effects of construction delays on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry.  International Journal Project Management 2002; 20:593–9

7.       M.Hasseb, Luxinhai, annesa Bibi, Qazi Ghulam Raqeeb, A case study on Importance of delay causes in Construction Projects of Pakistan, Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences Vol. 1 No. 10 [94-101]




Tejas G. Gaikwad, N. G. Gore, V. G. Sayagavi, Kiran Madhavi, Sandeep Pattiwar

Paper Title:

Effect of Wind Loading on Analysis of Natural Draught Hyperbolic Cooling Tower

Abstract:   Natural draught cooling towers are very common in modern days thermal and nuclear power stations. These towers with very small shell thickness are exceptional structures by their sheer size and sensitivity to horizontal loads. These are the hyperbolic shells of revolution in form and are supported on closely spaced inclined columns. Wind loading on NDCT governs critical cases and requires research. This paper emphasize on effect of wind on Natural draught hyperbolic cooling tower. The slenderness of the columns and the large dimensions of the shell make these structures vulnerable to earthquake and wind disturbances. In this work efficient Analysis & design of cooling tower is presented with V- shape configuration of Raker column. Finite element modeling of cooling tower shell is done which divide shell into number of plates to apply wind loading on each plate. Gust method and Peak wind Methods are adopted to apply wind load. For this purpose models are workout on Staad Pro V8i to give comparative results of analysis, design and constructability. Effective wind analysis can be done with the help of this methodology.

   hyperbolic cooling tower, nonlinear inelastic behavior, principal stresses on shell, dynamic Stresses, finite element analysis


1.        S. Arunachalam a, S.P. Govindaraju b, N. Lakshmanan “Across-Wind Aerodynamic Parameters Of Tall Chimneys With Circular Structure“, ASCE Journal of Engineering Structures, pp.502–520, 2001.
2.        Alok David John, Ajay Gairola, Eshan Ganju, Anant Gupta, “Design Wind Loads On Reinforced Concrete Chimney Experimental Case Study” Journal of Procedia Engineering, pp. 1252–1257,2011.

3.        By P. Srinivasa Rao t and K. Ramanjaneyulu, “Stability Of Cooling Tower Shell with Modified Wind Pressure Coefficient”. ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol.: 119, pp.-2207-2225, 1993.

4.        M.N. Viladkara, Karisiddappab, P. Bhargavaa,, P.N. Godbolec “Static Soil–Structure Interaction Response Of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers to Symmetrical Wind Loads” IEEE Journal of Engineering Structures, pp. 1236–1251, 2006.

5.        Salman H. Abu-Sitta, “Dynamic Wind Stresses in Hyperbolic Cooling Tower” ASCE Journal of structural engineering, Sep-1973.

6.        Mohmoud G. Hashish, “Response of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers to Turbulent Wind” ASCE Journal of structural engineering, May-1974.

7.        Ray L. Steinmetz, “Hyperbolic Cooling Towers with Dynamic Response to Wind” ASCE Journal of structural engineering, Jan-1978.

8.        John Armit, “Wind Loading on Cooling Tower” ASCE Journal of structural engineering, Mar-1980.

9.        Hans. Jirgen Niemann

10.     Norman J. Solienberger “Wind Loading and Response of Cooling Tower”,ASCE Journal of structural engineering Division, Mar-1980.

11.     J.D.Gurney & J.A.Cotter, Cooling Tower, Maclaren and Sons Ltd, London, 1966.

12.     G.C.Parkinson, Cooling Towers in India, L.G. Mochel & Parteners, Consulting Engineering, London, 1974.

13.     Robert Burger, Cooling Tower Technology (Maintenance,Upgrading and Rebuilding), Fermont Press, 1994.

14.     Natural Draught Hyperbolic Cooling Tower –FerryBridge and after, London, 1967.

15.     K.K.Mckelvey & Maxey Brooke, The Industrial Cooling Tower, Elsevier Publishing Company, 1959.

16.     IS 875 (1987), “Indian standard code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for building and structures, Part 3, Wind loads”, Indian StandardInstitution.

17.     IS 11504 (1985), “Indian standard-Criteria for structural design of reinforcement concrete natural draught cooling towers”, Indian Standard Institution.

18.     BS 4485 (1996), “British standard for water cooling towers, Part 4, Code of practice for structural design and construction” ,British Standard Institution.

19.     BS 6399 (1997), “British standard for Loading for Building, Part 2, Code of practice for wind loads”, British Standard Institution

20.     IS 1893 (Part 1):2002,”Indian Standard Criteria For Earthquake Resistant Design Of Structures”

21.     BS 8110-1:1997,”Structural Use Of Concrete Part 1: Code Of Practice For Design And Construction”

22.     BS 4485 (1975), “British standard for water cooling towers, Part 4, Code of practice for structural design and construction” ,British Standard Institution.




Akanksha Singh, Sini Shibu, Shatendra Dubey

Paper Title:

Recent Image Enhancement Techniques: A Review

Abstract:    This paper reviews various image enhancement techniques both in spatial and frequency domains and compared them to suggest a method for a high SNR, enhanced and perceptually clearer images while preserving the image`s original colour. Histogram equalisation, low pass filter, fuzzy based image enhancement, Stochastic Resonance in different domains and colour enhancement techniques are being discussed and their effectiveness is gauged and to compare them with various available image enhancement techniques using well defined performance matrices and performance parameters.

   Image enhancement, DCT, DWT, Noise, Stochastic Resonance


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10.     R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing”, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, 2008.

11.     Manvi, R. S. Chauhan, M. Singh, “Image Contrast Enhancement Using Histogram Equalization”, International Journal of Computing & Business Research ISSN (Online): 2229 -6166, Proceedings of ‘I-Society 2012’ at GKU, Talwandi Sabo Bathinda, Punjab.

12.     M. Hongler, Y. Meneses, A. Beyeler, and J. Jacot, “Resonant retina: Exploiting vibration noise to optimally detect edges in an image,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1051–1062, 2003.

13.     Q. Ye, H. Huang, X. He, and C. Zhang, “Image enhancement using stochastic resonance,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 1, Singapore, 2004, pp. 263–266.

14.     C. Ryu, S. G. Konga, and H. Kimb, “Enhancement of feature extraction for low-quality fingerprint images using stochastic resonance,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 107–113, 2011.

15.     E. Simonotto, M. Riani, S. Charles, M. Roberts, J. Twitty, and F. Moss, “Visual perception of stochastic resonance,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 1186–1189, 1997.

16.     Rajib Kumar Jha, Rajlaxmi Chouhan, P. K. Biswas, “Noise-induced Contrast Enhancement of Dark Images using Non-dynamic Stochastic Resonance”, National Conference on Communications (NCC), 2012, pp 1-5.

17.     Z. Wang, H. R. Sheikh, and A. C. Bovik, “No reference perceptual quality assessment of jpeg compressed images,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, vol. 1, New York, USA, Sep. 2002, pp. 477–480.

18.     P. S. Sengar, T. K. Rawat, H. Parthasarathy, “Color Image Enhancement by Scaling the Discrete Wavelet Transform Coefficients”, International Conference on Microelectronics, Communication and Renewable Energy (ICMiCR-2013).

19.     S. Lee, ‘‘An efficient content-based image enhancement in the compress -ed domain using retinex theory,’’ IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 199--213, Feb. 2007. S.

20.     Susstrunk and S. Winkler, ‘‘Color image quality on the internet,’’ Proc. IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging: Internet Imaging V, vol. 5304, pp. 118-131, 2004.




A. Ramezani, M. R. Noroozi, M. Aghababaee

Paper Title:

Analyzing Free Space Optical Communication Performance

Abstract:    Over the last three decades free-space optical communication (FSO) has become more and more interesting as an adjunct to radio frequency communication. In spite of the very great technical advancement of available components, the major limitation of free-space communication performance is due to the atmosphere, because a portion of the atmospheric path always includes turbulence and multiple scattering effects. Starting from a fundamental understanding of the optical communications system under different weather conditions, this paper provides a treatment of the evaluation of parameters needed for analyzing and simulation of system performance. Finally the advent of the new technology of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and a new compact laser communication terminal that increase the data rate and enhancing performance are explained.

   Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), Link Budget, Turbulence, Fading.


1.       Arun K. Majumdar. Free-space laser communication performance in the atmospheric channel. J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Rep. 2, 345–396© 2005 Springer Science Business Media Inc.
2.       Hennes HENNIGER1, Otakar WILFERT2, An Introduction to Free-space Optical Communications RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 19, NO. 2, JUNE 2010

3.       Salasiah Hitam, Siti Norziela Suhaimi, Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor,Siti Barirah Ahmad Anas and Ratna Kalos Zakiah Sahbudin. Performance Analysis on 16-ChannelsWavelength Division Multiplexing in Free Space. Optical Transmission under Tropical Regions Environment. Journal of Computer Science 8 (1): 145-148, 2012ISSN 1549-3636© 2012 Science Publications.

4.       Yoshinori Arimoto. Compact free-space optical terminal for multi-gigabit signal transmissions with a single mode fiber. Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXI, edited by Hamid Hemmati, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 7199, 719908 • © 2009 SPIE

5.       DAS, S., HENNIGER, H., EPPLE, B., MOORE, C., RABINOVICH,W., SOVA, R., YOUNG,D. Requirements and challenges for tactical free-space laser comm. In IEEE Military Communications Conference. San Diego (USA), 2008.

6.       MAJUMDAR, A. K., RICKLIN, J. C. Free-Space Laser Communications Principles and Advances. Sew York (USA): Springer, 2008.

7.       GIGGENBACH, D., HENNIGER, H. Fading-loss assessment in atmosphericfree-space optical communication links with on-off keying.Optical Engineering, 2008.

8.       MAYER, B., SHABDANOV, S., GIGGENBACH, D. Atmospheric Database of Atmospheric Absorption Coefficients (technical report).German Aerospace Center (DLR), 2002.
9.       WILFERT , O., KOLKA, Z. Statistical model of free-space optical data link. Proceedings of SPIE, 2004, vol. 5550, p. 203 – 213.

10.     Daniel V. Hahn, David M. Brown, Andrea M. Brown, Chun-Huei Bair, Mark J. Mayr, Nathan W. Rolander, Joseph E. Sluz, and Radha Venkat. Fog Conformal Free-Space Optical Communications Terminal Designs for Highly Confined Vehicles. JOHNS HOPKINS APL TECHNICAL DIGEST, VOLUME 30, NUMBER 4 (2012)

11.     S. Qhumayo, R. Martinez Manuel. Free Space Optical data communication link. Photonics Research Group, Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering University of Johannesburg, PO Box524, Auckland Park, 2006

12.     EDWARDS, D. P. GENLN2: A General Line-by-Line Atmospheric Transmittance and Radiance Model. Version 3.0: Description and users guide (technical report). National Center for Atmospheric Research,1992.




M. R. Noroozi, A. Ramezani, M. Aghababaee

Paper Title:

Automatic Ship Types Classification in Silhouette Images

Abstract:    Object identification or object classification is an important task in computer vision and pattern recognition. Silhouette image comprises many features which can be used for these demands. In this paper Discrete Hartley Transform (DHT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) are used for feature extraction from silhouette image. These features are then applied to the neural network for ship type classification. Ship features from different  view (only 4 features in each image) were trained with feed forward back propagation neural network and accuracy was  satisfied   for testing over 50 images,  also this algorithm is stands up robustly against the noise and can be used for classification another things such as animals, people , vehicles,etc.

   Pattern recognition, object classification silhouette image, DHT (Discrete Hartley Transform), DCT, ship type classification.


1.       Paul Withagena, Klamer Schuttea, Albert Vossepoelb, and Marcel Breuersa,“Automatic classification of ships from infrared (FLIR) images”.vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 582-588. (To be published at SPIE AeroSense Orlando, April 5th 1999, Vol. 3720,Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition VIII).W.-K. Chen, Linear Networks and Systems (Book style). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123–135.
2.       L. Gagnon1 and R. Klepko, “Hierarchical Classifier Design for Airborne SAR Images of Ships”.

3.       V.Gouallier and L.Gagnon, “ship silhouette recognition using Principal Components Analaysis”.

4.       Jorge Alves, Jessica Herman , Neil C. Rowe, “Robust Recognition of Ship Types from an Infrared Silhouette”.

5.       Mark S. NixonAlberto S. Aguado, “Feature Extraction and Image Processing”.

6.       Syed Ali Khayam,“The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)Theory and Application” ,ECE 802 – 602.

7.       Golamali rezai-rad,Majid Aghababaie, “comparison of SUSAN and Sobel edge Detection in MRI Images for Feature Extraction”,IEEE2006.

8.       Marcelo M. Perez and Tim J. Dennis, “An Adaptive Implementation of the SUSAN Method Image Edge and Feature Detection” M. Young, The Techincal Writers Handbook.  Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.

9.       A. Saradha1 and S. Annadu,“A Hybrid Feature Extraction Approach for Face Recognition Systems”.




V. Veera Nagireddy, D. V. Ashok Kumar, K. Venkata Reddy

Paper Title:

Optimal Placement and Sizing of Multiple Distributed Generation using Combined Differential Evaluation - HPSO Method

Abstract:   Integration of renewable energy based Distributed Generation (DG) units in modern days of conventional radial distribution systems provides potential benefits in terms service continuity and makes more reliable. The power injections from renewable sources are located close to the load centers which provide system voltage support, reduction in system losses and performance improvement. This paper presents an enhanced approach for DG placement in radial distribution feeders to reduce the real power loss and to improve the voltage profile. The DG placement approach involves the identification of location for DG placement and the size of the DG to be installed at the identified location. The location of the nodes where the DG should be placed is decided by a hybrid Particle Swam Optimization and Differential Evaluation method. A case study with an IEEE 34 bus distribution feeder is presented. A comparison is made between the proposed HPSO approach and the classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The proposed hybrid Differential Evaluation Particle Swarm Optimization (DEPSO) method is proven to give better results in terms of loss reduction and better voltage profile.

   particle swarm optimization, PSO, Differential evolution, DEPSO, distributed generation, voltage profile improvement, loss reduction, Load flows.


1.        M. H. Bollen and F. Hassan, Integration of Distributed Generation in the Power System. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2011.
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3.        R. A. Walling, and N. W. Miller, “Distributed generation islanding implications on power system   dynamic   performance,” IEEE   Power   Engineering   Society   Summer Meeting, vol.1, pp. 92-96, 2002.

4.        Gopiya Naik S, D. K. Khatod and M. P. Sharma, Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generation in Distribution System for Loss Reduction‖, IPCSIT vol. 28 (2012) © (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore: 42-46.

5.        R. Ranjan and, D. Das , ― Simple and Efficient Computer Algorithm to Solve Radial Distribution Networks,‖ International Journal of Electric Power Components and Systems, vol.31, no. 1,: pp.95 -107, 2003.

6.        B. and O Kane, P. J. , “Identifying loss of mains in electricity distribution system, “ Patent Number: GB2317759, 1998.

7.        “IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems,” Approved 12 June 2003, Reaffirmed 25 September 2008.

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9.        Xie X F, Zhang W J, Yang Z L. A dissipative particle swarm optimization. Congress on Evolutionary Computation, 2002: 1456-1461

10.     Higashi N, Iba H. Particle swarm optimization with Gaussian mutation. IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, 2003: 72-79

11.     Kennedy J. Bare bones particle swarms. IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium, 2003: 80-87

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14.     IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems, IEEE Std. 1547-2003, 2009, vol. 15.

15.     D. Q. Hung, N. Mithulananthan, and R. C. Bansal, “Analytical expressions for DG allocation in primary distribution networks,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 814–820, Sep. 2010.

16.     Ganesh Kumar,Salman Mohagheghi,Jean-Carlos Hernandez Yamille delValle, "Particle Swarm Optimization: Basic Concepts, Variants and Applications in Power Systems.," in IEEE, 2008, pp. 171-195.




Malini S, Moni R. S

Paper Title:

A  Combined Spatial and Frequency Domain Approach for Removal of Impulse Noise from Images

Abstract:    Visual quality of any natural image is lost when it is corrupted by noise, especially by impulse noise. Further, essential features of the image cannot be retrieved from noisy image. Considering the reality that noise is ubiquitous, image denoising is an unavoidable prerequisite for any type of higher level image processing. A variant of the existing method of impulse noise removal is proposed in this paper. The method has two stages. Detection of noisy pixels and then replacing the noisy pixels by one of its non-noisy neighbour is the first stage. In the second stage, a multiresolution technique of image denoising is employed. The proposed method is found to be very effective in image denoising of grey as well as color images, as is evidenced by the given experimental results. Also the method is shown to be effective in reducing mixed noise from images.

   Denoising frequency domain,impulse noise, multiresolution, spatial method, stationary wavelet. 


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5.       Arumugam Rajamoni, V. Krishnaveni, H.W.Ferose, M.A. Kalaikamal, “New Denoising approach for the removal of Impulse Noise From Color Images and Video Sequences”. Image Anal Stereol, Vol. 31, 2012, pp189-191

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Signal Processing, ICASSP 06, vol.2, May 2006, pp.857-860.

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18.     Ming Zhang, Bahadir, and K.K. Gunturk, “Multiresolution Bilateral Filtering for Image Denoising,”  IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol.17[12], 2008, pp. 2324-2333.

19.     I.Elyasi., S. Zermchi. “Elimination of Noise by Adaptive Wavelet Threshold,” World Academy of Science, Engg & Tech., vol. 56, 2009, pp. 462-465.




Yatheesha R. B, Anarghya A, Ranjith B. S, Nitish Rao

Paper Title:

Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV)

Abstract:    This paper describes the range extension of an electric vehicle. In this project, an Internal Combustion(IC) Engine is coupled to a Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) Motor and the generated electricity is used to charge the battery when the charge of the battery is very less through a charging circuit. It results in improved range, as the overall distance travelled per charge of the vehicle will increase and thus make it a viable proposition for daily commuting. Increased energy security, as the vehicle will not run on IC engine directly. This leads to lower consumption of fuel.

   Electric vehicle, Generator, Hybrid vehicle, PMDC motor, Range extension.


1.        B.K. Powell, T.E. Pilutti, A Range Extender Hybrid Electric Vehicle Dynamic Model, Conference on Decision and Control, Lake BuenaVista, FL, vol.33, December 1994.
2.        K Imai, T Ashida, Y Zhang, Theoretical Performance of EV Range Extender Compared with Plug in Hybrid, Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles. Vol. 6, no. 2, December 2008, pp. 1181-1184.

3.        Z. Yu, Automotive Theory4th ed., Beijing: China Machine Press, 2006.

4.        V. Freyermuth, E Fallas and A Rousseau, Comparison of Power train Configuration for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective, SAE paper 2008-01-0461, SAE World Congres and Exhibition, April 2008.

5.        B.G. Thomas, A.B. Michael, Low- Emission Range Extender for Electric Vehicles, SAE International Document No. 972634, 1997.

6.        W. Heling, Research on Development of Electronic Control Fuel Injection System of Motorcycle, Chang’an University, Xi’an, China, May 2009.

7.        D. A. Howey, R.M. Martinez-Botas, B. Cussons &L. Lytton,Comparative measurements of the energy consumption of 50 electric, hybrid and internal combustion engine vehicles, 2011.

8.        A.D. Hawkes, Estimating marginal CO2 emissions rates for national electricity systems, 2010.

9.        F.R. Kalhammer,B.M. Koph, D.H. Swan,V.P. Roan, M.P. Walsh, Status and Prospects for Zero Emissions Vehicle Technology,Report of the ARB Independent Expert Panel, 2007

10.     K. Nishizawa,Development of New Technologies Targeting Zero Emissions for Gasoline Engines, (SAE 2000-01-0890).

11.     Dr. K Lingaiah, Design data hand book, 2010.

12.     M.J. Duoba, Issues in Emissions Testing of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Global Power train Congress, Detroit, MI, May 6-8, 2000.




V. Bhavani Sankar, K. Durga Rani, S.S.S.V. Gopala Raju

Paper Title:

Parking Study at Simhachalam Temple Hill Top in Visakhapatnam - Case Study

Abstract:    The Historic Varaha Narasimha Swami’s temple is located on Simhachalam hill at an elevation of 244 mats, built in the 11th century by the King Sri Krishnadevarayam. Thousands of pilgrims visit the temple from various parts of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha daily. There is no proper parking place or parking slots available for two and four wheelers. In the present work, the parking demand on Simhachalam hill top is studied and proposed a place for two wheeler, four wheeler and bus parking slots based on the analysis. As per the demand about 100 two wheeler slots, 320 four wheelers slots and 20 bus parking slots have been proposed.

   Parking, Traffic, Road Geometry, Parking Demand


1.        Gopala Raju SSSV., Balaji KVGD., Duraga Rani K. (2011), “Vehicular Growth and its management, Visakhapatnam city in India – A Case Study”, Indian journal of
Science and Technology, Vol.4, No.8, pp. 903-906

2.        V.Sreerama Murthy., K.Durga Rani ., SSSV Gopala Raju (2012), “Geometric Corrections to Hill top road from Hanumanthawaka to Simhachalam –Case Study”, Indian journal of Education and Information Management, Vol. 1, No.5, pp. 207-217

3.        Gopala Raju SSSV. etal.,, 2007, Assessment of Noise level due to vehicular traffic at Warangal city, India”, International Journal of Environment and Pollution‖, Vol 30. No.1, pp.137-153

4.        Gopala Raju SSSV. etal. , 2012, “Identification of black spots and junction improvements in Visakhapatnam City”, Indian Journal of Innovations and Development, Vol.1, No.6, pp.469-471.




S. K Sharishma Datla, T. Aditya Kumar

Paper Title:

An Adaptive Technique for Restoration of Real Blurred Images under Unknown Conditions

Abstract:   Recently, a normalized image prior was proposed so that the global minimum would not correspond to the blurred image. Multi-resolution approaches, which avoid some local minima, were recently proposed. Good local minima can also be found by using continuation schemes, where the regularizing parameter is gradually decreased. A recent come within reach of although not requiring previous in arrange on the blurring sift achieves high-tech recital for a wide range of real-world BID tribulations. In this paper, we improve upon the method of. We fully embrace the UBC, without an increase in computational cost, due to the way in which we use the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve the minimizations required by that method. We propose a new version of that technique in which both the optimization tribulations with respect to the unknown image and with respect to the anonymous blur are solved by the irregular direction technique of multipliers(ADMM) – an optimization tool that has recently sparked much interest for solving inverse problems, namely owing to its modularity and state-of-the-art speed. Furthermore, the convolution operator is itself typically ill-conditioned, making the inverse problem extremely sensitive to inaccurate filter estimates and to the presence of noise. The results are shown in MATLB Platform effectively.

   Deblurring, multipliers, image, restoration quality


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Ekta Ahuja, Karan Kashyap

Paper Title:

Language Translator

Abstract:    The aim of this project is to find out the problem areas in the translation done by Bing, suggest a method to improve the language translation and build a translator that supports accurate English to Hindi translation. The English input can be of textual, voice or image form and the Hindi output will be in the textual format.. With our research we aim to suggest a way to improve the already available popular translation engines. For this purpose we have used the method of hybrid machine translation. Hybrid machine translation is a method of machine translation that is characterized by the use of multiple machine translation approaches within a single machine translation system. The motivation for developing hybrid machine translation systems stems from the failure of any single technique to achieve a satisfactory level of accuracy.

   translator, Bing, textual, hybrid.


COMPUTER SOCIETY (2007), PP. 629-633


3.        A Srivastav, English to Hindi Machine Translator Using GMT and RBMT Approach Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Advances in Computing and Information Technology (ACITY) July 13-15, 2012, Chennai, India




Ali Shamel, Reza Alayi, Leila Abbaszadeh

Paper Title:

The Assessing and Prediction of Biogas Production and Dissemination Rate in Ardebil City Landfills and Chemical Analysis of Obtained Biogas

Abstract:    the main purpose of making municipal landfills and produced biogas collecting is to prevent the emission of greenhouse gases such as Methane and also using the heating value involved in this gas. A propose to bury Ardabil's wastes and the analysis of produced gases in terms of quality and quantity is presented in this research. In recent years, Landfill projects include equipments to control, gas transmission and also using the biogas energy. Landfill gases that are called LFG are obtained from performing a series of biochemical reactions, in anaerobic conditions, on organic dissoluble matters available in the waste; these gases are Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen gases, Hydrogen Sulfide and volatile organic compounds. The assessing and prediction of biogas production and dissemination rate is important in Landfill designing and successful using of produced gases as renewable energy sources. Produced gases in landfills, after extraction and filtration can directly supply energy needed for industry such as lighting, fuel needed for gas turbines and electricity producing generators and even  they can be used to set up simultaneous production units of heat and power. In the first part of this study, the explanation of the methods, equations and used assumptions are explained. In the second part, Ardabil city's landfill conditions have been introduced and in addition to that, the amount of waste and other information contained on this site has been evaluated. In this research, the waste of Ardabil city is studied and the gases resulting from landfill are analyzed carefully, using LANDGEM software. After running the LANDGEM software concluded. During operation of the project the emissions gases about 50% is the methane gas.

   Biogas, Landfill, waste, LFG, Methane, Renewable energy


1.        Adel, M., Workshop on production of biogas and energy recovery from landfill, Renewable Energy Organization of Iran, Department of new energies, Energy Research Institute, Tehran, 2003.
2.        Environmental Protection Agency, Database of Landfill gas to energy project in the United State, U.S, 2001.

3.        Renewable Energy Organization of Iran, Sana, [online] available at

4.        Soltani. F, Morsaei. M, Investigation of the Possibility energy production from biogas is trapped in the lower cover of landfill waste. Fourth Conference and  exhibition of Environmental Engineering, Tehran, 2010.

5.        Sophistayi. A, Karimi. F.  The technology to extract biogas from municipal landfill areas, CO Saman Energy, Esfahan, 2006.

6.        Statistical Center of Iran

7.        United States Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill Gas Emissions Model Land GEM Version 3.02 User’s Guide, 2005.

8.        Waste management organizations, Municipality of Ardabil city, 2013.

9.        Hans C, Williamson, Energy Recovery from Landfill Gas in Denmark and Worldwide, Denmark, 1999.

10.     Qiyong Xu &et all, Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill, Bio resource Technology, Volume 168, September 2014, Pages 92–96.

11.     Sameer S. Mustafa & et all, Kirkuk municipal waste to electrical energy, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Volume 44, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages 506–513.

12.     Avick Sil & et all, Development of correction factors for landfill gas emission model suiting Indian condition to predict methane emission from landfills , Bio resource Technology, Volume 168, September 2014, Pages 97–99.

13.     Kazuei Ishii & et all , Estimation of methane emission rate changes using age-defined waste in a landfill site, Waste Management, Volume 33, Issue 9, September
2013, Pages 1861–1869.

14.     Han Zhu & et all, A new approach to estimation of methane emission rates from landfills, Waste Management, Volume 33, Issue 12, December 2013, Pages 2713–271




P. Bala Krishna, K. Satyanarayana, V. Sowjanya

Paper Title:

Analysis of Advanced PWM Algorithms Based on Simplified Sequence for Reduced CMV in Induction Motor Drive

Abstract:    This paper presents a simplified advanced Pulse width Modulation algorithms for reduced common mode voltage variations. These algorithms have been developed by using the concept of imaginary switching times and hence did not use angle and sector information. Thus, the proposed  algorithms  reduce  the  complexity  involved  in  the  existing  PWM  algorithms. In the conventional SVPWM method, two adjacent states with two zero voltage vectors are utilized to program the output voltage. Every 600 degrees the active voltage vectors change, but the zero state locations are retained. In the AZSPWM methods, the choice and the sequence of active voltage vectors are the same as in conventional SVPWM. However, instead of the real zero voltage vectors (V0 and V7), two active opposite voltage vectors with equal duration are utilized. In the NSPWM algorithm, in each sector any one of the phases is clamped to either positive or negative DC bus for a total of 120o over a fundamental cycle. Hence, it reduces the switching losses of the inverter and switching frequency of the inverter by 33.33%. Among  the  proposed  algorithms,  the NSPWM  algorithm  gives  superior  performance  with reduced switching losses of the inverter. 

   Common mode voltage, induction motor drive, SVPWM, AZSPWM and NSPWM


1.       Joachim Holtz, ―Pulsewidth modulation – A survey‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.., vol. 39, no. 5,  Dec 1992, pp. 410-420.
2.       Heinz Willi Vander Broeck, Hnas-Christoph Skudelny and Georg Viktor Stanke, ―Analysis and   realization of a pulsewidth modulator based on voltage space vectors‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat.,    vol. 24, no. 1, Jan/Feb 1988, pp. 142-150.

3.       S.Ogasawara and H.Akagi, ―Modelling of high frequency leakage currents in PWM inverter- fed  Ac motor drive systems‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 32, No.4,   pp. 1105-1114, Sep/Oct, 1996.

4.       Y.Murai, T.Kobota and Y.Kawase ―Leakage current reduction for a high frequency carrier inverter feeding an induction motor‖, IEEE Trans. Ind.Appl., Vol. 28, No.4,   pp. 858-863, July/August,  1992. 

5.       Erdman, J.M, Kerkman, R.J, Schlegel, D.W, and Skibinski, G.L, ―Effect  of PWM inverters on AC   motors bearing currents and shaft voltages‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., Vol. 32, No.2,   pp. 250- 259,  March/April, 1996.

6.       A.L.Julian, T.A.Lipo, G.oriti, ―Elimination of Common mode voltage in three phase Sinusoidal  Power Converters‖ in Proc. IEEE, PESC’96, 1996, pp1968-1972. 
7.       S. Ogasawara, H. Ayano, and H. Akagi, ―An active circuit for cancellation of common-mode  voltage generated by a PWM inverter,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 835–841,   Sep. 1998.
8.       Y. S. Lai and F. S. Shyu, ―Optimal common-mode voltage reduction PWM technique for inverter  control with consideration of the dead-time effects—Part I: Basic development,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind.  Appl., vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1605–1612, Nov./Dec. 2004. 

9.       Y.S. Lai, P.S. Chen, H.K. Lee, J. Chou, ―Optimal common-mode voltage reduction PWM   technique for inverter control with consideration of the dead-time effects-part II: applications to IM drives with diode front end,‖ IEEE Trans. on Ind. Applicats., vol. 40, no 6, pp. 1613 – 1620.    Nov./Dec. 2004.

10.     M. Cacciato, A. Consoli, G. Scarcella and A. Testa, ―Reduction of common-mode currents in  PWM inverter motor drives,‖  IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 35, no 2, pp. 469 –  476,March-April 1999.

11.     E. Ün, A.M. Hava ―A near state PWM method with reduced switching frequency and reduced  common mode voltage for three-phase voltage source inverters‖ IEEE-IEMDC Conf., pp. 235-  240, May 2-5, 2007.

12.     A. M. Hava and E. Un, ―Performance analysis of reduced common-mode voltage PWM methods  and comparison with standard PWM methods for three-phase voltage-source inverters,‖ IEEE  Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 241–252, Jan. 2009.

13.     Dae-Woong Chung, Joohn-Sheok Kim and Seung-Ki Sul, ―Unified voltage modulation technique  for real-time three-phase power conversion‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 34, no. 2, Mar/Apr  1998, pp. 374-380.




Shahid, S. H. Farooq, S. Maqbool, S. Haseeb

Paper Title:

Structural Fire Safety Measures in Developing Countries: Pakistan - A Case Study

Abstract:   In developing countries like Pakistan, provisions of inadequate fire safety measuresresult into occurrence of many fires that cause lot of deaths and economic loss. Here, fire is not taken as a serious threat and fire safety measures are considered as a waste of money. Thus, there is a need to educate building owners and government agencies about the damaging effects of fire and importance of fire safety measures. In this study, three main components of fire safety i.e. prevention, controlling the spread and severity of fire, and structural fire safety have been included. Data on fire incidents was collected from three sample cities of Pakistan (i.e., Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Lahore)to determine the frequency of fires, causes of ignition and relative vulnerability of buildings. 12 multi-story buildings (six each in Lahore and Rawalpindi) were surveyed to check the adequacy of provided fire safety measures. Fire incident of Ghakar Plaza, Rawalpindi has been analyzed to highlight the economic implications of fires.Analysis of fire incidents of these three cities shows that on average there are 3 fires per day, and every 8th fire is severe enough to cause deaths, injuries, property damage and economic losses. Three main causes of fire are short circuiting, gas leakage and cylinder blasts and the most vulnerable buildings are commercial and residential buildings. Most of the common buildings have no fire safety measures at all, and Pakistan does not have any fire safety code to follow. In case of 12 multi-story buildings, the level of compliance with the code requirements is around 60 percent, and, the automatic sprinklers, one of the most effective fire safety measures, have been provided in two buildings only. From the cost analysis of Ghakar Plaza and a model building, it is found that the cost of fire design is around 3% of the overall cost of the building.

   Fire safety, Data collection and analysis, causes of fire ignition, Fire safety Measures

1.        CDA Buildings Standards for Fire Prevention and Life Safety, 2010
2.        International Building Code, 2009

3.        International Fire Code, 2009

4.        National Building Code of India, 2009

5.        Structural Fire Safety Design BUCHANAN A. H,




Sachchida Nand Shukla, Naresh Kumar Chaudhary

Paper Title:

Small-Signal Amplifiers with BJT, FET and MOSFET in Triple Darlington Topology

Abstract:    Circuit models of two discretely developed small-signal amplifiers are proposed and qualitatively analyzed perhaps for the first time. Design of first amplifier uses Triple Darlington topology based hybrid unit of BJT-JFET-MOSFET in RC coupled voltage divided biasing network with two additional biasing resistances. However the second amplifier uses JFET-BJT-MOSFET hybrid unit in the similar circuit design. Both the amplifiers successfully amplify small-signals swinging in 1-10mV range at 1KHz frequency. These circuits simultaneously produce high voltage gain (≈ 291 and 345 respectively) and current gain (≈ 719 and 27K respectively) in narrow bandwidth region (≈ 8KHz and 13KHz respectively). Variations of maximum voltage gain with different biasing resistances and DC supply voltage, temperature sensitivity of performance parameters, THDs, small-signal AC equivalent circuit analysis and noise performance of the circuits are elaborately studied and discussed. The proposed amplifiers may be useful for those applications where high voltage and current gain would be the prime requirement of amplification in narrow band frequency region. Moreover, the proposed circuits may also useful for radio and TV receiver stages and low-frequency power sources.

   Small-signal amplifiers, Darlington amplifiers, Compound Darlington configurations, Triple Darlington topology.


1.       R. L. Boylestad and L. Nashelsky, Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, Pearson Education Asia, 3rd ed., 2002, p.p. 389-396,461-483, 627-633
2.       A. Motayed, T.E. Browne, A. I. Onuorah and S.N. Mohammad, Experimental studies of frequency response and related properties of small signal bipolar junction transistor amplifier, Solid State Electronics, Vol. 45, 2001, p.p. 325-333

3.       A.M.H. Sayed ElAhl, M.M.E. Fahmi, S.N. Mohammad, Qualitative analysis of high frequency performance of modified Darlington pair, Solid State Electronics, Vol. 46, 2002, p.p. 593-595
4.       A. Motayed and S.N. Mohammad, Tuned performance of small-signal BJT Darlington pair, Solid State Electronics, Vol. 45, 2001, p.p. 369-371

5.       S.N. Tiwari, and S.N. Shukla, Qualitative Analysis of Small Signal Modified Darlington Pair and Triple Darlington Amplifiers, Bulletin of Pure and Applied Science, Vol. 28D, No.1, 2009, p-1-11

6.       T. A. Chris and G. M. Robert, A New Wide-Band Darlington Amplifier, IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1989, p.p. 1105-1109

7.       S. N. Tiwar , A. K. Dwivedi and S.N. Shukla , Qualitative Analysis of Modified Darlington Amplifier, Journal of Ultra Scientist of Physical Sciences, Vol 20, No.3, 2008, p-625

8.       S.N. Tiwari, B. Pandey, A.K. Dwivedi, and S.N. Shukla, Development of Small-Signal Amplifiers by Placing BJT and JFET in Darlington Pair Configuration, Journal of Ultra Scientist of Physical Sciences,Vol.21, No.3, 2009, p-509-514

9.       S.N. Tiwari, S. Srivastava, B. Pandey and S.N. Shukla, Qualitative Analysis of Small Signal High Voltage Gain Triple Darlington Amplifiers, Bulletin of Pure and Applied Science, Vol. 29D, No.1, 2010, p-25-32

10.     S.N. Tiwari and S.N. Shukla, Qualitative Analysis of Small Signal Wide Band Triple Darlington Amplifiers, Acta Cincia Indica, Vol. XXXV P, No.4, 2009, p-559

11.     C. T. Armijo and R.G. Meyer, A New Wide-Band Darlington Amplifier, IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 24, No.4, August 1989, p-1105-1109

12.     S. Srivastava, B. Pandey, S.N. Tiwari, J. Singh and S.N. Shukla, Development of Small Signal High Voltage Gain Amplifier using Compound unit of BJT and MOSFET, Acta Cincia Indica, Vol. XXXII P, No.4, 2011, p-431-437

13.     M.H. Rashid, Introduction to PSpice Using OrCAD for Circuits and Electronics, Pearson Education, 3rd Ed., 2004, p.p.  255-300

14.     B. Pandey, S. Srivastava, S. N. Tiwari, J. Singh and S. N. Shukla, Qualitative Analysis of Small Signal  Modified Sziklai Pair Amplifier, Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, Vol. 50, 2012, p-272

15.     S. Srivastava, B. Pandey, S.N. Tiwari, J. Singh and S.N. Shukla, Qualitative Analysis of MOS Based Darlington pair Amplifier, Bulletin of Pure and Applied Science, Vol. 30D (Physics), No.2, 2011, p-195-203




Chao Yang, Ze Zhang

Paper Title:

Research on Rapid Image Recognition Method of Foreign Fibers in Lint

Abstract:    An efficient online method of detecting the foreign fibers in lint is proposed. In this method, Look Up Table is used to reduce the time consumption of transformation from RGB color space to HSI color space effectively. Using the improved two-dimensional Otsu algorithm to segment and recognize the image of foreign fibers in Hue and Saturation of HSI color space. Experimental results show that, compared with the original two-dimensional Otsu algorithm and the fast two-dimensional Otsu algorithm, the proposed method meets the requirement of real-time and improves the accuracy effectively.

   Foreign Fibers, Look Up Table, HSI color space,  Otsu.


1.        Gengrao S (2004)  Discussion on performance characteristics of online foreign fiber detection device. Journal of  Cotton Textile Technology, Vol.10, pp. 612-615.
2.        Wenzhu Y, Daoliang  L, Liang  Z, Yuguo K, Futang L (2009) A new approach for image processing in foreign fiber detection . Journal of  Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, pp. 68-77.

3.        Haopeng W, Xianying F, Li L(2012) Detection algorithm of white foreign fibers based on improved two-dimensional maximum between-class variance method. Journal of Transactions of the Chinese Society of  Agricultural Engineering (Transactions of the CSAE), Vol. 8, pp. 214-219.

4.        Pai A, Sari-sarraf H, Hequet E. F (2004) Recognition of cotton contamination via X-ray micro tomographic image analysis. IEEE Transactions on industry Applications, Vol. 40, No. 1,pp. 77-85.

5.        Mingxiao D, Yunkuan W (2011) Wei H. Cotton impurity detection algorithm based on Gabor filter. Journal of Image and Graphics, Vol.16, No.4,pp. 586-592.

6.        Rafael C. Gonzalez, Digital Image Processing. 2001,New York: A Wiley-Interscience Publication

7.        Otsu N (1979) A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms. IEEE transactions on SMC, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 62-66.

8.        Jianzhuang L, Wenqing L (1993) The two-dimensional Otsu algorithm of gray-level image. Journal of Acta Automatica Sinica, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 102-105.

9.        Xiaojun J, Anni C, Jingao S (2001) Image segmentation based on 2D maximum between-cluster variance. Journal of china institute of communications, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 71-76.




Chethan G, Sanjith J, Ranjith A, Kiran B. M

Paper Title:

Shear Strength Capacity of Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams Bonded by CFRP Wraps

Abstract:   The usage of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is becoming a widely accepted repairing and strengthening aspect in the field of civil engineering in recent years. By the application of polymers of carbon, glass and aramid in the shear zone of the beam, the shear strength can be increased extensively. The present study investigates the enhancement of shear capacity of RC beams using carbon reinforced polymers. Total of 24 beams were casted in  the laboratory, out of which, 12 M30 and 12 M70 concrete beam specimens of 150mm width, 200mm depth and 1300mm length. The geometry of all kept constant, but only shear reinforcement was varied. Out of 12 beams of M30, 6 were control beams and 6 were strengthened by using CFRP. Out of 12 beams of M70, 6 were control beams and 6 were strengthened by using CFRP. The strengthened beams showed 34% to 58% increase in shear capacity with respect control beam in normal strength i.e. M30 beams and 28% to 44% in high strength i.e. M70 beams.

   Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP), carbon fiber   reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP), shear capacity.


1.        Marwan Bllkasem Salah Alferjani1, *, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Samad1, Blkasem Salah Elrawaff2,Noridah Binti Mohamad1, Mohd Hilton Bin Ahmad1(2014),” Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminate: A review” doi: 10.11648/j.ajce.20140201.11.
2.        M.Demers, P.Labossière, and C.Mercier (2006), “Carbon FRP jacketing of prestressed concrete beams”.

3.        Nadeem A. and siddiqui (2009). Experimental investigation of RC Beams Strengthened with externally bonded FRP composites . Latin American journal of solid and structures.6;343-362

4.        Ujji .K.(1992). “Improving the shear capacity of exixting reinforced concrete members by applying carbon fiber sheets. ”Trans of the Japan Concrete Inst. Vol. 14, 253-265.

5.        Patel Mitali R, Dr. R.K Gajjar, “Shear strengthening of different beams using FRP.” E-ISSN2249-8974.

6.        M.A.A.Saafan, “Shear strengthening of reinforced concretye beams using CFRP wraps .” ,ACTA Polytechnic, Vol. 46, No.1/2006.

7.        Ahmad Khalifa, Abdeldjelil Belarbi and Antonio nanni, “Shear performance of rc members strengthening with externally bonded FRP wraps.” 12WCEE 2000.

8.        ACI318-95-1999, Concrete frame design manual.

9.        IS 456 2000, Indian standard plain and reinforced concrete structures.

10.     Dr. M. C. Nataraja. “Concrete mix design”.




Bharti Vijay Nikose, Gaurav Shrivastav, Ravindra Gupta

Paper Title:

Enhanced Preventation of Password Stealing using Biometric Factor

Abstract:    Wording password is typically the most popular form involving user authentication on websites car without any convenience in addition to simplicity. On the other hand, users’ passwords are inclined to be ripped off and sacrificed under various threats in addition to vulnerabilities. To begin with, users usually select vulnerable passwords in addition to reuse exactly the same passwords all over different web sites. Routinely reusing accounts causes a domino effect; when the adversary compromises one password, she may exploit the item to gain access to more web sites. Second, keying in passwords in untrusted personal computers suffers pass word thief risk. An adversary can start several pass word stealing attacks to snatch passwords, including phishing, keyloggers in addition to malware. Within this paper, we design a user authentication process named oPass which usually leverages a user’s cellular and limited message support to thwart password thieving and pass word reuse attacks. oPass simply requires each and every participating site possesses an original phone variety, and requires a telecommunication service agency in signing up and recovery phases. However, users’ passwords are prone to be stolen and compromised under different threats and vulnerabilities. Firstly, users often select weak passwords and reuse the same passwords across different websites. Routinely reusing passwords causes a domino effect; when an adversary compromises one password, she will exploit it to gain access to more websites. Second, typing passwords into untrusted computers suffers password thief threat. An adversary can launch several password stealing attacks to snatch passwords, such as phishing, keyloggers and malware. In this paper, we design a user authentication protocol named oPass which leverages a user’s cellphone and short message service to thwart password stealing and password reuse attacks. oPass only requires each participating website possesses a unique phone number, and involves a telecommunication service provider in registration and recovery phases.

   Network Security, Password Attacks, Authentication.


1.        C. Yue and H. Wang, “SessionMagnifier: A simple approach to secure and convenient kiosk browsing,” in Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Ubiquitous Computing, 2009, pp. 125–134, ACM.
2.        S. Chiasson, A. Forget, E. Stobert, P. C. van Oorschot, and R. Biddle, “Multiple password interference in text passwords and click-based graphical passwords,” in CCS ’09: Proc. 16th ACM Conf. Computer Communications Security, New York, 2009, pp. 500–511, ACM.

3.        K. M. Everitt, T. Bragin, J. Fogarty, and T. Kohno, “A comprehensive study of frequency, interference, and training of multiple graphical passwords,” in CHI ’09: Proc. 27th Int. Conf. Human Factors Computing Systems, New York, 2009, pp. 889–898, ACM.

4.        S. Garriss, R. Cáceres, S. Berger, R. Sailer, L. van Doorn, and X. Zhang, “Trustworthy and personalized computing on public kiosks,” in Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications Services, 2008, pp. 199–210, ACM.

5.        R. Biddle, S. Chiasson, and P. van Oorschot, “Graphical passwords: Learning from the first twelve years,” in ACM Computing Surveys, Carleton Univ., 2010.

6.        T. Holz, M. Engelberth, and F. Freiling, “Learning more about the underground economy:Acase-study of keyloggers and dropzones,” Proc. Computer Security ESORICS 2009, pp. 1–18, 2010.

7.        M. Weir, S. Aggarwal, M. Collins, and H. Stern, “Testing metrics for password creation policies by attacking large sets of revealed passwords,” in Proc. 17th ACM Conf. Computer Communications Security, New York, 2010, pp. 162–175, ACM.

8.        D. Wendlandt, D. G. Andersen, and A. Perrig, “Perspectives: Improving ssh-style host authentication with multi-path probing,” in Proc. USENIX 2008 Annu. Tech. Conf., Berkeley, CA, 2008, pp. 321–334, USENIX Association.

9.        P. van Oorschot, A. Salehi-Abari, and J. Thorpe, “Purely automated attacks on passpoints-style graphical passwords,” IEEE Trans. Information Forensics Security, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 393–405, Sep. 2010.




Swati A. Patil, Leena N. Patil, Vaishali V. Ahire, Mosin A. Khatik, Rahul V. Thorat

Paper Title:

Study of Solid Waste Management  for Nashik City

Abstract:    Rising population, technological advancement, economical , industrial revolution and changing life style has lead to various types of environmental problems. In this context sold waste is one of the major problame. It causes different type of pollution,spreaiding of various disease and due to dumping of solid waste soil also loose it's fertility .Solid wastes are those organic and inorganic waste materials produced by various  activities of the society. Improper solid waste management affects on public health, causes environmental pollution, accelerates natural resources degradation, climate change and greatly impacts the quality of life of human beings. The purpose of this study is to describe the application and progress of the Reduce-Reuse-Recycle initiative and its gradual implementation and development in solid waste management in Nashik(MH) India through the study of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems.

   Sources, Clasiification, Collection, Processing of waste ,Disposal


1.       Studies on Environmental Quality in and around Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite. Arun K. Biswas, Sunil Kumar, S. Sateesh Babu, J. K. Bhattacharyya, Tapan Chakrabarti. 2, Kolkata, Nagour : Resources, Conservation and Recycling, (2010), Vol. 55.
2.       Beede, D. N. and D. E. Bloom. (1995). The economics of municipal solid waste. The World Bank Research Observer. 10(2): pp113-150.

3.       Workshop on Standard oprating Procedure for MSW Processing Plant Nashik By GIZ advisory services in

4.       CPHEEO manual, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India

5.       Division of Technology, Industry and Economics. State of Wase Management in South East Asia, Types of Wastes - Sources and Composition. United Nations
Environmen pogramme. [Online].

6.       Enviornmental studies by J.P.Sharma Unit 5 ,3rd  edition ,Universty Science Press,2009,142-143

7.       DPR for SWM Nasik 2007

8.       CPHEEO manual,Ministry of Urban developmemt,Government of India

9.       Municipal Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules (MSW (M&H) Rules), 2000




V. H. Patil, Gaurav Gupta, Harsh Kapil

Paper Title:

The Global Toll Booth System

Abstract:    The global toll booth system is been stimulated here. That means that the user can pay the prepaid toll using the RF card. The money is automatically paid from the user’s bank as soon as the vehicle approaches the toll. For this the user bank PC is been connected with toll booth server via local area network(LAN).The main concept of the project is to enable the toll booth user to pay his prepaid either from the users bank or the toll booth.

   RF card, global, LAN, PC.


1.        “RFID technology and applications “, B Nath, F Reynold- Pervasive Computing IEEE, 2006.
2.        “Radio frequency identification”,CM Roberts-Computers &Security, 2006-Elsevier.

3.        “Automatic toll collection system”, CS Bower – US Patent 2, 769, 165, 1956.




Muhammad Habib, M. Raheel Zafar, Saima Javed, Shafaq Ara

Paper Title:

A Sector Analysis for RFID Implantation: Technical Analysis for Integrated Security Enhancement Techniques

Abstract:    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a microchip technology which produces a lot of attention of scientists toward innovative and future oriented bionics and a most promising and anticipated technologies in recent years. This interdisciplinary research aims to undertake a scoping study of emerged technology serving the security purposes of devices, infrastructures and human utilization. The study aims to address the key areas of widespread RFID implementation, its control over the applied widgets and the effective improvement in the protection measures like owner tracking and cloning. As a part of research an attempt will be taken toward discussion on security framework to improve the model of smart environment eliminating the privacy loopholes. To enhance the real time security structure the Origins of RFID microchips are essential to be discussed for the application in several sectors like logistics and health care industries. The study will contribute to develop methods and procedures to re-plane the RFID control system, as well as mark other privacy issues which arise in operations when a futuristic society concept is originated where all citizens wear embedded RFID tags and are subject to constant surveillance.

   Bionics, Implantation, Widgets, Origins of RFID, Control system, Surveillance


1.        Bruce Schneier (20011) ; For security purpose RFID passport. (14-9-13)
2.        Botterman, M. and van Oranje, C May 2009. Study on the requirements and options for RFID application in Workshop Report. May 2009. RAND Corporation.

3.        Charles, Techonal J., Manag, (2008). Human Microchip Implantation. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation 08(3/3)151-1 60.

4.        Covacio, S. (2003) Technological Problems Associated with Subcutaneous Microchips for Human Identification (SMHId). Informing Science.

5.        Castro, L, Wamba, S.F. (2007) An Inside Look At RFID Technology. Journal of Technology and lnnovation,Volume 2, Issue I. Pg.4.

6.        Chan, E. (2007) The FDA and the Future of the Brain-Computer Interface: Adapting FDA Device Law to the Challenges of Human-Machine Enhancement. John Marshall Journal of Computer & Information Law Volume 25 Issue I. Pg. 13, 16, 24. Retrieved 11-02-07

7.        Chan, E. (2009) Human Microchip Implantation. Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau. Pg. 1 Retrieved 9-28-07.

8.        Garfinkel, S., Holtzman, H. (2005) Understanding RFID Technology. Pg. 15-16. Garfinkel Book.

9.        GAD, L. (2006) Human Microchip Implantation. Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau  Pg. Retrieved 20-8-13.

10.     GS1, “GS1 EPC Tag Data Standard 1.6”, 2011. Available online at

11.     Gemalto (2012)“The difference between contactless smart cards & RFID tags”, online reference,.

12.     Hea March 27, (2006) Health Grades. 12,8, 2013.

13.     Leea, L.S., Fiedlera, K.D. and Smithb, J.S. (2008), “Radio frequency identification (RFID) implementation in the service sector: A customer-facing diffusion model”, Int. J. Production Economics, 112, 587–600.

14.     Lazanas and Latombe, 1992 Anthony Lazanas and Jean-Claude Latombe. Landmark-based robot navigation. InProceedings of the Tenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-92), pages 816–822, San Jose, California,1992. AAAI Press.

15.     Mikko Lehtonen, Antti Ruhanen, Florian Michahelles, and Elgar Fleisch. “Serialized TID numbers - A headache or a blessing for RFID crackers?”, in IEEE International Conference on RFID 2009, pp.233-240, IEEE, 2009.

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17.     Tonsor, G.T., Schroeder, T.C., (2006). Livestock identification: Lessons for the U.S. Beef Industry from the Australian System. Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing 18(3/4), 1 03-118.

18.     Teo, H.H., Wei, K.K., Benbasat, I.,(2003). Predicting intention to adopt interorganizational linkages: An institutional perspective. MIS Quarterly 27(1), 19-49.

19.     Yano Research Institute. (2008). Result of the survey on RF-ID market. Research Express (in Japanese)




Anwar Ahsan

Paper Title:

Crime Detection using Voice Behavior on the Basis of Collected Evidence

Abstract:    Human intelligence is the key to stopping terrorism, and therefore it isessential to know when the information obtained is false. This article briefly outlinesthe research on voice clueto find fraud, cheating and other crime.Voice analysis technology is most power full to find pattern of voice during the human behavior changes when he or she is true or lying. Voice pattern which is retrieve from database and relate with current situation. System is accommodating to detect deception.

   behavior; cognition; deception; detection; emotion; judgment; lying; Malfeasance; memory: voice, amplitude.


1.        O. Lippold, Physiological Tremor, Scientific American, Volume 224, Number 3, March 1971.
2.        D. Lykken, A Tremor in the Blood, Uses and Abusesof the Lie Detectors, New York, McGraw-Hill,  1981.

3.        National Research Council of the National Academies, The Polygraph and Lie Detection,WashingtonDC,National Academies Press.

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5.        Avolio, B. J., Zhu, W., Koh, W., & Bhatia, P., Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: mediating role of psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distance.Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.25, 2004, pp.951-968.

6.        Bettencourt, L.A., Change-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors: the direct and moderating  influence of goal orientation. Journal of Retailing, Vol.80, No.3, 2004, pp.165-180.

7.        Bhal, K.T., & Ansari, M.A., Leader-member exchange-subordinate outcomes relationship: role of Voice and justice. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol.28, No.1, 2007, pp.20-35.




K. M. S. Sagar Madan, D. S. Samba Siva Rao

Paper Title:

Prediction of Performance: Practicality between MIMO and Collocated MIMO Radar

Abstract:   We recommend a novel method for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar with colocated antennas which we call phased-MIMO radar. The core of the projected method is to panel the broadcast array into a number of sub arrays that are permissible to overlie. Then, each subarray is worn to articulately put on the air a waveform which is orthogonal to the waveforms transmitted by additional subarrays. Articulate processing gain can be achieved by designing a weight vector for each subarray to form a beam towards a certain direction in space. Moreover, the subarrays are shared in cooperation to form a MIMO radar ensuing in elevated lanky oath capabilities. Substantial improvements offered by the proposed phased-MIMO radar technique as compared to the phasedarray and MIMO radar techniques are verified systematically and by simulations from beginning to end analyzing the analogous grin patterns and the practicable output signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratios. Both analytical and simulation results validated and shown in MATLAB platform about  the effectiveness of the proposed phased-MIMO radar.

   MIMO, Radar, Phase, subarrays.


1.        Aboulnasr Hassanien, “Phased-MIMO Radar: A Tradeoff Between Phased-Array and MIMO Radars,” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 58, NO. 6, JUNE 2010
2.        E. Brookner, “Phased-Array Radars,” Sci. Am. 252(2), 1985, pp. 94–102.

3.        E.  Fishler,  A.  Haimovich,  R.  Blum,  L.  J.  Cimini,  D.  Chizhik  and  R. Valenzuela,  “Spatial  Diversity  in  Radars  –  Models  and  Detection Performance”,  IEEE  Transactions  on  Signal  Processing,  vol.  54,  no.  3,  pp.823-838, Mar. 2006

4.        N.H.  Lehman,  E.  Fishler,  A.M.  Haimovich,  R.S.  Blum,  D.  Chizhik,  L.J. Cimini,  R.  Valenzuela,  “Evaluation  Of  Transmit  Diversity  In  MIMO-Radar Direction Finding”,  IEEE Transactions On  Signal Processing,  vol.  55, no.  5, pp. 2215-2225, May 2007

5.        D.R. Fuhrman and G.S. Antonio,  “Transmit Beamforming For MIMO Radar Systems  Using  Partial  Signal  Correlation”,  Proc.  38thAsilomar  Conf. Signals, Syst. Comput., vol. 1, pp. 295-299, Nov.2004

6.        A. Hassanien and S. A. Vorobyov, “Transmit/receive beamforming for MIMO radar with colocated antennas”,in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, April 2009, pp. 2089ñ2092.

7.        W. Forsythe, D. W. Bliss, and G. S. Fawcett, “Multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) radar: performance issues”, in Proc. 38thAsilomar Conf. Signals, Syst. Comput., vol. 1, PaciÖc Grove, CA, Nov 2004, pp. 310ñ315.




M. Ashok Kumar, T. Aditya Kumar

Paper Title:

A Message-Fleeting Receiver for BICM-OFDM over Anonymous Crowded - Meagre Channels

Abstract:    In disparity to surviving designs, ours is proficient of manipulating not onlymeagrely in sampled channel taps but also crowding among the bulky taps, performances which are notorious to evident at larger communication bandwidths. We intend a factor-graph-based tactic to united channel - approximation and decrypting of bit-interleaved coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (BICM-OFDM). In order to exploit these channel-tap structures, we espouse a two-state Gaussian mixture prior in conjunction with a Markov model on the concealed state. For impractical credence promulgation, we exploit a “generalized approximate message passing” algorithm recently developed in the context of compressed sensing, and show that it can be successfully coupled with soft-input soft-output decrypting, as well as hidden Markov inference. For N subcarriers and M bits per subcarrier (and any channel length L < N), our scheme has a computational complexity of only O (N log2 N+N2M). Statistical trials using IEEE 802.15.4a channels show that our scheme yields BER performance within 1 dB of the known-channel bound and 5 dB better than decoupled channel-estimation-and-decoding via LASSO..

   OFDM, LASSO, Markov inference


1.        Nostrania, T. E. Hunter, and A. Hedayat, “Cooperative Communication in Wireless Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 42, pp. 74-80, October 2004.\
2.        Stefanov and E. Erkip, “Cooperative coding for wireless networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 52, pp. 1470-1476, September 2004.
3.        G. J. Bradford, “A Framework for Implementation and Evaluation of Cooperative Diversity in Software-Defined Radio,” Master’s thesis, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, December 2008.

4.        A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, and B. Aazhang, “User Cooperation Diversity— Part II: Implementation Aspects and Performance Analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 51, pp. 1939-1948, November 2003.

5.        E. G. Larsson and B. R. Vojcic, “Cooperative transmit diversity based on superposition modulation,” IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 9, pp. 778-780, September 2005.

6.        S. V. Maiya and T. E. Fuja, “Cooperative Communications Based on Trellis Pruning,” in Proc. IEEE ISIT, Austin, Texas, U.S., pp. 933-937, June 2010.

7.        O. Collins and M. Hizlan, “Determinate State Convolutional Codes,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 41, No. 12, December 1993.

8.        G. Caire, G. Taricco and E. Biglieri, “Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 44, pp. 927-946, May 1998




Mohammad Faizan

Paper Title:

Assessment of Turbulence RANS Models for Conical Diffuser with Tailpipe

Abstract:    In this paper, four common turbulence models were selected to assess the predictions of the velocity profiles and static pressure coefficient in an experiment-studied conical diffuser. The four models chosen were the standard k– model, the standard k– model, the shear-stress transport k– SST, and the Reynolds stress model. The steady RANS equations for turbulent incompressible fluid flow and turbulence closure were solved using the commercial code of ANSYS Fluent 14.0. It was found that the standard k– model and the shear-stress transport k– SST model failed to predict accurate velocity profiles and the static pressure recovery in the tailpipe. The model results were compared with the published experimental data. The standard k– model presented the same capability of as Reynolds stress model to capture flow pattern in the diffuser and tailpipe. Numerical results also revealed that the standard k– model succeeded to predict an accurate static pressure recovery in the diffuser but failed to predict accurate velocity profiles.

   Conical diffuser, diffuser performance, pressure recovery, RANS, turbulence models.


1.       D. D. Apsley, and M. A. Leschziner, “Advanced turbulence modelling of separated flow in a diffuser”, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, Vol. 63 no. 1-4, pp. 81-112 (2000).
2.       M. Ariff, S. M. Salim and S. C. Cheah, “Wall y+ approach for dealing with turbulent flow over a surface mounted cube: part 1–low Reynolds number”, Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries, Melbourne, Australia, (Dec. 2009).

3.       H. Bassily, M. A., EL-Kersh, A. M. Bassiouny and M. R. Gomaa, “Air flow characteristics in an asymmetric plane diffuser under different inlet conditions”, Bulletin of the Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, vol. 27, no. 2 (2008).

4.       R. A. Berdanier, “Turbulent flow through an asymmetric plane diffuser”, Masters Thesis, Purdue University (2011).

5.       L. Chen, A. Yang, R. Dai, and K. Chen, “Comparative study of turbulence models in separated-attached diffuser flow”, The 4th International Symposium on Fluid Machinery and Fluid Engineering, Beijing, China No. 4ISFMFE – Ch 04, pp. 215-220, (Nov. 2008)..

6.       E. M. Cherry and Glaccarino, “Separated flow in a three-dimensional diffuser: preliminary validation”, Center for Turbulence Research, Annual Research Briefs (2006).

7.       S. M. El-Behery and M. H. Hamed, “A comparative study of turbulence models performance for separating flow in a planar asymmetric diffuser”, Computers and Fluids, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 248-257 (2011).

8.       M. Faizan, A. Alosaimy, and A. M. El- Kersh, “Performance of conical diffuser equipped with center bodies at inlet”, Minia Journal of Engineering and Technology, (MJET), vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 174-187 (2013).

9.       G. Iaccarino, “Predictions of a turbulent separated flow using commercial CFD codes”, Journal of Fluids Engineering, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. 819-828 (2001).

10.     B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding, “Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence”, Academic Press, London, England (1972).

11.     B. E. Launder, G. J. Reece and W. Rodi, “Progress in the development of a Reynolds-stress turbulence closure”,  Journal of  Fluid Mechanics, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 537-566 (1975).

12.     F. R. Menter, “Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering Applications”, AIAA Journal, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1598-1605 (1994).

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14.     I. Nakamura, K. Ishikawa, and Y. Furuya, “Experiments on the Conical Diffuser Performance with Asymmetric Uniform Shear Inlet Flow: Effect of tailpipe discharge”, Bulletin of JSME, vol. 24, no. 196, pp. 1729-1738 (1981).

15.     H. K. Versteeg and W. Malalasekera, “An introduction to computational fluid dynamics: the finite volume method”, Pearson Education (2007).

16.     D. C. Wilcox, “Turbulence modeling for CFD”, DCW Industries, Inc., La Canada, California (1998).

17.     C.D. Argyropoulos and N.C. Markatos, “Recent advances on the numerical modeling of turbulent flows: Review Article”, Applied Mathematical Modeling, In Press, Available online 14 July 2014.




D. Devi Sirisha, Satya Naresh

Paper Title:

Prediction of LSE via Reaction Dispersion

Abstract:    A dispersion term is hosted into LSE, resulting in a RD-LSE equation, to which a piecewise constant solution can be derived. This project presents an innovative reaction-dispersion (RD) method for implicit active outlines, which is completely free of the costly re-initialization procedure in level set evolution (LSE). In order to have a balanced statistical result of the RD based LSE, we recommend a two-step splitting method (TSSM) to iteratively crack the RD-LSE equation: first iterating the LSE equation, and then solving the dispersion equation. The second step regularizes the level set function obtained in the first step to ensure stability, and thus the complex and costly re-initialization procedure is completely eliminated from LSE. By successfully applying dispersion to LSE, the RD-LSE model is stable by means of the simple finite difference method, which is very easy to implement. The proposed RD method can be generalized to solve the LSE for both variation level set method and PDE-based level set method. The RD-LSE method shows appropriate noble concert on boundary anti-leakage, and it can be voluntarily prolonged to high dimensional level set method. The extensive and promising experimental results on synthetic and real images validate the effectiveness of the proposed RD-LSE approach.



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2.        K. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Song and W. Zhou, “Active contours with selective local or global segmentation: a new formulation and level set method,” Image and Vision Computing, vol. 28, issue 4, pp. 668-676, April 2010.

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S. Murali, B. Srinivas

Paper Title:

Design and Implementation of IEEE-754 Decimal Floating Point Adder, Subtractor and Multiplier

Abstract:    This paper describes the development of a Decimal Floating Point adder/subtractor multiplier and division for ALU in   verilog with the help of ModelSim and will be synthesized by using Xilinx tools. These are available in single cycle and pipeline architectures and fully synthesizable with performance comparable to other available high speed implementations. The design is described as graphical schematics and code. This representation is very valuable as allows for easy navigation over all the components of the units, which allows for a faster understanding of their inter relationships and the different aspects of a Floating Point operation. The presented DFP adder/subtractor supports operations on the decimal 64 format and our extension is decimal floating point multiplier. The fixed-point design is extended to support floating-point multiplication by adding several components including exponent generation, rounding, shifting, and exception handling. And DFP multiplier is compared with the booth multiplier technique.

   DFP, Booth multiplier, IEEE 754-1985 standard, Floating point multiplication.


1.        Improved Architectures for a Fused Floating-Point Add-Subtract Unit Jongwook Sohn, StudentMember, IEEE, and Earl E. Swartzlander, Jr., Life Fellow,  IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 59, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2012.
2.        IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic, ANSI/IEEE Standard 754-2008, New York: IEEE, Inc., Aug. 29, 2008.

3.        E. Hokenek, R. K. Montoye, and P. W. Cook, “Second-generation RISC floating point with multiply-add fused,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1207–1213, Oct. 1990.

4.        T. Lang and J. D. Bruguera, “Floating-point fused multiply-add with reduced latency,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 988–1003,Aug. 2004.

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6.        M. F. Cowlishaw, “Decimal floating-point: algorism for computers,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Symp. Computer Arithmetic, 2003, pp. 104–111.




K. Chandra Sekhar, K. Saritha Raj

Paper Title:

An Efficient Pseudo Random Number Generator for Cryptographic Applications

Abstract:    LFSR based Pseudo Random Sequence Generator (PRSG) technique is used for various cryptography applications such as Data Encryption keys, Bank Security communication channels etc. The total number of Random States generated using  LFSR  are 2n-1  and depends on the Feedback Polynomial used in the design. Linear Feedback Shift Register(LFSR) counter  is very effective when compared to other counters used in cryptographic applications especially in terms of  Hardware, speed of operation and it is also  less prone to Glitches. In this paper we implemented LFSR counter and it is compared with Binary and Gray counters to observe the performance of the counter in terms of Hardware and Speed. The analysis is conceded out to find number of gates, Memory and Speed requirement as the number of bits gets increased.

   LFSR, Pseudo Random Sequence Generator, Feedback Polynomial.


1.        Rajendra S.Katti, Xiaoyu Ruan and Hareesh Khattri, “Multiple output Low Power Linear Feedback Shift Register Design," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems-I, vol. 53, No.7 July 2006.
2.        Panda Amit K, Rajput P, Shukla B, “FPGA Implementation of 8, 16 and 32 Bit LFSR with Maximum Length Feedback Polynomial using VHDL”, 2012 International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies.

3.        Shiv Dutta Mishra, Prof. Anurag Shrivastav “Design and Analysis of FPGA based cryptographic N-bit parallel LFSR”, International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering & Technology (IJLTET), NOV 2013, Vol. 3, Issue 2, ISSN. 2278-621X.

4.        Goresky, M. and Klapper, A.M. Fibonacci and Galois representations of feedback-with-carry shift registers, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Nov 2002, Volume: 48, On page(s): 2826 – 2836.

5.        Efficient Shift Registers, LFSR Counters, and Long Pseudo-Random  Sequence Generators, Application Note, Xilinx Inc.




Mehdi Ameur, Ahmed Essadki, Tamou Nasser

Paper Title:

Evaluation of Photovoltaic System with Different Research Methods of Maximum Power Point Tracking

Abstract:    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the photovoltaic system with different techniques of MPPT system by modeling the whole system which is constituted of the photovoltaic generator connected to a DC-DC converter and commanded by three algorithms of MPPT :Perturb an Observe (P&O), Incremental Conductance (INC) and Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The PV system will be simulated at different parameters such as the irradiation, the temperature to determine the influences of these conditions on the power, the voltage and the current generated by the PV system and also on the performance of each methods of the MPPT system. From the various tests and the results of the simulations the PV system can provide a maximum power with rapidity and precision using the MPPT algorithms discussed in this paper.

   Fuzzy logic controller (FLC), Hill Climbing (HC), Incremental Conductance (INC), Perturb and Observe (P&O)


1.       Pongsakor Takun, Somyot Kaitwanidvilai, Chaiyan Jettanasen “Maximum Power Point Tracking using Fuzzy Logic Control for Photovoltaic Systems” proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2011
2.       Vol II, IMECS 2011, March 16-18, 2011, Hong Kong.

3.       Guenounou Ouahhib, Boutaib Dahhou, Ferhat Chabour,“Adaptive fuzzy controller based MPPT for photovoltaic systems” February 2014. P.843–850.

4.       Krismadinata, Nasrudin Abd. Rahim, Hew Wooi Ping, Jeyraj Selvaraj “photovoltaic module modeling using simulink/matlab” Procedia Environmental Sciences 17 :537 – 546

5.       Francisco M. González-Longatt ,“Model of Photovoltaic Module in Matlab™,” Francisco M, González-Longatt, “Model of Photovoltaic Module in Matlab™”, 2do congresoı beroamerı cano de estudıantes de ıngenıeríaeléctrı ca, electrónıca y computacıón pp.1-5, 2005

6.       R.W. Erickson, ‘’Fundamentals of Power Electronics’’, Chapman & Hall, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY, 1997.

7.       de Brito MAG, Sampaio LP, Junior LG, Canesin CA. Evaluation of MPPT techniques for photovoltaic applications. In: Proceedings of the industrial electronics (ISIE) 2011 IEEE international symposium; 2011. p. 1039–44.

8.       Mummadi Veerachary, Tomonobu Senjyu and Katsumi Uezato, “Voltage-Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Control of PV System” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace And Electronic Systems, Vol. 38, No. 1, January 2002, pp.262-270.

9.       A. Oi, "Design and Simulation of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System," in Electrical Engineering, vol. Master of Science in Electrical Engineering. San Luis Obispo: California Polytechnic

10.     State University, 2005, pp. 113.

11.     C. Cedric, “.energy optimization of the electronic stage of adaptation dedicated to photovoltaic conversion». Thesis of the university Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier. (2008)

12.     Nacer K. M’Sirdi, A.Rabhi , M.Abarkan, “New VSAS approach for Maximum Power Tracking for Renewable Energy Sources (RES)” Mediterranean Green Energy Forum 2013: Proceedings of an International Conference MGEF-13, 708 – 717




Stanislav Simeonov, Neli Simeonova

Paper Title:

Modeling an Aggregate of Interfaces in a Discrete Space and Time

Abstract:    Visually impaired people need improvement of their communicability to contact with other people. Different solutions of the improvement of the man-computer interaction could help the visually impaired people use their abilities to full extent. The Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is a basic term described as the way a user communicates or interacts with computers. To guarantee the ability to acquire information, the computer interface should include software and hardware elements to facilitate this perception. The development of computer technology provides possibilities to combine multiple performing devices into an integrated system aimed to give or facilitate certain services. In somewhat narrower context, the present work is related to the problems in the design of complex interface and performing devices for the people with reduced sight or totally blind ones. This is a prerequisite for the realization not only of interface devices but also of systems capable of partial or full processing of information. In the presented study is shown a model of a single system. The study is the result of research project funded by Bulgarian National Science Fund – NSF Grant No D-ID-02/14 and Grant NHT-333/14.

   Automation, Blind people, Computer Interfaces, IT Architecture, Modeling, User support,


1.       Chee-Hock N., Boon-Hee S., 2008, Queueing Modelling Fundamentals With Applications in Communication Networks, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., ISBN 978-0-470-51957-8 (HB)
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Equations, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 113 (1986), pp.562-577

3.       Gopalsamy, K. and Zhang, B., 1989, On delay differential equations with impulses, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 139, pp.110-122

4.       Halanay, A and Wexler, D., Teoria Calitativa a Sistemelor cu Impulsuri, Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania, Bukureshti, Romania, 1968

5.       Lakshmikantham, V., Bainov, D. D. and Simeonov, P. S., 1989, Theory of Impulsive Differential Equations, World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London

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10.     Stamova, I. M., 2009, Stability Analysis of Impulsive Functional Differential Equations, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York,

11.     G.T. Stamov, 2012, Almost Periodic Solutions of Impulsive Differential Equations, Springer, Berlin




Mahbubeh Mehrdost, Ehsan Kamrani, Fereridoon Owfi, Hodeis Abbasi GHadikolaei

Paper Title:

Identification, Classification and Coding of Hengan Island Coastal Biotopes, using by CMECS / GIS Model

Abstract:    This study investigated Hengam Island coastline biotopes identification, classification and coding base on Coastal Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) model and using by GIS, in 8 stations during 2012-2013. Each ecological habitat biotopes, satellite figures analyzed and GIS cover placed divided to Surface Geology Component (SGC) and Biotic Cover Component (BCC) of different layers information. At last results showed 24 standard codes in Hengam island intertidal zone by CMECSIII and most of them obvious in western part of the area. So because of heterogeneous structure and various subhabitats in rocky coastline of the study area clarify a guideline for future Environmental planning, management and protected.

   Coastal biotopes, Ecological classification, CMECS, HENGAM Island, Persian Gulf.


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6.        Kaiser, M.J., Collie, Jones, D.A., 2002. Afield guide to the marine and seashores ecosystems. University of Kuwait, Kuwait.

7.        Kutcher, T. E. , Garfield, N. H. , Raposa, K. B. 2005. A recommendation for a comprehensive habitat and land use classification system for the National Estuaries Research Reserve System.National Estuarine Research Reserve, Estuarine Reserves Division (Draft). Draft report to NOAA/NOS/OCRM, Silverspiring. 26p.

8.        Lund, K., Wilbur, A. R. 2007. Habitat Classification Feasibility Study for Coastal and Marine Environments in Massachusetts.Boston, Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management.

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10.     Madden, C., Goodin, K., Allee, R.J., Cicchetti, G., Moses, C., Finkbeiner, M., Bamford, D.P. ,2009.Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard. NOAA and NatureServe, Arlington,Virginia. 123p

11.     Owfi, F. 2005.Criteria for classification of coasts coastal ecologies and determining the ecological assessment criteria of coastal–marine ecologiesTehran, Iranian Fisheries Research Institute, p. 66.

12.     SharifPour,  R., Owfi, F., 2006. Environmental management of coastal areas (the evaluation of status quo), Tehran, Ports and Maritime Organization Press, p.396.

13.     Owfi, F.,Vafaei, F., Daneh Kar, A., Rabbaniha, M. 2009.Integrated Coastal Zone Management of Iran, Tehran, Ports and Maritime Organization Press, p.457.

14.     Sharifi Pour, R., Owfi, F., 2008, Important ecosystems, the natural effects and attractive environmental landscapes in the coastal areas of Iran (integrated management of coastal areas of country), Tehran, Ports and Maritime Organization Press, p.205.

15.     Tyrrell, M. C., 2004. Strategic plan for mapping Massachusetts benthic marine habitats Boston, Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management.  Boston M.A. 58p.

16.     Vanzalling, M. 1997. Biological methods for Ecological Fisheries Studies in the Tropical Zone.FAO Rome.98p.




Manoj Kumar Gouda, D. Yugandhar

Paper Title:

Design of Multicore Processor using Multithreading Technique

Abstract:    The multicore design has become a  design philosophy in engineering applications. Speedup has been achieved by increasing clock speeds and, more recently, adding multiple processing cores to the same chip. Although chip speed has increased exponentially over the years, that time is ending and manufacturers have shifted toward multicore processing. However, by increasing the number of cores on a single chip challenges arise with memory and cache coherence as well as communication between the cores. A multi-core processor is a processing system composed of two or more independent cores. One can describe it as an integrated circuit to which two or more individual processors (called cores in this sense) have been attached. This paper discuss the advantage in the transition from non pipelined processor to single core pipelined processor, and the transition from single core pipelined processor to multicore pipelined processor and finally ends in with designing a quadcore processor. It begins with the discussion of implementation of a non pipelined processor. Secondly we discuss the process of converting it into a pipelined processor and the shared memory issues are discussed. Finally provides the design details of all the phases of a multicore processor with quad port memory design, including performance achievement achieved by this transition. The design is done on xilinx Spartan xc6slx45-csg324-4 FPGA and it performance characteristics are anlaysed .  The designed Quad core performance issues like area, speed and power dissipation are also presented. 

   Mulit-core processor, Pipelining, Quadcore,FPGA.


1.        Tai-Hua, Lu, Chung-Ho Chen, KuenJong Lee. “Effective Hybrid Test Program Development for Software-Based Self-Testing of Quad Cores” ,IEEE Manuscript received April 03, 2012, revised August 14, 2012, first published December 18, 2012.
2.        Gohringer, D., Hubner, M.Perschke, T., Becker. J. “New Dimensions for Quad core Architectures Demand Heterogeneity”, Infrastructure and Performance through reconfigurability The EMPSoC Approach”. In Proc of FPL 2010, PP.495-498, Sept 2010.

3.        Lysaght, P. Blodget, B. Mason, J.Young, B.Bridgford. “Invited Paper: Quad core design Methodologies and CAD Tools for Dynamic Reconfiguration of Xilinx FPGAs”. In Proceedings of FPL 2009, August 2009.

4.        D. Tullsen, S. Eggers, and H. Levy, “Simultaneous Multithreading: Maximizing On- Chip Parallelism,” Proc. 22nd Ann. Int’l Symp. Computer Architecture, ACM Press, New York,1995, pp. 392-403.

5.        J. lo, S. Eggers, J. Emer, H. Levy, R. Sstamm, and D. Tullsen.”Converting thread level parallelism into instruction-level parallelism via simultaneous multithreading”. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 15(2), pp. 323-354, August 1997.

6.        Lance, Hammond, Basem, Ku.umen “ANayfeh, Kunle Olukotun.A Single-Chip multiprocessor. IEEE Computer”, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 79--85, September1997.

7.        J. Borkenhagen, R. Eickemeyer, and R. Kalla : “A Multithreaded PowerPC Processor for Commercial Servers, IBM Journal of Research and Development”, November 2000, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp.1995.




J. Raja, R. Anitha

Paper Title:

Power Allocation for Link Adaptive Relaying System with Energy Harvesting Nodes

Abstract:   In this paper, we consider optimal power allocation for link adaptive relaying systems with energy harvesting(EH) node. EH means source communicates with destination via EH Decode-and-Forward relay over the fading channels. We propose two types of relaying system. The first one is conventional relaying  system, the source and relay transmit the signal in consecutive time slot and another one is buffer-aided link adaptive  relaying system, the source-relay and relay-destination channels as well as amount of energy available at source and relay finding whether the source or relay is selected for transmission. Our  main aim is to maximize the system throughput and to reduce the delay by using the technique is RSS. In both type of relaying system having  offline and online power allocation method. Based upon this to analyses the performance gain and give the simulation result

   Buffer- aided link adaptive relaying, conventional relaying,  energy harvesting,  power allocation, RSS.


1.        O.Ozel, K. Tutuncuogulu, J. Yang, S.Ulukus, and A. Yener , "Transmission with energy harveating nodes in fading wireless channels: optimal policies,” IEEE J.Sel.Area Commun.., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1732-1743, Sep. 2011.
2.        C. K. Ho and R. Zhang, “Optimal energy allocation for wireless communication with energy harvesting constraint,” IEEE Trans.Signal Process., vol. 60, pp. 4808-4818,  sep. 2012.

3.        B. Medepally and N.B.Mehta,“ Voluntary energy harvesting relay and selection in cooperative wireless networks," IEEE Trans Wireless Commun.,  vol. 9,pp:3543-3553, Nov.2010.

4.        C. Huang R. Zhang, and S. Cui,"Throughput maximization for the Gaussain relay channel with energy constraints,"  IEEE J. Sel Area Commun., , vol. 3,1 p:1469-1479,  AugusT 2013.

5.        D. W. K. Ng, and R. Schober, "Spectral efficient optimization in OFDM systems with wireless information and power transfer," Available:hppt://

6.        A. Kansal. J. Hus, S. Zahedi, and M. B. Srivastava, "Power managment in the energy harvesting sensor network," ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst.,  vol.6, pp. 1-35, sep. 2007.

7.        V. Sharma, U. Mukherji, V. Joseph, and S. Gupta, “Optimal energy managment policies for energy harvesting sensor node,”  IEEE Trans.Wireless Commun.., vol. 9, pp. 1326–1336, April. 2010.

8.        B. Gurakan, O. Ozel, J. Yang, and S. Ulukus, “Energy cooperation inenergy harvesting communications,” to be published.

9.        J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse, and G. W. Wornell, “Cooperative diversity in wireless networks: efficient protocols and outage behaviour,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 50, pp. 3062–3080, Dec. 2004.

10.     N. Zlatanov, R. Schober, and P. Popovski, “Buffer-aided relaying withadaptive link selection,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 31, pp. 1530–1542, Aug. 2013.

11.     N. B. Mehta, V. Sharma, and G. Bansal, “Performance analysis of acooperative system with rateless codes and buffered relays,” IEEE Trans.Wireless Commun., vol. 10, pp. 1069–1081, Apr. 2011.

12.     P. Belotti, J. Lee, L. Liberti, F. Margot, and A. Waechter, “Branchingand bounds tightening techniques for non-convex MINLP,” Optimization

13.     S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization. Cambridge University Press, 2004.

14.     A. Ikhlef, D. S. Michalopoulos, and R. Schober, “Max-max relayselection for relays with buffers,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.,vol. 11, pp. 1124–1135, Mar. 2012.




J. Raja, M. Logeswari

Paper Title:

Maximization of Throughput for Gaussian Relay Channel with Hybrid Relaying: Decode-Amplify and Forward

Abstract:    For the classic three node Gaussian relay channel with hybrid relaying of both decode and forward (DF) and amplify and forward (AF) relaying, the throughput maximization  over a finite horizon of N transmission block is presented . Here we are assuming the deterministic energy harvesting model in which the parameters such as energy arrival time and harvested amount are known prior to the transmission. Consider the two types of data traffic based on different delays i.e., delay constraint (DC) and no delay constraint (NDC) traffic cases.

   amplify and forward, decode and forward, energy harvesting and Gaussian relay channel.


1.       D. Niyato, E. Hossain, and A. Fallahi, “Sleep and wakeup strategies in solar-powered wireless sensor/mesh networks: Performance analysis and optimization,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 221–236,Feb. 2007.
2.       A. Kansal, J. Hsu, S. Zahedi, and M. B. Srivastava, “Power management in energy harvesting sensor networks,” ACM Trans. Embedded Comput.Syst., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1–8, Sep. 2007

3.       O. Ozel and S. Ulukus, “Information-theoretic analysis of an energy harvesting communication system,” in Proc. IEEE Personal, Indoor Mobile Radio Conf. (PIMRC), Sep. 2010.

4.       D. Gunduz and B. Devillers, “Two-hop communication with energy harvesting,” in Proc. 4th Int. Workshop Computational Advances Multi-Sensor Adaptive Process., Dec. 2011.

5.       Y. Liang and V. V. Veeravalli, “Gaussian orthogonal relay channel: Optimal resource allocation and capacity,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.51, no. 9, pp. 3284–3289, Sep. 2005.

6.       S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

7.       T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, Elements of information Theory, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.

8.       T. Q. Duong and H. J. Zepernick, “On the performance gain of hybrid decode–amplify–forward cooperative communications,” EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Netw., vol. 2009, Article ID 479463, 10 pp.,2009.

9.       H. Chen, J. Liu, C. Zhai, and L. Zheng, “Performance analysis of SNR -based hybrid decode–amplify–forward cooperative diversity networks over Rayleigh fading channels,” in Proc. IEEE WCNCW, Sydney,Australia, Apr. 2010, pp. 1–6.




Vijayashree C, Amuthini P, Preetha

Paper Title:

Simulation and Experimental Performance Solar PV Water Pumping System using BI-Facial Concentrator

Abstract:    In present scenario has water pumps in every household of a city that are driven by electric motors connected to the utility network. The use of photovoltaic as the power source for pumping water is considered as one of the most promising area of PV application but initial cost of the system was high. In this paper, viable alternative to reduce the final cost of the pumped water volume is proposed by using low concentration cavities. Bi-facial concentrators are particularly appropriate for photovoltaic applications since, for certain combinations of the concentration ratio (C) and vertex  vertex angle (ψ), they provide uniform illumination on the region where the modules are located. A model of solar PV water pumping system designed for water requirement of 1500 liters/day and maximum head of 5m. This pumping system model was simulated using PVSYST software and ray tracing model of concentrator was simulated using TracePro software. Results shows that, for the climate of the city of Chennai (India), 60 % improvement in annual pumped water volume and 28% of cost reduction for concentrator system when compared to fixed SPVWP system.

   Bifacial Concentrator, PVSYST, Concentrating Mirror

1.        Hamidat, B. Benyoucef, T. Hartani. Small-scale irrigation with photovoltaic water pumping system in Sahara regions. Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1081–1096. 
2.        Odeh, Y.G. Yohanis, B. Norton. Influence of pumping head, insolation and PV array size on PV water pumping system performance. Solar Energy 80 (2006) 51–64[3] Ali A. Hamza And Azmi Z. Taha . Performance Of Submersible PV Solar Pumping Systems Under Conditions In The Sudan. Pergamon 0960-1481(95) 00049---6

3.        Abdelmalek Mokeddem, Abdelhamid Midoun , D. Kadri, Said Hiadsi, Iftikhar, A. Raja. Performance of a directly-coupled PV water pumping system. Energy Conversion and Management 52 (2011) 3089–3095.

4.        Q. Kou, S.A. Klein , W.A. Beckman. A method for estimating the long-term performance of direct-coupled pv pumping systems. PII: S0038-092X(98)00049-8.

5.        J. Bione, O.C. Vilela, N. Fraidenraich. Comparison of the performance of PV water pumping systems driven by fixed, tracking and V-trough generators. Solar Energy 76 (2004) 703–711.

6.        J. Frank, M. Rüdiger, S. Fischer, J.C. Goldschmidt, M. Hermle. Optical Simulation of Bifacial Solar Cells. Energy Procedia 27 ( 2012 ) 300 – 305.




R. Santosh, K. V. Lalitha Bhavani

Paper Title:

Area Efficient Higher Order FIR Filter Design using Improved Distributed Arithmetic with Look up Tables

Abstract:    This paper describes the design and implementation of highly efficient LUT based circuit for the implementation of FIR filter using Distributed arithmetic algorithm. It is  a multiplier less fir filter designed and designed based on distributed arithmetic algorithm. The DA based technique consists of Look Up Table (LUT), shift registers and scaling accumulator.  Analysis on the performance of  filter order with  partition on different address length of partial tables are done using Xilinx 12.1 synthesis tool. The proposed architecture provides an efficient area-time-power implementation which improves latency and less area-delay complexity through pipelining technique when compared with existing structures for FIR Filter.

   Distributed Arithmetic (DA), FIR filter, Look up table (LUT), FPGA.


1.        Mohamed al mahdi Eshtawie and Masurie Bin Othman,”An Algorithm Proposed For FIR Filter Cofficent Representation” International Journel of Mahematics and computer Sciences 2008.pp24-30.
2.        John G. Prokis, Manolakis, ”Digital Signal Processing” Principles ,algorithm and applications (Fourth Edition)- 2008
3.        Antolin Agatep, “Xilinx Spartan-II FIR Filter Solution”, WP14 (v1.0) April 5, 2000
4.        M. Yamada, and A. Nishihara, “High-Speed FIR Digital Filter with CSD Coefficients Designed on FPGA”, in Proceedings of IEEE Design Automation Conference , 2001, pp. 7-8.

5.        M.A. Soderstrand, L.G. Johnson, H. Arichanthiran, M. Hoque, and R. Elangovan, “Reducing Hardware Requirement in FIR Filter Design”, in Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 2000, Vol. 6, pp. 3275 – 3278

6.        Martinez-Peiro, J. Valls, T. Sansaloni, A.P. Pascual, and E.I. Boemo, “A Comparison between Lattice, Cascade and Direct Form FIR Filter Structures by using a FPGA Bit-Serial DA Implementation”, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 1999, Vol. 1,pp. 241 – 244.

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8.        H. Yoo, and D. Anderson, “Hardware-Efficient Distributed Arithmetic Architecture for High-Order Digital Filters”, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2005, Vol. 5, pp. 125 – 128.

9.        T.Vigneswarn and P.Subbarami Reddy”Design of Digital FIR Filter Based on DDA algorithm” Journal of Applied Science ,2007

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11.     Attri, S.; Sohi, B.S.; Chopra, Y.C.; “Efficient design of application specific DSP cores using FPGAs” in Proceedings of 4th IEEE International Conference on application specific integrated circuits Oct. 2001 Page(s):462 – 466

12.     Samir Palnitkar,”Verilog HDL A guide to Digital Design and Synthesis”Second Edition-2007.




B. Pullaiah, M. Sailaja

Paper Title:

Efficient Communication in any Digital System using Convolutional Encoder and Viterbi Decoder for Constraint Length 9

Abstract:    Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes are an essential component of wireless communication systems.Present wireless standards such as Third generation (3G) systems, GSM, 802.11A, 802.16 utilize some configuration of convolutional coding. Convolutional encoding with Viterbi decoding is a powerful method for forward error correction. The Viterbi algorithm is the most extensively employed decoding algorithm for convolutional codes which comprises of minimum path and value calculation and retracing the path. The efficiency of error detection and correction increases with constraint length. In this paper the convolutional encoder and viterbi decoder are implemented on FPGA for constraint length of 9 and bit rate ½.

   constraint length, convolutional encoder, forward error correction, FPGA and viterbi decoder.


1.        Madhu Vamshi Malladi, "Reconfigurable Viterbi Decoder", The University of New Brunswick, Canada, 2005.
2.        Yan Sun, Zhizhong Ding "FPGA Design and Implementation of a Convolutional Encoder and a Viterbi Decoder Based on 802.11a for OFDM", Wireless Engineering and Technology, 2012, 3, 125-131, doi:10.4236/wet.2012.33019 Published Online July 2012 "Information Theory and Coding", by Prof. K. Giridhar, pooja publications.

3.        V.Kavinilavu, S. Salivahanan, V. S. Kanchana Bhaaskaran, Samiappa Sakthikumaran, B. Brindha and C. Vinoth," Implementation of Convolutional Encoder & Viterbi Decoder using Verilog HDL",IEEE, 2011

4.        HEMA.S, SURESH BABU.V, RAMESH P "FPGA Implementation of Viterbi Decoder", Proceedings of the 6th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Electronics, Hardware, Wireless and Optical Communications, Corfu Island, Greece, February 16-19, 2007.

5.        DR. Anubhuti Khare, Manish Saxena, Jagdish Patel "FPGA Implementation of Viterbi Decoder.

6.        Error Detection and Correction at

7.        Sherif Welsen Shaker, Salwa Hussein Elramly, Khaled Ali Shehata "FPGA Implementation of a Reconfigurable Viterbi Decoder for Wimax Receiver", International Conference on Microelectronics, 2009.

8.        “High-Speed Low-Power Viterbi DecoderDesign for TCM Decoders” by Jinjin He, Huaping Liu, Zhongfeng Wang, ieee transactions on very large scale integration (vlsi) systems, vol. 20, no. 4, april 2012.