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Volume-4 Issue-5 Published on June 30, 2015
Volume-4 Issue-5 Published on June 30, 2015
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S. No

Volume-4 Issue-5, June 2015, ISSN:  2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Ahmed Abdulridha Thabit, Hadi T. Ziboon

Paper Title:

Improving Probability of Detection using CFAR and Adaptive Threshold for Cognitive Radio (CR)

Abstract:    The electromagnetic radio spectrum is a licensed resource is carefully managed by governments. User’s needs in wireless services, leads to the scarcity of available spectrum and inefficient channel utilization. The cognitive radio is the optimum solution for these requirements. The abilities to detect a primary user (PU) as well as to avoid any false alarm are of paramount importance for such a system. The Cognitive Radio has the ability to get the unlicensed user (secondary user (SU)) to use the spectrum for while according to the sensing time. In this paper increased the probability of detection (Pd) using the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) and soft decision (adaptive threshold) instead of hard decision was adapted to select the best threshold to improve the detection. The results show a good detection at variable low SNR values.

  cognitive radio, cfar, energy detector.


1.        marja m. sebdani, m. j. omidi ''detection of an lte signal based on constant false alarm rate methods and constant amplitude zero autocorrelation sequence'' 2008.
2.        dr. scott seidel raytheon ''IEEE 802 tutorial :cognitive radio'' july 18, 2005.

3.        moragues, j., vergara, l., gos´albez, j. machmer, t., swerdlow, a., kroschel,''background noise suppression for acoustic localization by means of an adaptive energy detection approach'' IEEE 2008.

4.        c.c.tan, y.okada, ''detection of rolling-element bearlng signalcorrupted by noise of similar frequency using adaptive noise cancellation'' september 1997.

5.        ahmad a. t., 1muhammad u., sumit k. s. ''building cognitive radios in matlab simulink– a step towards future wireless technology'' IEEE 2011

6.        anurag bansal 1 , ms. rita mahajan ''building cognitive radio system using matlab'' available online at

7.        ali g., khalid a. q., hasari c, h. a. '' an adaptive threshold method for spectrum sensing in multi-channel cognitive radio networks''

8.        s.taruna, b. p.  ''Simulation of cognitive radio using periodogram'' ijert,  september – 2013

9.        c.c.tan,y.okada''''detection of rolling-element bearlng signal corrupted by noise of similar frequency using adaptive noise cancellation'' 1997.

10.     rahul tandra, anant s.''snr walls for signal detection''

11.     zhang z., qingqing y., l. w., xiaofang''a novel hybrid matched filter structure for ieee 802.22 standard'' 2010 ieee

12.     ahmad a., f. a., sumit k., m. u. ''building software-defined radios in matlab simulink– a step towards cognitive radios''2011

13.     guicai y., c. l., m. x., ''a novel energy detection scheme based on dynamic threshold in cognitive radio systems '' available at 2012.




Vinay Raj Pandey, Shivesh Tiwari, Arun Kumar Shukla, Ashutosh Shukla

Paper Title:

An Efficient and Effective Method for Sequential Rule Mining

Abstract:    Tremendous amount of data being collected is increasing speedily by computerized applications around the world. Hidden in the vast data, the valuable information is attracting researchers of multiple disciplines to study effective approaches to derive useful knowledge from within. This thesis aims to investigate efficient algorithm for mining including association rules and sequential patterns. Mining sequential patterns with time constraints, such as time gaps and sliding time-window, may reinforce the accuracy of mining results. However, the capabilities to mine the time-constrained patterns were previously available only within Apriori framework. Recent studies indicate that pattern-growth methodology could speed up sequence mining. Current algorithms use a generate-candidate-and-test  approach that may generate a large amount of candidates for dense datasets. Many candidates do not appear in the database. Therefore we are introducing a more efficient algorithm for sequential rule mining. The time & space consumption of proposed algorithm will be lesser in comparison to previous algorithms.

   Sequential rule Mining, Confidence, Support


1.       R. Agrawal and R. Srikant, “Mining Sequential Patterns,” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Data Engineering, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 3-14, March 1995.
2.       F. Masseglia, F. Cathala, and P. Poncelet, “The PSP Approach for Mining Sequential Patterns,” Proceedings of 1998 2nd European Symposium on Principles of Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, Vol. 1510, Nantes, France, pp. 176-184, Sep. 1998.

3.       R. Srikant and R. Agrawal, “Mining Sequential Patterns: Generalizations and Performance Improvements,” Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Extending Database Technology, Avignon, France, pp. 3- 17, 1996. (An extended version is the IBM Research Report RJ 9994)

4.       J. Pei, J. Han, H. Pinto, Q. Chen, U. Dayal and M.-C. Hsu, “PrefixSpan: Mining Sequential Patterns Efficiently by Prefix-projected Pattern Growth,” Proceedings of 2001 International Conference on Data Engineering, pp. 215- 224, 2001.

5.       J. Han, J. Pei, B. Mortazavi-Asl, Q. Chen, U. Dayal and M.-C. Hsu, “FreeSpan: Frequent Pattern-projected Sequential Pattern Mining,” Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, pp. 355-359, 2000.

6.       H. Pinto, J. Han, J. Pei, K. Wang, Q. Chen, and U. Dayal, “Multi-Dimensional Sequential Pattern Mining,” Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, pp. 81-88, 2001.

7.       J. Ayres, J. E. Gehrke, T. Yiu, and J. Flannick, “Sequential PAttern Mining Using Bitmaps,” Proceedings of the Eighth ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, July 2002.

8.       S. Parthasarathy, M. J. Zaki, M. Ogihara, and S. Dwarkadas, “Incremental and Interactive Sequence Mining,” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, Kansas, Missouri, USA, pp. 251-258, Nov. 1999.

9.       M. J. Zaki, “SPADE: An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Frequent Sequences,” Machine Learning Journal, Vol. 42, No. 1/2, pp. 31-60, 2001.




Mahdi Hosseini, Hadi Hosseini, Seyed Amin Ahmadi Olounabadi, Ahmad Hosseini

Paper Title:

Earthquake Risks and Effects of Earthquake Load on Behavior of Wood Frame Structure by Using International Residential Code (IRC)

Abstract:   This paper discusses the earthquake-resistance implications of additions and alterations and provides recommendations and references for earthquake upgrades. This paper provides information on current best practices for earthquake-resistant house design and construction for use by builders, designers, code enforcement personnel, and potential homeowners at hill regions. It also introduces and explains the effects of earthquake loads on one- and two-family detached houses with wood frame structure  and identifies the requirements of the 2003 International Residential Code (IRC) intended to resist these loads. The paper was a timely intervention aiming to strengthen the institutional capacities at all levels for reducing seismic risks, and to plan and implement earthquake risk reduction and disaster recovery preparedness measures in selected municipalities. The paper was greatly contributed to earthquake preparedness planning and safe construction practices for new buildings and retrofitting of existing poorly constructed unsafe buildings in Hilly regions. Post earthquake damage survey revealed that 90% of casualties result directly from the collapse of buildings that had usually no earthquake-resistant features. Mainly the paper enhanced the skills of construction engineers, architects and masons about safe building design and construction.

   earthquake, construction, hill region, safe constructions, International Residential Code(IRC), wood frame structure 


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3.       National guidelines on Management of Earthquakes, 2007. National Disaster Management Authority, Govt. of India.

4.       Vulnerability Atlas of India (1st Revision). 2006. Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, New Delhi..

5.       American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA). 2001. Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Commentary. AF&PA, Washington, D.C.

6.       American Forest & Paper Association. 2001. Allowable Stress Design (ASD) Manual for Engineered Wood Construction. AF&PA, Washington, D.C.

7.       American Forest & Paper Association. 1996. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Manual for Engineered Wood Construction. AF&PA, Washington, D.C.

8.       American Forest & Paper Association. 1993. Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. AF&PA, Washington, D.C.

9.       Anderson, C., F. Woeste, and J. Loferski. 2005. Manual for the Inspection of Residential Wood Decks and Balconies. ICC, Country Club Hills, Illinois, and Forest Products Society, Madison, Wisconsin.

10.     Applied Technology Council (ATC). 1976. A Methodology for Seismic Design and Construction of Single-Family Dwellings, ATC 4. ATC, Redwood City, California.

11.     Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG). Training Materials for Seismic Retrofit of Wood-Frame Homes, ABAG, Oakland, California.

12.     Association of Bay Area Governments. Training Materials for Seismic Retrofit of Wood-Frame Homes.

13.     Breyer, D. E., K. J. Fridley, D. G. Pollock, K. E. Cobeen. 2003. Design of Wood Structures – ASD. McGraw-Hill Publishing, New York, New York.

14.     Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC). Website: This site provides links to the BSSC’s 60+ member organizations’ websites.

15.     Canadian Wood Council (CWC). 1991. Wood Reference Handbook. CWC, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

16.     City of Los Angeles, California. 2002. City of Los Angeles Building Code, Chapter 94 “Voluntary Earthquake Hazard Reduction in Existing Hillside Buildings.”

17.     Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering. CUREE-Caltech Woodframe Project.

18.     Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI)/International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). Resisting the Forces of Earthquakes (video).

19.     Faherty, K. F., and T. G. Williamson. 1999. Wood Engineering and Construction Handbook – Third Edition. McGraw-Hill Publishing, New York, New York

20.     Federal Emergency Management Agency. FEMA Home Builders Guide to Coastal Construction: Technical Fact Sheet Series, FEMA 499. FEMA, Washington, D.C.

21.     Federal Emergency Management Agency. Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage, FEMA 74. FEMA, Washington, D.C.

22.     Folz, B., and A. Filiatrault. 2002. A Computer Program for Seismic Analysis of Woodframe Structures, CUREE W-21. Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering, Richmond, California.

23.     International Code Council (ICC). 2003d. Conventional Construction Provisions of the 2003 IBC, An Illustrated Guide. ICC, Country Club Hills, Illinois.

24.     National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 2006. Building Construction and Safety Code, NFPA 5000. NFPA, Quincy, Massachusetts.

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26.     Structural Engineers Association of Northern California (SEAONC). 2001. Guidelines for Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Tilt-up Buildings and Other Rigid Wall/Flexible Diaphragm Structures. SEAONC, San Francisco, California.




Bandhan V, K Neetish Bhat, Karthik C Borkar, Mamtha HR

Paper Title:

Handwritten Form Processing

Abstract:    Analysis of document images for information extraction has become vital in the modern day. These days so much variety of information is being conventionally stored on paper. For better storage and accurate processing, the paper is being converted into electronic form. This involves a lot of processing of documents using image processing techniques and other computer vision concepts. Pre-Processing techniques like Gaussian Blur, Otsu Thresholding, Median Filter and morphological operations are adopted to increase accuracy of recognition. Based on contours each fields of form are segmented. Character segmentation is done based on bounding box. MNSIT SD-19 database is used for training of characters. SVM and k-NN techniques are used for classification. Our implementation was tried for 10 requisition for certificate forms. Out of 10 forms 8 forms was correctly generated. So the accuracy of result is found to be 80%. 

   Object Character Recognition; Pre-Processing; Segmentation; Classification; Post-Processing.


1.       Vamsi Krishna Madasu, Brian Charles Lovell, “Automatic Segmentation and Recognition of Bank Cheque Fields” NICTA& School of ITEE, University of Queensland.
2.       Ameur Bensfia, “Extraction of Arabic Handwriting Fields by Forms Matching”, Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 2015.

3.       Vamsi Krishna Madasu, Mohd. Hafizuddin Mohd.Yusof, M. Hanmandlu, Kurt Kubik, “Automatic Extraction of Signatures from Bank Cheques and other Documents”, Intelligent Real-Time Imaging and Sensing group, School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, 2003.

4.       Roongroj Nopsuwanchai, “Discriminative training methods and their applications to handwriting recognition”, Technical Report, \UCAM-CL-TR-652, ISSN 1476-2986, 2005.

5.       M.K.Jindal, R.K. Sharma, G.S. Lehal, “Segmentation of Horizontally Overlapping Lines in Printed Indian Scripts”, International Journal of Computational Intelligence Research. ISSN 0973-1873 Vol.3, No.4 (2007), pp. 277–286.

6.       Nallapareddy Priyanka, Srikanta Pal, Ranju Mandal, “Line and Word Segmentation Approach for Printed Documents”, IJCA Special Issue on “Recent Trends in Image Processing and Pattern Recognition” RTIPPR, 2010.

7.       K. Srikanta Murthy, G. Hemantha Kumar, P. Shivakumar,P.R. Ranganath, ”Nearest Neighbour Clustering approach for line and character segmentation in epigraphical scripts”.

8.       Opencv Official Documentation:




Tom Varghese, Jesu Raj, E. Raja, C. Thamotharan

Paper Title:

Performance and Emission Testing on Algae Bio Fuel using Additives

Abstract:   Due to the depletion of non-renewable fossil fuels there are many alternative fuels introduced today, one of alternative fuel used is Bio-Diesel , but Bio-Diesel has low performance characteristics and not commercially used , Therefore in my experiment I am using algae based biodiesel with blends of Diesel additives and experimental investigation is done to find the engine performance and emission characteristic of a compression ignition engine by using organic materials also some other alcoholic substances as additives to diesel-biodiesel blends .The use of algae as bio-diesel is studied and it has been tested to obtain increased performance and low emission. The Brake thermal efficiency (Bthe) will be increased and the specific fuel consumption (SFC) level will be reduced , The engine emission is noted to have reduced emission of hydrocarbon(HC) emission, Nitrogen oxide(NOx) emission, Carbon monoxide(CO) emission , It is done first by using pure diesel as base fuel, and then by adding nanoparticles to the diesel-biodiesel blends, which is the modified fuel . Both the fuels and compared based on their performance test and Emission test

Keywords:   Bio-Diesel, (Bthe), (SFC), (NOx) (CO), (HC)


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5.       Arul Mozhi Selvan V., Anand R.B., Udayakumar M. 2008. Stability and Performance Characteristics ofDiesohol Using Biodiesel as Additive in CompressionIgnition Engine. Proc. of the Int. conference on Fascinating Advances in Mechanical Engineering, India. pp. 667-673.

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9.       Barry Park, Kenneth Donaldson, Rodger Duffin, Lang Tran, Frank Kelly, Ian Mudway, Jean Paul Morin, Robin Guest, Peter Jenkinson, Zissis Samaras, Myrsini Giannouli, Haris Kouridis, Patricia Martin, 2008. Hazard and Risk assessment of a Nanoparticulate Cerium Oxide based Diesel Fuel Additive-A Case Study. Inhalation
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11.     Rakopoulos CD, Antonopoulos KA, Rakopoulos DC. (2006). Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection diesel engine using blends of diesel fuel with vegetable oils or biodiesels of various origins. Energy Conver. Manage. 47(18-19): 3272-3287.

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22.     Dorado M, Ballesteros E., Arnal J, Gomez J, Lopez F. (2003). Exhaust Emissions from a Diesel Engine Fueled with Transesterified Waste Olive Oil. Fuel, 82: 1311-1315.

23.     Murillo S, Mı´guez JL, Porteiro J, Granada E, Mora´n JC. (2007). Performance and exhaust emissions in the use of biodiesel in outboard diesel engines. Fuel, 86: 1765-1771.

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27.     Ramadhas AS, Muraleedharan C, Jayaraj S. (2005), Performance and emission evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl esters of rubber seed oil. Renew Energy;30:1789–800.




Satish Pujari, A. Ramakrishna, K.T Balaram Padal

Paper Title:

Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of UNI Directional Jute and Banana Fiber Composites

Abstract:    Natural fibers came into exposure from the research community like never before in the history, due to the number of advantages over traditional synthetic fibers, like low cost, low density, high specific strength and modulus, easy availability, renewability and much lower energy requirement for processing. This research deals about the mechanical properties of composites like Jute and Banana as reinforcing materials in epoxy resin based polymer matrix, for making partially green biodegradable material composite via hand lay-up technique. Jute is a rain fed crop, the fibers are extracted by retting. Banana fiber can be obtained easily from the plants, which are rendered as waste after the fruits have ripened. These fibers are exposed to NaOH treatment before reinforcement. The reinforcing of the resin with Jute and Banana fiber accomplished in four different orientations: 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° with reference to horizontal side of the sheet by employing optimized resin. Mechanical properties (Tensile, Impact) of both Jute fiber composites and Banana fiber composites were investigated as a function of fiber orientation. Results showed that the composite properties are strongly influenced by test direction and fabric characteristics. Comparatively, Composites tested along the Jute fabric 0° orientation obtained best overall mechanical properties.

   Mechanical Properties of Jute fibers, Mechanical Properties of Banana fibers, tensile properties of fibers, Impact properties of fibers, Fiber orientation


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3.        Idicula Maries, N. R. Neelakantan, Oommen Zachariah, Joseph Kuruvilla and Thomos Sabu, "A study of the Mechanical properties of randomly oriented short Banana and Sisal Hybrid fiber reinforced polyster composites" , Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 96(5), 2005, pp.1700-1709.

4.        G. S. Chauhan, S. S. Bhatt, I. Kaur, A. S. Singha and B.S. Kaith, "Evaluation of Optimum grafting  parameters and the effect of ceric ion initiated grafting of methyl methacrylate on to Jute fiber on the kinetics of  thermal degradation and swelling behavior", J.Polym. Degrad. & Stability, vol. 69, 2000, pp. 261-265.

5.        B. S. Kaith and  Kalia Susheel, "Synthesis and Characterization of Graft Co-Polymers of  Flax Fiber with Binary Vinyl Monomers", Int. J. Polym. Anal. & Charact. Vol. 12, 2007, pp. 401- 412.

6.        A.S. Singha, B. S. Kaith and Sanjeev Kumar, "Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Properties of FAS-KPS Induced Graft

7.        Co-polymerization of Binary Vinyl Monomer Mixtures onto Mercerized Flax", Int. J. Chem. Sci., vol. 2, 2004, pp.472-482.

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9.        S. Panthapulakkal, A. Zereshkian, and M. Sain, "Preparation and characterization of wheat straw fibers for reinforcing application in injection molded thermoplastic composites",  Bio-resource Technology, vol. 97 , 2006,  pp. 265-272.

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Praveen S, Jayakumari D, Rajakumar S, Jegan J

Paper Title:

Issues, Challenges and Risks in Investing Public Water Transportation System of Kochi

Abstract:    This paper attempts to assess the problems ailing in the water transportation sector around Kochi. The major waterways in the location have been designated as National Waterways and State Navigational Canals (State Waterways). The main arterial waterway in the city is Champakara Canal, Udyogamandal Canal, National Waterway and waterways connecting between the city and its various environs islands. Kochi is abundantly blessed with waterways of over 1,100 kms. However, only forty kilometres out of these are considered navigable for motor boats, according to the Kerala State Inland Navigation regulation states a minimum 14m width, minimum depth of 1.5m and minimum 5m overboard clearance is mandatory for their operations. Inland Canals plays an important role in the economy of the state water transport department and interconnects the islands on the Kochi environs. It relies upon extensive review of data, people’s observations about the water transport system recorded through primary surveys, and perception studies to suggest feasible measures towards addressing those problems... Conclusively, the outlook of inland navigation in Kochi region looks promising, in which issues on infrastructural gaps and institutional support are addressed suitably.

   problems, Champakara, Navigation, Conclusively, outlook.


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16.     Sriraman (2010) “Long term perspectives on Inland Water transport in India” RITES Journal,

17.     UNCTAD [United Nations Conference on Trade and Development] (2009) “Review of the Maritime Transport -2009”. Chapter 5. United Nations (UN) - New York and Geneva

18.     UNEP (2011) “Low Carbon Transport in India”- Stakeholders' Consultation Workshop: 18-20 October 2011, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, India.




Harsh Deep, Varsha

Paper Title:

Evaluation of Various Data Aggregations Techniques for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract:   The quick growth in network multimedia equipments have allow additional real-time digital services such as video-conferencing, online games and distance education to develop to be the standard internet tasks. WSNs is now major part of research in computational theory because wide variety of applications. But due to limited battery power consumption has become major limitations of  WSNs protocols. Though many protocols has been proposed so far to improve the energy efficiency further but still much enhancement can be done. This paper has presented various data aggregation techniques for WSNs. This paper has shown that the among others GSTEB has shown quite significant results.The general objective of this paper is to evaluate the limitations of the earlier techniques of data aggregation. This paper ends up with the suitable future directions to extend GSTEB protocol further



1.       Parul Saini, Ajay Sharma,” E-DEEC- Enhanced Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering Scheme for heterogeneous WSN”, 2010 1st International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC - 2010).
2.       N. Javaid , S. N. Mohammad  , K. Latif, U. Qasim , Z. A. Khan , M. A. Khan.”HEER; Hybrid energy efficient reactive protocol” IEEE, August 2013.

3.       Bakr, B. A. and Leszek, L., “Extending Wireless Sensor Network Lifetime in the LEACH-SM Protocol by Spare Selection”,IEEE 5th Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing, July 2011, pp. 277-282.

4.       Peng, J., Chengdong, W., Yunzhou, Z. and Fei, C., “A Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Routing Protocol of Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE International Conference on Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM), September 2011, pp. 1-4.

5.       D. Kumar, T.C. Aseri, R.B. Patel,” EECDA: Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks”, Int. J. of Computers, Communications & Control, ISSN 1841-9836, E-ISSN 1841-9844 Vol. VI (2011), No. 1 (March), pp. 113-124.

6.       Manju and Arun K Pujari,” High-Energy-First (HEF) Heuristic for Energy-Efficient Target Coverage Problem”, International Journal of Ad hoc, Sensor & Ubiquitous Computing (IJASUC) Vol.2, No.1, March 2011 DOI : 10.5121/ijasuc.2011.2105 45.

7.       K.Ramesh and Dr. K.Somasundaram ,” A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CLUSTER HEAD SELECTION ALGORITHMS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS”, International Journal of Computer Science & Engineering Survey (IJCSES) Vol.2, No.4, November 2011.

8.       Chen, G., Zhang, X., Yu, J. and Wang, M. “An improved LEACH algorithm based on heterogeneous energy of nodes in wireless sensor networks”, IEEE International Conference on Computing, Measurement, Control and Sensor Network, July 2012, pp. 101-104.

9.       Yektaparast, A., Nabavi, F. H. and Sarmast, A. “An Improvement on LEACH Protocol (Cell-LEACH)”, IEEE 14th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology,  February 2012, pp. 992-996.

10.     Kashaf, A., Javaid, N., Khan, Z. and Khan, I. “TSEP: Threshold-Sensitive Stable Election Protocol For WSNs” IEEE 10th International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology,Dec 2012,pp.164-168

11.     Zhi-fengDuan, Fan Guo, Ming-xing Deng and Min Yu “Shortest Path Routing Protocol for Multi-layer Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks”, International Conference on Net works Security, Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (IEEE) (2009), 25-26 April; Wuhan, Huber, pp.106-110.

12.     Singhal, S., Gankotiya,A., Kumar, A., Shikha,V. “An Investigation of Wireless Sensor Network: A  Distributed Approach in Smart Environment”IEEE Second International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies, in July 2012,pp.522-529

13.     Ahlawat, A.and Malik, V. “An Extended Vice-Cluster Selection Approach To Improve V LEACH Protocol In WSN”IEEEThird International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies, May2013, pp.236-240.

14.     Beiranvand, Z., Patooghy, A. and Fazeli M., “I-LEACH: An Efficient Routing Algorithm to Improve Performance & to Reduce Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE 5th International Conference on Information and Knowledge Technology, May 2013, pp. 13-18.

15.     G.Jayaseelan, S.K.Rajalaxmi,” Hard network lifetime wireless sensor networks     with high energy first clustering” ,International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST) ISSN : 0975-5462 Vol. 5 No.03 March 2013.

16.     Khalid Hussain, Abdul Hanan Abdullah, Khalid M. Awan, Faraz Ahsan and Akhtab Hussain,” Cluster Head Election Schemes for WSN and MANET: A Survey”, World Applied Sciences Journal 23 (5): 611-620, 2013 ISSN 1818-4952.

17.     N. Amjad, M. M. Sandhu, S. H. Ahmed, M. J. Ashraf, A. A. Awan, U. Qasim, Z. A. Khan, M. A. Raza, N. Javaid, ”DREEM-ME: Distributed Regional Energy Efficient Multi-hop Routing Protocol based on Maximum Energy with Mobile Sink in WSNs”, J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 4(1)289-306, 2014.

18.     Meenakshi Sharma and Anil Kumar Shaw “Transmission Time and Throughput analysis of EEE LEACH, LEACH and Direct Transmission Protocol: A Simulation Based Approach”, Advanced Computing: An International Journal ( ACIJ ),Vol.3, No.5, September 2012.

19.     Shuo Shi, Xinning Liu and XuemaiGu “An Energy-Efficiency Optimized LEACH-C forWireless Sensor Networks”, 7th International ICST Conference on Communications and Networking in China (CHINACOM) (IEEE) (2012),8-10 Aug; kun Ming, pp.487-492. 

20.     Thu Ngo Quynh1, Kieu-Ha Phung2,3, Hoan Vu Quoc1 “Improvement of Energy Consumption and Load Balance for LEACH in Wireless Sensors Networks”, (IEEE) (2012),15-17 Oct; Jeju, Island, pp.583-588.




Naveen S, R.S Moni

Paper Title:

3D Face Fecognition using Fourier-Cosine Transform Coefficients Fusion

Abstract:   3D Face recognition has been an area of interest among researchers for the past few decades especially in pattern recognition. The main advantage of 3D Face recognition is the availability of geometrical information of the face structure which is more or less unique for a subject.  This paper focuses on the problems of person identification using 3D Face data. Use of unregistered 3D Face data significantly increases the operational speed of the system with huge database enrolment. In this work, unregistered 3D Face data is fed to a classifier in multiple spectral representations of the same data. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) are used for the spectral representations. The face recognition accuracy obtained when the feature extractors are used individually is evaluated.  Fusion of the matching scores proves that the recognition accuracy can be improved significantly by fusion of scores of multiple representations.  FRAV3D database is used for testing the algorithm.

   Point Cloud, Rotation Invariance, Pose Correction, Depth Map, Spectral Transformations, and Principal Component Analysis.


2.       Alexander M. Bronstein; Michael M. Bronstein  and Ron Kimmel. Expression-invariant 3D face recognition. In Proc. International Conference on Audio- and Video-based Biometric Person Authentication, volume 2688 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 62-70, Guildford, UK, 2003.

3.       C. Beumier, 3D face recognition In IEEE Int. Conf. on Computational Intelligence for Homeland Security and Personal Safety (CIHSPS2004), Venice, Italy, 21-22 July 2004.

4.       3D Face Recognition using Mapped Depth Images .Gang Pan; Shi Han; Zhaohui Wu; Yueming Wang, Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Computer Society Conference on CVPR (CVPR’05)Workshops- Volume- 03  p. 175

5.       A Method of 3D Face Recognition Based on Principal Component Analysis Algorithm, Xue Yuan; Jianming Lu; Takashi Yahagi  IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2005. 23-26 May 2005 Page(s): 3211 - 3214 Vol. 4

6.       3D Face Recognition Using 3D Alignment for PCA,Trina Russ; Chris Boehnen ;Tanya Peters, Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE Computer Society Conference on CVPR  (CVPR’06) Volume 2, 2006 Pages: 1391 – 1398

7.       Automatic 3D Face Detection, Normalization and Recognition, Ajmal Mian; Mohammed Bennamoun; Robyn Owens  , Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on 3DPVT (3DPVT'06) June 2006, page(s): 735-742

8.       Gender Recognition Using PCA and DCT of Face Images, Ondrej Smirg, , Jan Mikulka, , Marcos Faundez-Zanuy, Marco Grassi, Jiri Mekyska, Advances in Computational Intelligence , Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 6692, 2011, pp 220-227

9.       Pose Normalization for Local Appearance-Based Face Recognition, Hua Gao, Hazım Kemal Ekenel, Rainer Stiefelhagen, Advances in Biometrics, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 5558, 2009, pp 32-41

10.     3D Face Recognition Method Using 2DPCA-Euclidean Distance Classification, Mohammad Naser-Moghaddasi Yashar Taghizadegan, Hassan Ghassemian. ACEEE International Journal on Control System and Instrumentation3(1):5 (February 2012)

11.     3D Face Recognition Using Modified PCA Methods, Omid Gervei, Ahmad Ayatollahi, Navid Gervei, World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology;Mar2010, Issue 39, p264

12.     M. Turk and A. Pentland, “Eigenfaces for recognition”, J. Cognitive Neuroscience, 1991, 3(1), pp. 71-86




R. Tuksaitova, A. Albekova, G. Omarova, R. Zakiraeva

Paper Title:

To The Question of Bilingual Situation in Modern Kazakhstan

Abstract:    This article deals with the problem of the language situation in modern Kazakhstan. The authors draw attention to the particular  functioning of  Kazakh and Russian languages. Interest is the problem of language use in various fields of activity: the field of science, education, the media, in Literature, etc. Due to the multiethnic situation language policy in Kazakhstan is determined to meet the needs of inhabited 130 ethnic groups. Kazakhstan is characterized by the existence of natural bilinguism.

   Bilinguism, Ethnic Groups, Subordinative, Sociocultural.


1.       Vereshchagin E.M. Psycholinguistic and methodical description of bilingualism. M, 1969.
2.       Suyunova G.S. Speech behavior of Kazakhs bilingual: Author. diss.  Cand of philolog.scien. Almaty, 1995.

3.       Altynbekova O.B. Unified National Test in Kazakhstan: linguistic innovations // Russian as the language of intercultural business cooperation in the context of polilingual Eurasia. 2 Materials of the international congress. Astana, 2010.  

4.       Karaulov J.N., Neroznak V.P. Atlas of bilingualism as a tool of sociolinguistic analysis // Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A series of literature and language. 1988. vol.47. №3.

5.       Prokhorov Y.E.  National-cultural stereotypes of verbal communication in the dialogue of cultures // Russian language in the context of culture. Yekaterinburg, 1999.




Igwe Agu Felix, Eneh I I

Paper Title:

A Panacea To ATM Challenges Using Iris Authentication

Abstract:    This paper exposes how iris authentication can be used as a biometric identification in  ATM machine, data were collected with the aid of camera, this was achieved by  allowing only those NIR wavelength from narrow –band illuminator back   into the iris camera. Measurements were taken with the aid  of a camera, the data gotten are stored and saved in a database , if the  a customer comes, data will be collected with the aid of camera to ascertain whether  the  person is the rightful owner or not. The data gotten from the customer will be matched with the ones stored in database, if it matches, access is granted to the customer, but if it does not access will be denied.

   Database, ATM, Electromagnetic Spectrum   NIR spectrum and iris camera


1.       Adler, F.H and   Doras,K..L 2010” Physiology of the Eye,”Proceeding of IEEE ,vol.4,no.5, pp.88-94.         
2.       Doggart, J.H and  Helix,G.R 2009 “Introduction To Iris Recognition  and  its application”Computer control,specilal Issue On  ATM  Security and Network vol.10,no.5-6,pp 1221-1230.

3.       Hosseini,P..k and  louis2013:”Simplified Iris Recognition in ATM Security and Control System ”Proceeding of IEEE INFOCOM,vol.8,no.6,pp 45-49            

4.       Hoyos,U.L,Brex,J.K 2002:”Iris Recognition , a Panacea to ATM  Security”IEEE Signal Processing Magazine,vol.24,no7,pp 84        

5.       Manis,U.p and larry,U.U 2007 ”Biometric  Measurement and Technique ” Proceeding of concerned  Area Processing,vol. 21,no. 8,pp. 65-80.

6.       Larus,P.J  and  Lakuska,M.P  2009 “Iintroduction  To  Solution  To ATM  Problems  in third world countries,”Proceeding of  CPN vol.20,no.5 pp.68-83.




Patil Mounica, Elizabeth P Cheriyan

Paper Title:

Fault Tolerant Voltage Source Converter for HVDC Transmission System

Abstract:    This paper presents Fault Tolerant Voltage Source Converter for HVDC transmission system based on a hybrid multilevel voltage source converter with ac-side cascaded H-bridge cells. The proposed converter offers a unique feature of dc fault blocking capability (ability to block power exchange between the ac and dc sides during the dc side faults, hence no current flows in converter switches), operational flexibility in terms of active and reactive power control, black start capability, in addition to improve ac fault ride through capability. In this paper, four quadrant operation and voltage support, the ac and dc fault ride-through capabilities of the proposed converter will be demonstrated.

  AC and DC fault ride through capabilities, DC fault reverse blocking capability, hybrid multilevel converter with ac side cascaded H bridge cells.


1.       Grain Philip Adam, Khaled H. Ahmed, Stephen J. Finney, Keith Bell, and Barry W. Williams, “New Breed of Network Fault-Tolerant Voltage-Source-Converter HVDC Transmission System,” IEEE Trans.on Power Sytems, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 0885-8950, Feb. 2013.
2.       G.P.Adam et al., “Network fault tolerant voltage source converters for high voltage applications,” in Proc.9th IET Int. Conf. AC and DC Power Transmission., London, U.K., 2010, pp.1-5.

3.       Y.Zhang et al., “Voltage source converter in high voltage application:      Multilevel versus two-level converters,” in Proc.9th IET Int.Conf.AC and DC Power Transmission., London, U.K., 2010, pp. 1-5.

4.       G. P. Adam et al., “Modular multilevel inverter: Pulse width modulation and capacitor balancing technique,” IET Power Electron., vol. 3, pp. 702–715, 2010.

5.       M. M. C. Merlin et al, “A new hybrid multi-level voltage-source converter with DC fault blocking capability,” in Proc.9th IET Int.Conf.AC and DC Power Transmission., London, U.K., 2010, pp. 1-5.

6.       V. Naumanen et al., “Mitigation of high du/dt –oriented motor over voltages in multilevel inverter drives ,” IET Power Electron., vol. 3, pp. 681–689, 2010.

7.       H.Khader, A. Massoud, A.Gastli, “ Study of Voltage Source Converter-Based HVDC System During DC Side Faults, ”  IEEE GCC Conf and exhibition, Nov 17-20,Doha,Qatar.

8.       G. P. Adam, G. Kalcon, S. J. Finney, D. Holliday, O. Anaya-Lara and B. W. Williams, “HVDC Network: dc fault ride-through improvement,” CIGRE Canada Conf on Power Systems Halifax, Sep 6-8,2011.

9.       F.Schettler, H.Huang, and N.Christl, “HVDC transmission systems using voltage sourced converters-design and applications,” IEEE, pp.715-720,2000.

10.     N. Flourentzou et al., “VSC-based HVDC power transmission systems: An overview,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 592–602, Mar. 2009.




S.K. Kenzhemuratova, A.A. Akhmetova, R. Abilhamitkyzy, A.S. Nurzhanova, Sh.S. Tleugazina

Paper Title:

Stages of Development of Kazakh Terminology and Problems of Formation of International Terms

Abstract:   Terms formation of Kazakh language is formed along with laws of Kazakh language. It is connected with a period of active implementation of international terms into Kazakh language. If to watch these words from the point of view of modern linguistics, they can not be related to the terms. But it should be noted that they are foreign words, entered in Kazakh language. At present, aforesaid terms have a translation, but some of them are in use in Russian variant. As review of scientific literature shows, research of formation problems of terms of Kazakh language were conducted at the beginning of the 20th century by the scientists of “Alash” party.

   culture, formation, history, terminology.


1.       K. Zhubanov Research on Kazakh Language. A, 1966
2.       R.А. Urekenova Formation of terms in Kazakh language. Аlmaty:Nauka, 1980. – 128p.

3.       Sh Bilalov Aktual problems of formation of national research language. Almaty: Sanat, 1996. – 426p.

4.       Sh.Kurmanbaiuly Alash intelligence and study of terms. Аlmaty, Еl-shezhire. 2008.




Md. Aleemuddin Ghori, Syed Abdul Sattar

Paper Title:

Security Breaches and their Solutions in WSN

Abstract:    Wireless sensor network is an upcoming technology and are getting Popularity quickly and a lot of attention because of their low cost solutions to a number of large sensor arrays, and capable to implement in military as well as for civilians. This technology has many applications including various environmental monitoring; target tracking, scientific exploration, patient monitoring and tracking, and data acquisition in hazardous environments. Sensor nodes are deployed in a hostile locations security becomes extremely important. They have limited data storage and power capacity because of their small size and this is the major limitation to implement the traditional computer security methods. The unpredictable communication channel and unattended operation make the security defenses harder. In this paper we have discussed the importance of security breaches and their solutions.

   Popularity quickly, large sensor arrays, various environmental monitoring; target tracking, scientific exploration, patient monitoring.


1.        E. Mykletun, J. Girao, D. Westhoff "Re-visited Public key based crypto schemes for data concealment in Wireless Sensor networks " IEEE ICC, Turkey May 2006
2.        D. Westhoff   J. Girao M. Acharya "concealed data aggregation for Reverse multicast Traffic in Sensor Networks Encryption “Key Distribution and Routing   Adaptation IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing in 2006

3.        A. Becher. Benenson and  Dornseif Tampering with motes real-world physical attacks on wireless sensor networks 2006.

4.        M. Acharya, J. Girao, D. Westhoff "Secure Comparison of Encrypted Data in Wireless Sensor Networks  " 3rd WiOpt, April 2005

5.        Chris karlof and David Wagner. Secure routing in wireless sensor networks Attacks and countermeasures. Elsevier's Adhoc Networks Journal, Special Issue on Sensor network applications and Protocols 293_315, Sept 2003.

6.        A. Weimerskirch D. Westhoff “Zero-Common Knowledge Authentication for Pervasive Networks 10th Selected areas in Cryptography SAC ' 03 Springer-Verlag LNCS 3006, pp.73-87, Ottawa, Ontario, CA August 2003

7.        Y.-C. Hu A. Perrig D.B. Johnson Packet leashes a defense against wormhole Attacks in wireless networks in IEEE   Info com, 2003.

8.        J. R Douceur. The Sybil attack in 1st International Workshop on Peer-to-peer Systems (IPTPS _02), 2002.

9.        Y.C. Hu, A. Perrig, D.B. Johnson Ariadne a secure on demand routing Protocol for adhoc networks in MOBICOM, 2002.

10.     D. Dolev A.C. Yao "On the security of Public-Key Protocols " IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 29(2):198-208, 1983

11.     S. Rajasegarar, C. Leckie, and M. Palansiwami, "Anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks", IEEE Wireless Communications, vol. 15, no. 4, Aug. 2008, pp. 34-40




Syed Moizuddin, Nawaz Baig, Shaikh Subuktageen

Paper Title:

Design of Plastic Handle for Surgical Applications

Abstract:   The paper explains a clip mechanism handle to use for surgical procedures which uses metal clips via a mechanism to transmit the motion from the handle to the jaw at one end which helps inserting the metal clip to patient’s vessel. With development in technology; this handle does not operate on a spring mechanism hence it operates in steps, instead of direct and quick movement of arms handle. This also reduces the force required to operate the handle and is better controlled. The rubber grip and ergonomics of the component are carefully selected keeping the operation and use in mind. The delivery mechanism also gets changed than the normal used mechanisms. With the inward movement of the handles, the jaw is moved in inward direction and vice versa. After the jaw is opened, the metal clip is pushed into the tissue for binding the tissues. This ends the operation of the equipment. [1, 2, 4, 5]

   clip mechanism, force required


1.       Computer Aided Modeling of a New Endo Biomedical Surgical Instrument by Dr. Jeremy (Zheng) Li.
2.       Computer Aided Modeling and Dynamic Analysis of A New Surgical Instrument by Dr. Jeremy (Zheng) Li.



5.       Schollmeyer T, Soyinka AS, Schollmeyer M, Meinhold-Heerlein I. Georg Kelling (1866-1945): the root of modern day minimal invasive surgery. A forgotten legend? Arch Gynecol Obstet 2007; 276:505.





Gajanan Vijaykumar Kadam, Aboli Jalindar Jondhale

Paper Title:

Comparision Between Conventional and Mechanical Concrete Road

Abstract:    Mechanical concrete is made by confining aggregates, soils and granular materials inside a thin walled geo cylinder in which we used the waste tires , aggregates and waste concrete. It is a way of binding crushed stone aggregates together into a load bearing cellular building unit which can support compressive loads and resist lateral soil pressure. This tire derived cylinder performs functions similar to the cement or water mixture, the rebar and the formwork in hydraulic cement concrete. Stones confined in this manner can function in load supporting foundations; earth retention structures i.e. walls and dams, slope and channel erosion protection i.e. as ditch and channel liners. It is strength of mechanical cement cylinder that generally defines the overall strength of mechanical concrete and not the crushed stone. The preferred cylinder is made from a recycled auto or truck tire with both sidewalls removed. The tire treated cylinder is no longer a tire but through remanufacturing becomes tire-derived-cylinder, TDS. 78 % of construction waste consists of concrete waste, bricks and tiles. Concrete waste with various fractions was used as coarse aggregate in the research, as well as filler aggregates from the crushed concrete waste were used. Physical-mechanical properties of the samples were analyzed by comparing with reference samples where typical aggregates were used.

   waste tires, TDC, geo cylinder, aggregate, waste concrete


1.        Pam Kasey (2006-06-08). "Bonasso Devises New Use for Old Tires". The State Journal.
2.        US patent 7470092, Samuel G. Bonasso, "System and method for reinforcing aggregate particles, and structures resulting

3.        Pam Kasey (2009-01-15). "W.Va. Engineer Patents Way to Reuse Old Tires". The State Journal.

4.        Dana Arquilla (2011-08-12). "Mechanical Concrete Concept May Go International".

5.        IRC 37: 2012 “Design of Flexible Pavement”.




C. K. Sridhar, S. B. Vanakudre

Paper Title:

Development of High Performance Concrete Using Nano Silica

Abstract:    Use of high perforformance concrete in present days is increasing as conventional concrete does not meets the requirement. Hence it is necessary to develop high performance concrete. The high performance concrete is one which has the characteristics like workability, high strength & durability. These characteristics are not found in conventional concrete. From the recent study [1],[2],[4],[6], it is found that the high performance concrete can be developed by using supplementary cementecious materials & high quality  superplasticizers.  Use of Nano materials is gaining importance due to its vital characteristics, these materials helps in developing high performance concrete[11]. This study aims at developing   high performance concrete using Nanosilica.  Initially, M60   grade concrete (high strength concrete) is designed and prepared with and without Nano silica. Then it is proposed  to make this concrete as high performance concrete by using high quality superplasticizer and a better packing of  coarse aggregate(40% 10mm downsize &60% 20mm down size).The test results shows that slump higher than 210mm , strength  68.44 to 75.11MPa and better resistance to water obsorption.

   Nano Silica, High performance concrete, Supplimentary cementecious Material (SCM), Durability, Workability.


1.        Vinod P ,  etal,   “ A simplified mix proportioning method for high performance concrete”. Oct 2013 . The Indian Concrete Journal ,pp 10-20.
2.        Er  Magudeshwaran P,Dr Eswaramoorthy  “Experimental study on durability of high performance  concrete”. Jan 2013  International journal of emerging technology  & advanced Engineering. pp 507-510.

3.        C.K.Sridhar, Dr S.B.Vanakudre , “Srength efficiency factor for Nano silica at different age”. Aug 2014 IJEAT journal ,pp 17-20.

4.        R Yu, etal,”Effect of colloidal nano silica on hydration of ultra high performance  concrete”.

5.        N P Rajamne & Ambily  P S ”Fly ash as a sand replacement material in concrete astudy” July 2013 ,Indian Concrete Journal  ,pp  11-17. 

6.        M Collepardi ,et al, “ Combination of silica fume , fly ash & amorphous Nano silica in superplasticized high performance concrete”.

7.        Konstantin Sobolev , Miguel Ferrada Gutierreg, “How Nanotechnology can change the concrete world”.2005, American ceramic  society Bulletin vol 84 No- 10 ,pp 14-17.

8.        Maheswaran ,etal ,” An overview on  the influence of Nano silica in concrete & a research initiative”.2013 ,Research Journal of Recent Sciences, pp 17-24.

9.        Laila Raki,  etal , “Cement & Concrete Nanoscience & Nanotechnology ”. 2010, Material Journal ,3, pp 918-942.

10.     Narasimha Raj, Suresh G Patil  and B. Bhattacharjee, “Concrete mix design by packing density method”, Mar/Apr 2014 ,Journal of Mechanical & Civil Engineering.pp 34-46.

11.     Y E Qing ,Zhang Zenan ,etal  “A  comparative  study on the pozzollanic activity  between Nano silica & silica fume “2006 ,Journal of Wuhan University  of  Technology, pp153-157.   

12.     Concrete Mix Proportioning- Guidelines IS 10262:2009.




Sushma K. M, Manjula Devi T. H

Paper Title:

A Spatio-Temporal Correlation Based Routing Technique for Wireless Sensor Network

Abstract:    This paper gives a routing technique for wireless sensor network. In WSNs, the old routing techniques of networking are not applicable because of the various challenges. Hence, many different methods have been devised. Proposed technique is the routing technique with spatial and temporal correlation of data aggregation. This is a technique based on Clustered Aggregation existing in WSN, which is a method to save energy significantly. Energy consumption must be low in WSNs because the sensor nodes are energy constrained devices.

   Clustering, Data aggregation, Routing, Wireless Sensor Networks.


1.        Leandro Aparecido Villas, Azzedine Boukerche, Heitor Soares Ramos, Horacio A.B. Fernandes de Oliveira, Regina Borges de Araujo , Antonio Alfredo Ferreira Loureiro “DRINA:A Lightweight and Reliable Routing Approach for In-Network Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks” IEEE Transactions on computers vol. 62,NO. 4, pp-676-689, April 2013. 
2.        Walid Bechkit, Mouloud Koudil, Yacine Challal, Abdelmajid Bouabadllah, Brahim Souici, Karima Benatchba, “A new Weighted Shortest Path Tree for Converge cast Traffic Routing in WSN  ” IEEE,pp-187-192, 2012.

3.        G.H Raghunandan, B.N. Lakshmi, “A comparative analysis of routing techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the IEEE, pp- 17-22, February 2011.

4.        Leandro Aparecido Villas, Azzedine Boukerche, Daniel Guidoni, Regina B. Araujo and Antonio A.F. Loureiro, “An Energy-Aware Spatial Correlation Mechanism to Perform Efficient Data Collection in WSNs”, IEEE Wireless Local Networks, pp-882-889, 2011.

5.        Qing Bian, Yan Zhang, Yanjuan Zhao, “Research on Clustering Routing Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Computer Society, pp- 1110-1113, 2010.

6.        Leandro Aparecido Villas, Azzedine Boukerche, Regina B. Araujo and Antonio A.F. Loureiro, “Highly Dynamic Routing Protocol for Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the IEEE,pp- 496-502, 2010.

7.        Jun-Hu Zhang, Hui Peng , Tian-tian Yin  “Tree-Adapting :an Adaptive Data Aggregation Method for Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the IEEE, 2010.

8.        Hailin Feng, Guanghui Li, Guoying Wang, “Efficient Secure in-network Data aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE Computer Society, pp- 194-197, 2010.

9.        Peter Corke, Tim Wark, Raja Jurdak, Wen Hu, Philip Valencia, Darren Moore, “Environmental Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the IEEE,Vol.  98, No. 11, pp- 1903-1917, November 2010

10.     Hady S. Abdel Salam, Stephan Olariu, “A Lightweight Skeleton Construction Algorithmfor Self-Organizing Sensor Networks”, IEEE ICC,2009.

11.     Mario O. Diaz, Kin K. Leung “Dyanmic Data Aggregation and Transport in Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the IEEE,2008.

12.     Xianghong Cao, Hua Zhang, Jun Shi, Guangzhao Cui, “Cluster Heads Election Analysis for Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Weighted Graph and Particle Swarm Optimization”, IEEE Computer Society, pp- 599-603,  2008.

13.     Eduardo F. Nakamura, Heitor S. Ramos. Leandro A. Villas, Andre L.L. de Aquino and Antonio A.F. Loureiro, “A reactive role assignment for data routing in event-based wireless sensor networks”, ELSEVEIR,  pp-1980-1996, 2009.

14.     Mohammad Mostafizur Rahman Mozumdar, NanGuofang, Francesco Gregoretti, Luciano Lavagno “An efficient data aggregation algorithm for cluster-based sensor network”, Journal of  Computer, Vol 4, No. 7, pp- 598-606,September  2009.

15.     Jiann-Liang Chen,Yu-Ming Hsu, I-Cheng Chang, “Adaptive routing protocol for reliable sensor Network applicatons”, International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp- 515-539, December 2009.

16.     G. Anastasi, Marco Conti, Mario Di Francesco, Andrea Passarella, “Energy Conservation in Wireless Sensor Networks: a Survey”, Ad-hoc Networks, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp- 537-568, May 2009.




Navpreet Singh, Navdeep Kaur Brar, Arvind Dhingra

Paper Title:

A Case Study of Energy Saving Using Energy Efficient Motors in a Process Plant

Abstract:    Energy conservation is a most talked subject in the today’s world because energy consumption in various industries in India is a great issue. The standard induction motors in a process plant consume large amount of energy due to low efficiency. To save energy consumption in a process plant, the use of energy efficient motors are chosen over standard induction motor. Energy efficient motors have better efficiency and power factor than standard induction motors. The use of energy efficient motors reduces energy consumption of the plant. The plant under study has 40 motors of different ratings. The work presented in the paper examines the usage of extra energy in various standard induction motors in a process plant and encourage the use of energy efficient motors over standard induction motors. For this objective, a comparison of standard induction motors with energy efficient motors based on efficiency, (kW) motor input power, (kVA) apparent power, power factor, energy consumed (kWh) according to running hours in a year and current. The payback period for energy efficient motors has also been calculated. In the end the study found that replacing standard motors with energy efficient motors is better and overall plant motor load also reduces.

  Standard induction motor, energy efficient motor, efficiency, kilowatt, power factor, energy conservation

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Mushtaq N. Ahmed, Mojgan Hojabri, Ali Mahmood Humada, Hamdan Bin Daniyal, Hatem Fahad Frayyeh

Paper Title:

An Overview on Microgrid Control Strategies

Abstract:  In response to the ever increasing energy demand, integrating distributed energy resource-based microgrid will be the most promising power system improvement in the near future. Microgrid system implementation provides significant advantages for both electric utility provider and end customer user. This paper performs a comprehensive literature review on the current key issues on control strategies of microgrid islanded mode operation. Brief descriptions are provided for typical microgrid control methods, PQ control, droop control, voltage/frequency control, and current control, which are associated with microgrid mode of operation. This review also covers microgrid control issues such as islanded mode, stability, and unbalanced voltages to provide adequate power quality. In addition, this paper discusses the challenges of microgrid islanded mode issues, such as load sharing, distributed generation losses, and non-linear /unbalanced load. Finally, research conclusions of the important microgrid control requirements for future development are also described.

   Microgrid control, microgrid structure, microgrid issues.


1.        J. A. Peças Lopes, C. L. Moreira, and A. G. Madureira, “Defining control Strategies for microgrids islanded operation,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 21, No.  2, 2006, pp. 916-924.
2.        A. Llaria, O. Curea, J. Jimenez, H. Camblong, “Survey on microgrids: unplanned islanding and related inverter control techniques,” International Journal of Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, 2011, pp. 2052-2061.

3.        Bae, J. Kim, “Reliability evaluation of customers in a microgrid,” IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, Vol. 23 No. 3, 2008, pp. 1416-1422.

4.        Iván Patrao, Emilio Figueres, Gabriel Garcerá, Raúl González-Medina, “Microgrid architectures for low voltage distributed generation,” Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 43, 2015, pp. 415–424.

5.        .H. Lasseter, “Smart distribution: coupled microgrid,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 99, No. 6, 2011, pp. 1074-1082.

6.        A.G. Tsikalakis, N.D. Hatziargyriou, “Centralized control for optimizing microgrids operation,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol 23, No. 1, 2008, pp. 241-248.

7.        M.A. Sofla, G.B. Gharehpetian, “Dynamic performance enhancement of microgrids by advanced sliding mode controller,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2011, pp.1-7.

8.        F. Gao, M.R. Iravani, “A control strategy for a distributed generation unit in grid connected and autonomous modes of operation,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 23 Np. 2, 2008, pp. 850–859.

9.        P. Basak, S. Chowdhury, S. Halder nee Dey, S.P. Chowdhury, “A literature review on integration of distributed energy resources in the perspective of control, protection and stability of microgrid,” Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, No. 8, 2012, pp. 5545–5556.

10.     Rocabert J, Luna A, Blaabjerg F, Rodrígez P, “Control of power converters in AC microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 27, No. 11, 2012, pp. 4734–4749.

11.     Simpson-Porco, J. W., Dörfler, F., & Bullo, F, “Synchronization and power sharing for droop-controlled inverters in islanded microgrids,” Journal of Automatica, Vol. 49, No. 9, 2013, pp. 2603–2611.

12.     Soultanis, N. L., Papathanasiou, S. A., & Hatziargyriou, N. D, “A stability algorithm for the dynamic analysis of inverter dominated unbalanced LV   microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2007, pp.  294–304.

13.     A. Llria, O. Curea, J. Jimenez, H. Camblong, “Survey on microgrids: unplanned islanding and related inverter control techniques,” International Journal of Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, No. 8, 2011, pp. 2052–2061.

14.     Guerrero JM, Chandorkar M, Lee T-L, Loh PC, “Advanced control architectures for intelligent microgrids – Part I: Decentralized and hierarchical control,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2013, pp. 1254–1262.

15.     Johannes Schiffer, Romeo Ortega, Alessandro Astolfi, Jörg Raisch, Tevfik Sezi, “Conditions for stability of droop-controlled inverter-based microgrids,” Journal of Automatica, Vol. 50, 2014, pp. 2457–2469.

16.     Li, Y. W., & Kao, C.-N, “An accurate power control strategy for power electronics-interfaced distributed generation units operating in a low-voltage multibus microgrid,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 24, No.12, 2009, pp. 2977–2988.




Molaletsa Namoshe, Oduetse Matsebe, Ngatho Tlale

Paper Title:

Improved Range-Only Beacon Initialization Towards Localization System

Abstract:    Mobile robot operation in an un-surveyed environment presents a challenging problem, particularly in GPS denied spaces. The complexity of the problem scales up if the sensor used to aid navigation can only provide range information about the features in that environment. In the past, almost all solutions to Localization problems relied on a prior knowledge of feature locations. In this paper however, range measurements, characteristically known to have outliers and unobservable are used to solve the localization problem. Past approaches to this problem have used delayed initialization of newly observed feature(s) until good estimates are available; a process akin to Hough transforms methods. This ratio thresholding approach has shown to be susceptible to system divergence, especially when large environments are explored. In this paper therefore, a pose disambiguating algorithms comprising of outlier rejection, particle swam optimization (PSO) and an area under a probability distribution function (pdf) methods are used to solve the localization system using real  data acquired by a mobile robot in an unknown space. To validate the proposed methods, experimental real data sets obtain by Odyssey III during the GOATS’02 experiments are used.

   Range data, Gaussian distribution, Localization, feature initialization, Beacon (feature/ landmark), and observation sensor.


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Premanand Shenoy, K. S. Babu Narayan, Katta Venkataramana

Paper Title:

Optimum Design of 2D Trusses Using Controlled Directional Movement of Nodes

Abstract:   Optimization of structures has always been a subject of continuous interest in the field of structural engineering. The amount of research work and publications in this field show various mathematical approaches adopted to effectively use materials used for construction.  A novel   iterative Node Based Smoothing Method for the evolution of optimum design of trusses is presented.

   Structural Optimization, Topology, Sizing, Shape, Trusses, Iterative Process, nodal position.


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4.        Jayant Kulkarni A, Kazemzadeh Azad (2012).  Structural Optimization Using A Mutation-Based Genetic Algorithm,  International Journal Of Optimization In Civil Engineering   2012; 2(1):81-101

5.        Farzin A , Farrokh A,, Daryoush N (2013) Optimal design of truss structures via an augmented genetic algorithm,  Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences, (2013) 37: 56 – 68

6.        Novapat, Sujin. (2013) Simultaneous Topology, Shape and Optimization of Plane Trusses Adaptive Ground Finite Elements Using MOEAs, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Article ID 838102 Vol. 2013 Jan 2013 Richrdson J N, Sigrid, Philippe, Rajan (2012). Multi-objective topology Optimization of Truss Structures with Kinematic Stability Repair, Journal of the International Society for Structural & Multidisciplinary Optimization (ISSMO), Springer 2012

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9.        Kalatjari V., P. Mansoorian (2011)   Sizing and Topology Optimization of Trusses by Development of Algebraic Force Method and Parallel Genetic Algorithm , 6th National Congress on Civil Engineering, April 26-27, 2011, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

10.     Pavel Tomsic , JoDe Duhovnik (2014),   Simultaneous Topology and Size Optimization of 2D and 3D Trusses Using Evolutionary Structural Optimization with regard to Commonly Used Topologies   Advances in Mechanical Engineering Hindawi Publishing Corporation,  Article ID 864807,  Volume 2014

11.     S. Gholizadeh  and H. Barati (2012)  A Comparative Study Of  Three Meta heuristics For Optimum Design Of Trusses,  International Journal  Of  Optimization In Civil Engineering   2012; 3:423-441




Naser Samadi, Reza Ansari, Bakhtiar Khodavirdilo

Paper Title:

A Simple and Rapid Method for Removal Fe (II) ions from Aqueous Solutions by Using Synthesized Copolymer Derivative of Poly (Styrene –Alternative- Maleic Anhydride) (SMA)

Abstract:    This study is considered simple and cheap method for removal heavy ions from aqueous solutions. Chelating resins have been introduced to be appropriate materials for the recovery of heavy metals in water remedies. A chelating resin based upon modified poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)(SMA) with Melamine was synthesized. This modified resin was further reacted with 1,2-diaminoethan in the attendance of ultrasonic irradiation for the provision of a tridimensional chelating resin on the nanoscale for the recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The adsorption behavior Iron (II) ions was explored by the synthesis of chelating resins at variouspH’s. The gotten resins shown a good inclination for the elimination the Iron (II)ions from aqueous solution, even at acidic pH. The resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis. The adsorption process of Iron (II)on SMA, SMA-M and SMA-M-P were tested with Langmuir isotherm model and the isotherm constants were deduced from this.

   SMA, Iron (II) ions, adsorption, chemical remedies, isotherm


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S. G. Galande, G. H. Agrawal, Surdikar Pradnya

Paper Title:

Implementation of Watermarking System to Embed the Information within Video Streams for Security Purpose

Abstract:    Now a day’s security is main concern when we entered into digital world but the steps to develop such security system and how we take optimum use of available or rather advanced techniques for developing such systems that can also fulfils our requirement are much important. As we are discussing about digital world we must take into account about the multimedia object such as text, image, audio and video. In above all form of data, video data security is challenging issue so dealing with digital watermarking in video for security is focus of paper. Technology can be carried out by various algorithms like DWT, DCT in frequency domain. In this paper, combined DWT and DCT transforms are used to watermark data in video with minimum quality loss. Combined approach makes system robust as making use of multi-resolution DWT with energy compaction DCT. Results are evaluated for every frame in video by three parameters PSNR, MSE and NC. Design of proposed scheme is using MATLAB R 2013a.

   DWT and DCT transform MSE, NC, PSNR, Watermark.


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3.       Ms Pallavi Patil & Dr. D.S.Bormane, “DWT Based Invisible Watermarking Technique for Digital Images” International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-2, Issue-4, April 2013.

4.       Aditi Agarwal, Ruchika Bhadana and Satish Kumar Chavan., “A Robust Video Watermarking Scheme using DWT and DCT” (IJCSIT) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 2 (4) , 2011, 1711-1716.

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7.       G.Prabakaran, R.Bhavani & M.Ramesh , “A Robust QR- Code Video Watermarking Scheme Based On SVD and DWT Composite Domain,” Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Informatics and Mobile Engineering (PRIME) February 21-22.

8.       C.N. Sujatha & P. Satyanarayana, “High Capacity Video Watermarking based on DWT-DCT-SVD”International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2015.

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16.     Mr. Ashish S. Bhaisare, “Significance Research Review on Real Tome Digital Video Wartermarking System For Video Authentication”,Proc. Of the second intl. Conf. on Advances in computer, Electronic and electrical Engineering –CEEE2013.

17.     T. Pun, “Optimal adaptive diversity watermarking with channel state estimation,” Proc. SPIE, Security Watermarking Multimedia Contents III, vol. 4314, Jan. 2001.

18.     P. Duhamel, “Unified Approach of Asymmetric Watermarking Schemes,” Security and Watermarking  of Multimedia Contents III, P.W. Wong and E. Delp, eds., Proc. SPIE, vol. 4314, 2001, pp. 269 279.

19.     R. Lagendijk, “Watermarking digital image and video data: A state-of-the-art overview,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 20–46, Sep. 2000.

20.     D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Diversity and attack characterization for improved robustwatermarking,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 49, pp. 2383–2396, Oct. 2001.

21.     M. Ramkumar and A. N. Akansu, “Theoretical capacity measures for data hiding in compressed images,” Proc. SPIE, Voice, Video Data Commun., vol. 3528, pp. 482–492, Nov. 1998.

22.     R. B.Wolfgang, C. I. Podilchuk, and E. J. Delp, “The effect of matching watermark and compression transforms in compressed color images,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Process., vol. 1, Oct. 1998.

23.     C. Fei, D. Kundur, and R. Kwong, “Transform-based hybrid data hiding for improved robustness in the presence of perceptual coding,” Proc. SPIE, Math.
Data/Image Coding, Compression Encryption IV, vol. 4475, July 2001.

24.     S. Baudry, J. F. Delaigle, B. Sankur, B. Macq, and H. Maitre, “Analyzes of error correction strategies for typical communication channels in watermarking,”  Signal Process., vol. 81, pp. 1239–1250, June 2001.

25.     F. Hartung and B. Girod, “Watermarking of uncompressed and compressed video,” Signal Process. vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 283–301, 1998.




Igwe Agu Felix, Ene I. I

Paper Title:

Improving ATM Security Checks Using Finger Recognition

Abstract:    This paper x-rays how ATM security can be checked and improved by using finger Recognition.This was achieved by sending fingerprints to finger sensor which converts patterns and signals from analogue to digital form through an analogue-to-digital converter(ADC).In this paper,a programming language  known as VisualDsp++  was  used to enable  fingerprint  sensor to generate data.The  data gotten from an individual is stored in the database of the system, if  a customer of  a particular bank comes to withdraw money from the ATM machine,it crosschecks whether the owner’s data stored in the database matches with  the data of the person that wants to make withdrawal,if it matches with the one in the database,access is granted to the preson,if it does not match, access is denied from the person who wants to make withdrawal.

   VisualDsp, Fingerprint Sensor, Blackfin processor’s SPI port,arch pattern, loop pattern.


1.        Jain, L.C. et al. (Eds.). . Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press 1999...pp 45-50
2.        Langenburg, Glenn,  "Are one's fingerprints similar to those of his or her parents in any discernable^ way?". Scientific American. Retrieved 28 August 2010 .pp 76-80

3.        Thornton, John..Latent Fingerprints, Setting Standards in the Comparison and Identification. 84th Annual Training Conference of the California State Division of IAI. Retrieved 30 August 2010. pp 23-25

4.        Diaz, Raul. "Biometrics: Security Vs Convenience". SecurityWorld Magazine. Retrieved 30 August 2010.

5.        Setlak, Dale. "Advances in Biometric Fingerprint Technology are Driving Rapid Adoption in Consumer Marketplace". AuthenTec. Retrieved 4 November 2010. pp 6-9

6.        Mazumdar, Subhra; Dhulipala, Venkata . "Biometric Security Using Finger Print Recognition" (PDF). University of California, San Diego. p. 3. Retrieved 30 August 2010.

7.        Minutia vs. Pattern Based Fingerprint   Templates. (2003). Retrieved December 13, 2005, pp 8-10.




Madhura M. Kalbhor, Sudeep D. Thepade, Sanjay R. Sange

Paper Title:

Video Classification using Thepade’s Sorted Block Truncation Coding using Bayes, Function, Lazy, Rule and Tree Classifiers

Abstract:    Video classification is a process of grouping the relevant videos under the predefined set of categories. With the advance technology there is significant growth of video data. To properly manage this data there is need of efficient system. To store the video data in an efficient manner, video classification plays a vital role. This paper proposes a video classification system that uses Thepade’s sorted block truncation coding method to fetch the attributes from the videos. The fetched attributes are supplied to twelve different classifiers belonging to Bayes, Function, Lazy, Rule and Tree classifier families. With the proposed classification system Simple Logistic classifier have given the best classification accuracy of 89.83%.

   Content based video classification, Thepades sorted block truncation coding, data mining classifiers.


1.       Ambika Ashirvad Mohanty, Bipul Vaibhav, “A Frame-based Decision Pooling Method for Video Classification”, Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON), 2013
2.       Mahmood Karimian, Mostafa Tavassolipour, Shohreh Kasaei Sharif “Exploiting Multiview Properties In Semi-Supervised Video Classification”. 6'th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST'2012)

3.       Dr. Sudeep D. Thepade, Rik Das,” Performance Comparison of Feature Vector Extraction Techniques in RGB Color Space using Block Truncation Coding for Content Based Image Classification with Discrete classifiers” INDICON 2014.

4.       Dr. Sudeep D. Thepade, Madhura M. Kalbhor, Video Classification using Sine, Cosine, and Walsh Transform with Bayes, Function, Lazy, Rule and Tree Data Mining Classifier. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 –8887) Volume 110 –No. 3, January 2015.

5.       Dr. Sudeep D. Thepade, Madhura M. Kalbhor, Video classification with fractional energy of Haar, Hartley, Slant and Kekre transforms using Function , Bayes, Tree, Lazy and Rule classifiers. A-Blaze, Nodia, 2015

6.       J. L. Walsh, “A Closed Set of Orthogonal Functions,” American Journal of Mathematics, vol. 45, pp. 5-24, 1923 .

7.       J. Han and M. Kamber, (2000) “Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques,” Morgan Kaufmann.

8.       Mizianty, M. ; Kurgan, L. ; Ogiela, M.,” Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Discretization on the Classification with Naïve Bayes and Semi-Naïve Bayes Classifiers”. Seventh International Conference  Machine Learning and Applications, ICMLA  2008.

9.       Ian H.Witten and Elbe Frank, (2005) "Datamining Practical Machine Learning Tools and   Techniques," Second Edition, Morgan Kaufmann, San Fransisco.

10.     Yung-Chen Chou, Hon-Hang Chang, “A High Payload Data Hiding Scheme for Color Image Based on BTC Compression Technique”, Fourth International on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing (ICGEC), 2010 Conference.

11.     Yung-Chen Chou, Hon-Hang Chang, “A Data Hiding Scheme for Color Image Based on BTC Compression Technique”, 9th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI), 2010, pp- 845 – 850.

12.     Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Color Based Image Retrieval using Amendment Block Truncation Coding with YCbCr Color Space”, International Journal on Imaging (IJI), Volume 2, Number A09, Autumn 2009, pp. 2-14.

13.     Sudeep D . Theapde, Rik Das, Sourav Ghosh, “ A Novel Feature Extraction Technique with Binarization of Significant Bit Information” , Internatinal Jouranal of Imaging and Robotics, Volum 15, Issuse No3, 2015.




Neena Tom, Rini Jones S. B

Paper Title:

Controller Design for Z Axis Movement of STM Using SPM Control Software

Abstract:    Scanning probe microscopy is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe. This paper is devoted to the control system design for high performance scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The distance between tip and sample should be kept constant at every point of sample for better scanning results. Note that many samples have roughness, curvature and tilt that deviate from a flat plane .So it is necessary to move the probe in z-axis to maintain the height of probe from sample constant. But a sudden change in probe position can damage the probe. SPM feedback loops usually employ a proportional-integral (PI) controller to control the vertical movement of tip (z-direction). Our aim is to implement an accurate tuning algorithm that can find PI values that gradually change the position of the probe for higher safety and precision. Moreover, better sample topography image can be obtained after auto-tuning the control gains during different scanning speed. The square wave is given as input to the PI controller which represents the sudden change of surface that cause damage to the system, and the output should be triangular wave in nanometer range by proper tuning of PI controller. Triangular wave represents the tip being moved by the controller in z direction at the time represented by the square wave input.

   Scanning tunneling microscope, feedback loops, PI controller, tuning algorithm.


1.       Binnig, G.; Quate, C. F.; Gerber, C. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1986, 56, 930–933.
2.       Control theory for scanning probe microscopy by Julian Stirling. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol.2014, 5, 337–345.

3.       Yong, Y.K.;Sch. of Electr. Eng. & Comput. Sci., Univ. of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia ;Mohemani, S.O.R.”A Z-scanner design for high-speed scanning probe microscopy” Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on14-18 May 2012.

4.       Binnig, G.; H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel (1982). "Tunneling through a controllable vacuum gap". Applied Physics Letters 40 (2): 178–180.

5.       Kalinin, Sergei V.; Gruverman, Alexei (Eds.), ed. (2011). "New Capabilities at the Interface of X-Rays and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy". Scanning Probe
Microscopy of Functional Materials: Nanoscale Imaging and Spectroscopy (1st ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 405–431.

6.       G. Binnig, H. Rohrer (1986). "Scanning tunneling microscopy". IBM Journal of Research and Development 30: 4.

7.       Optimal design of PI/PD controller for non-minimum phase systemJie-Sheng Wang; Yong Zhang; Wei Wang January 2006 Transactions of the Institute of Measurement & Control;2006, Vol. 28 Issue 1, p27

8.       “Controller design for a closed-loop scanning tunneling microscope “Automation Science and Engineering, 2008. CASE 2008. IEEE International Conference on 23-26 Aug. 2008


10.     The Good Gain method for PI(D) controller tuning Finn Haugen TechTeach(

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S. Radeva, R. Chuturkova, М. Stefanova

Paper Title:

Assessment of Measures for Reducing Harmful Emissions in Air from Soda Ash Producing Plant in Devnya, Bulgaria

Abstract:    The research has been done at Solvay Sodi JSC plant for the production of synthetic soda ash situated in the industrial region of Devnya. The paper deals with the assessment of emissions of harmful substances (СО, CO2, NH3, NOx/NO2, SOx/SO2, H2S and PM10) from the Soda Ash plant(Solvay Sodi JSC) after coming into force of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Permitin 2006. Significant emission reduction is registeredforsome pollutants (СО, NH3, SOx/SO2) during the period from 2006 to 2013, despite the fact that some annual emission levels considerably exceed the emission threshold established by the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR). The concentrations of pollutants do not exceed the limit values during the monitoring period. Appropriate measures for reducing the emission levels were appliedpursuant to the IPPC Permit for the Soda Ash plant.It isascertainedthat applying best available techniques (BAT) andstrictly complying the requirements of the IPPC Permit contribute to the low levels of emissions and improve the ambient air quality in the region.

   Air pollution, best available techniques (BAT),emission,industrial region Devnya,IPPC Permit, plants.


1.       Directive 2008/1/ЕC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. OJ L 24, 29.01.2008  (abrogates Directive 96/61/ЕC).
2.       Environmental Protection Law, GN 91, 25.92002, amendments GN 22, 11.3.2014.

3.       Guidance for minimum requirements concerning the type, place and content of clauses in the IPPC permits under article 117 of Environment Protection Act with Ordinance No RD-607, 04.08.2014, Sofia.

4.       Regulation No 166/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the establishment of a European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. 18.01.2006.   Amending Council Directives 91/689/EEC and 96/61/EC. OJ L 33, 4.2.2006, p. 1–17.

5.       Regulation on terms and methods for IPPC permits issue. GN 80, 9.10.2009, amendments GN 69, 11.9.2012

6.       European Commission, Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control, Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Manufacture of Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals – Solids and Other Industries, 2007.

7.       European Soda Ash Producers Association ESAPA, IPPC BAT Document, 2004.

8.       Executive Environment Agency, National information system for reporting according to EEA WASTE/EPRTR (online),  Available:

9.       Technical EIA Guidance Manual for Soda Ash Industry, IL & FS Environment, 2010.

10.     US Environmental Protection Agency, Technical Support Document for Soda Ash Manufacturing Sector: Proposed Rule for Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases, 2009.

11.     Solvay Sodi JSC, Annual Reports on Implementation of the Activities. – IPPC Permit No 74/2005, Devnya, Bulgaria, 2006-2013.

12.     Solvay Sodi JSC, IPPC Permit No 74, 27 December 2005, Devnya.

13.     Chuturkova, R., M. Stefanova, S. Radeva, D. Marinova. Technical Engineering in Industrial IPPC as Key Tool for Ambient Air Quality Improvement. – International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, August 2014, p. 8–20.

14.     Harnisch J., C. Jubb, A. Nakhutin, C. S. Cianci. Chemical Industry Emissions, Solvay Soda Ash Production. In: IPPC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006.

15.     Kuenen J. Soda Ash Production.Emissions and Controls.EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook, 2013.




Kesini Krishnan V, Smitha P. S

Paper Title:

A Statistical Model for Shadow Removal of Man-Made Objects and Change Detection in Satellite Images

Abstract:    In this paper shadow detection and removal done as the pre processing steps for change detection beacause the presence of shadow causes mistakes in change map. For shadow detection there is a convexity analysis which are multiphase object segmentation and thresholding for suspected and false shadow removal also considering the object properties such as shape area perimeter ,average gray scale value and standard devitaion for more perfection. Shadow removal is employed by the method IOOPL (Inner Outer Outline Profile Lines)  matching and relative radiometric correction. For IOOPL generation, first forms the object boundaries,then form two additional boundaries by expanding and contracting object boundaries. Build a graph,grayscale versus no of points. When doing a similarity test in IOOPL graphs secton by section, matching coefficient become high, that region treated as homogeneos and data reconstructed compared to non shadow area. Removal is done by relative radio metric correction. In Change analysis find the binary descriptors of each pixel in the two images and find hamming distance as similarity measure between binary descriptors of each pixel at the same location in two images. After there is a ranking system in change analysis and which is done by Lloyd-Max Quantization. Here in this paper we employed M=2, M=3 quantization levels In shadow treatment validation is done by comparing the gray scale average and standard deviation of non shadow area,shadow area and shadow removed area. The results are shown that it is very efficient compared to existing methods. . Shadow detection and removal is 93% accurate compared to existing methods. Average running time of change detection is better compared to previous works. Also most of the previous works are dealing with two levl quantization. Here more than 2 levels can be done with in seconds.

  multiphase segmentation, histogram, thresholding, Inner Outer Outline Profile Lines (IOOPL), shadow detection, shadow removal, change detection, binary descriptor, hamming distance, Lloyd Max quantization


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4.        KZhang, L Zhang and S Zhang “a variational multiphase level set approach to simultaneous Segmentation and bias correction” Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 17th International Conference on Image Processing,September 26-29, 2010

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6.        Q. ye,H. xie, Q. Xu “ Removing shadows from high resolution urban aerial images based on color constancy”International Archives of  the Photogrammetry,
Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XXXIX-B3 25 August – 01 September 2012.

7.        J. Yoon, C. Koch, and T. J. Ellis, “ShadowFlash: An approach for shadow removal in an active illumination environment,” in Proc. 13th BMVC, Cardiff, U.K., Sep. 2–5, 2002, pp. 636–645.

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10.     H. Ma, Q. Qin, and X. Shen, “Shadow segmentation and compensation in high resolution satellite images,” in Proc. IEEE IGARSS, Jul. 2008, vol. 2, pp. 1036–1039.

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12.     S. Z. Li, Markov Random Field Modeling in Image Analysis. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 247–260.

13.     L. Bruzzone and D. Prieto, “Automatic analysis of the difference image for unsupervised change detection,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 1171–1182, May 2000.

14.     T. Celik, “Unsupervised change detection in satellite images using PCA and k-means clustering,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 772–776, Oct. 2009.

15.     F. Wang, Y.Wu, Q. Zhang, P.Zhang, M. Li, and Y.Lu “Unsupervised Change Detection on SAR Images Using Triplet Markov Field Model” Ieee Geoscience And Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 10, No. 4, July 2013




Archa A. B, Kumar G. S

Paper Title:

Automatic Line Scratch Detection and Restoration in Films

Abstract:    Line scratches are the most common defects in old films. They are caused by the abrasions of the film material as it passes through the projection mechanism. Once an image is digitized, its defects become part of that image .So scratch detection and removal is important subject for video restoration. This work presents a technique for detecting and removing these line artifacts .Using A Contrario line scratch detection, we detect and locate line scratches accurately, after that a new digital image inpainting algorithm based on directional median filter is used to remove these scratches. In Contrario line scratch detection method along with Spatial detection algorithm, a Temporal filtering algorithm is used for filtering false detections. As a result we can detect and remove original scratches. This work discuss about frame conversion from a digital video of specific length. Pre-process the frame in order to enhance image quality and then perform scratch detection and removal.  Final video is once again formed from the processed frames. The overall system is developed in matlab and results are analyzed .Results shows that the proposed method can detect more line artifacts with less false detection and remove the line scratches effectively.

  Scratch detection, A Contrario method, inpainting, spatialdetection, Temporal filtering algorithm, Directional median filter, video restoration.


1.        Alasdair Newson, Andrés Almansa, YannGousseau, and Patrick Pérez, "Robust Automatic Line Scratch Detection in Films" IEEE Transactionon Image Processing, Vol. 23, No. 3, March 2014
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3.        A. Kokaram, “Detection and removal of line scratches indegraded motion picture sequences,” Signal ProcessingVIII, vol. 1, no. 9, 1996.

4.        V. Bruni, D. Vitulano, and A. Kokaram, “Line scratchesdetection and restoration via light diffraction,” IPSA,vol. 1, pp. 5–10, 2003.

5.        V. Bruni and D. Vitulano, “A generalized model for scratch detection,” IEEE Trans on Image Proc., vol. 13,no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2004.

6.        S. Müller, J. Bühler, S. Weitbruch, C. Thebault, I. Doser, and O. Neisse,  (wavelet)“Scratch detection supported by coherency analysis of motion vectorfields,” in Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Conf. Image Process., Nov. 2009,pp. 89–92

7.        T. Bretschneider, O. Kao, and P. J. Bones, “Removal of vertical scratches in digitized historical film sequences using wavelet decomposition, “inProc. Image Vis. Compute. New Zealand, Nov. 2000, pp. 38–43.

8.        K. Chishima and K. Arakawa, “A method of scratch removal from oldmovie film using variant window by Hough transform,” in Proc. 9th Int.Symp. Commun. Inf. Technol., 2009, pp. 1559–1563.

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10.     L. Joyeux, S. Boukir, and B. Besserer, “Film line scratchremoval using kalman filtering and Bayesian restoration,”WACV, pp. 8–13, 2000

11.     A. Desolneux, L. Moisan, and J. M. Morel, From Gestalt Theory to Image Analysis: A Probabilistic Approach, 1st ed. New York, NY, USA:Springer-Verlag, 2008

12.     K.-T. Kim and E. Y. Kim, “Film line scratchdetection using neural network and morphological filter,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Cybern. Intell. Syst., Sep. 2008, pp. 1007–1011

13.     A.Desolneux, L. Moisan, and J. M. Morel, “Meaningful alignments,”Int. J. Comput. Vis., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 7–23, Oct. 2000.




Aswathy S. Nair, Jisu Elsa Jacob

Paper Title:

Automatic Lung Nodule Detection on CT Image Using Region Growing

Abstract:    Computer aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) has been widely used for detecting Lung disorders. Lung nodule is an abnormality that may leads to lung cancer characterized by a small round or oval shaped growth on the lung which appears as a white shadow in the CT scan. Lung nodule detection can be done by performing nodule segmentation through thresholding and morphological operation. The segmentation process consists of four stages: Thorax extraction, Lung extraction, morphological operation and structure identification. In the thorax extraction stage all the artifacts external to the patient’s body are discarded and is performed using region growing algorithm to separate the thorax from full CT image. Lung extraction stage is responsible for the identification of lung parenchyma. Morphological operation is done to separate the structure within the parenchyma. Finally the nodule is identified in the structure identification stage using 2-D geometrical features and texture features.

   Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), Segmentation, Computed Tomography (CT), Region Growing.


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Imaging, Vol. 20, pp. 490-498,2001

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Sneha Sara Thomas, Sheeja M. K

Paper Title:

Simulation of a Spatial Light Modulator for Holographic Data Storage System

Abstract:    Holographic data storage is regarded as a potential technique for the next generation optical data storage with extremely high capacity and ultrafast data transfer rate. In holographic data storage system, page wise data are stored as holograms within the recording media. In this paper, Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) is simulated. The SLM is a device which is used to encode digital data pages onto a laser beam and it spatially modulates the coherent beam of light according to the electronic data pages. The spatial filtered laser beam falls on the panel of the SLM and gets intensity modulated. Thus the electronic data pages are converted into optical data pages. This modulated data pages are interfered with the reference beams to produce holograms. Multiple data pages can be stored on a single location using various multiplexing techniques such as angle multiplexing, wavelength multiplexing which results in a high density data storage system. The stored data pages are reproduced by illuminating the hologram with the corresponding reference beam. The data is read in parallel over one million bits at once, thus resulting in fast data transfer rate.

   Interference pattern, holographic data storage system, object beam, reference beam, Spatial Light Modulator


1.        Joseph E. Kasper,Steven A. Feller, “The complete book of holograms :How they work and how to make them,” Dover publication Inc,Mineola,New york (2000)
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4.        Sheeja M.K.,Ajith Kumar P.T.,Achuthsankar S. Nair,”Secure optical key based data storage for Holographic Versatile Discs (HVDs)”,Proceedings of the 21st International Technical Conference on Circuits/systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC 2006),Vol.2, p 305-306, Chiang Mai, Thailand, July 2006.

5.        Sheeja M.K.,Ajith Kumar P.T.,Achuthsankar S.Nair,”A cost effective holographic variable data storage system”,20th Kerala Science Congress, Young Scientist Award Winner, Thiruvananthapurum,Jan.(2008)

6.        Guimin Wu, “Wavefront control with realistic spatial light modulator in a multi-aperture imager” (2012)

7.        Tzi-Dar Chiueh, Chi-Yun Chen “Signal Processing In  Holographic Data Storage,”National Taiwan University, Taipie,Taiwan.

8.        M.K Sheeja,P.T Ajith Kumar,S.N Faizal, Achuthsankar S. Nair,”Conversion of 84x84 pixel mobile display to a liquid crystal spatial light modulator”, SPIE Optcal Engineering, Vol.47, No 2, Feb. 2008.

9.        Sheeja M.K.,Ajith Kumar P.T.,Achuthsankar S.Nair,” Design and Development of Cost Effective Reflective Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator for Fourier Holographic Data Recording on Photopolymer material”, Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering and ICT(ICEI-2007) ,Melaka, Malaysia, Nov.2007.

10.     C.M. Vest, “Holographic Interferrometry”, Wiley-inter Science, NewYork(1979).




Walaa Mohammed, Elkhatib Kamal, Abdul Azim Sobaih

Paper Title:

Fuzzy MPPT Control of Photovoltaic Energy System

Abstract:    This paper displays an exhaustive comparison of the Perturb-and-Observe (P&O) and Mamdani fuzzy implementation methods for achieving high performance, stability of the system and energy usage of Photovoltaic energy (PV) systems. Comparison with the present approaches, larger stability can be recorded. PV has been showing the presented fuzzy controllers robustness and stability property. For verifying the execution of the proposed controller, we make comparison with P&O method and we can confirm that controller can track the maximum power point. The performance of the proposed controller design methodology is finally proved by photovoltaic array to maximize the Photovoltaic (PV) system.

   Perturb-and-Observe, Mamdani Fuzzy, Fuzzy Control System, the PV Power.

1.       N. Diaz, J. Hern andez, O. Duarte, “Fuzzy Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques Applied to a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System,” Fuzzy Controllers, Theory and Applications, book edited by Lucian Grigorie, ISBN 978-953-307-543-3, 2011.
2.       D. Hohm, and M. Ropp, “Comparative study of maximum power point tracking algorithms using an experimental, programmable, maximum power point tracking test bed,” IEEE Conference Record of the Photovoltaic Specialists,  pp. 16991-702, 2000.

3.       O. C. Noureddine, M. Abdelkader, B. Mohamed-Seghir,B. Linda, “Robust Controller to Extract the Maximum Power of a Photovoltaic System,” Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 1, pp.117–122, 2014.

4.       S. Zhou,T. Li, “Robust stabilization for delayed discrete-time fuzzy systems via basis-dependent Lyapunov- Krasovskii function,” Fuzzy sets and systems vol.15, pp. 139-153, 2005.

5.       E. Gyurkovics,and D. Eszes, “Sufficient conditions for stability and stabilization of networked control systems with uncertainties and nonlinearities,” Int. J. Robust Nonlinear Control,  vol.1, pp.1-19, 2014.

6.       C. Yin YangQuan, C.S.-M. Zhong , “Robust stability and stabilization of uncertain fractional-order descriptor nonlinear system,” Preprints of the 19th World Congress The International Federation of Automatic Control Cape Town, South Africa. August 24-29, 2014.

7.       E. Kamal, A. Aitouche, and D. Abbes,”Robust fuzzy scheduler fault tolerant control of wind energy systems subject to sensor and actuator faults,” International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 55, no.1, pp. 402-419, 2014.

8.       E. Gyurkovics,and D. Eszes,”Sufficient conditions for stability and stabilization of networked control systems with uncertainties and nonlinearities,” Int. J. Robust Nonlinear Control,  vol.1, pp.1-19, 2014.

9.       D. Hwan Leea, J. Bae Parka and Y. Hoon Joob," A fuzzy Lyapunov function approach to estimating the domain of attraction for continuous-time Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems,” Information Sciences vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 230–248, 2012.

10.     C.S. Chiu," TS fuzzy maximum power point tracking control of solar power generation systems," IEEE Trans. Energy Convers, vol. 25, no 4, pp. 1123-1132, 2010.

11.     B. Ahmadi, H. Nourisola," Robust fuzzy adaptive integral sliding mode controller for offshore steel jacket platform," Int. J. Dynam. Contol, pp.1-8, 2015.

12.     E. Kamal, A. Aitouche, and D. Abbes, “Robust fuzzy scheduler fault tolerant control of wind energy systems subject to sensor and actuator faults,” International
Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 55, no.1, pp. 402-419, 2014.

13.     B. J. Rhee and S. Won, “A new Lyapunov function approach for a Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy control system design,” Fuzzy Sets Syst., vol. 157, no. 9, pp. 1211–1228, 2006.

14.     H. K. Lam and F. H. F. Leungm, “LMI-based stability and performance conditions for continuous-time nonlinear systems in Takagi–Sugeno’s form,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1396–1406, 2007.

15.     J. P.Torreglosa, P. García, L. M. Fernández, F. Jurado, “Energy dispatching based on predictive controller of an off-grid wind turbine/photovoltaic/hydrogen/battery hybrid system‏,” Renewable Energy, vol. 74, pp. 326-336, 2015.

16.     H. Al-Atrash, I. Batarseh, K. Rustom, “Statistical modeling of DSP-based hill-climbing MPPT algorithms in noisy environments, “ Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition,” vol. 3, pp. 1773–1777 , 2005.

17.     A. Chouder, F. Guijoan and S. Silvestre, “Simulation of fuzzy-based MPP tracker and performance comparison with perturb & observe method, Revue des Energies Renouvelables, vol. 11, no.4, pp.577 –586, 2008.

18.     J.L. Santos, F. Antunes, A. Chehab, C. Cruz, “A maximum power point tracker for PV systems using a high performance boost converter,” Solar Energy, vol. 80, no.7, pp. 772–778, 2006.

19.     V. Salas, E. Olias, A. Barrado, and A. Lazaro, “Review of the maximum power point tracking algorithms for stand-alone photovoltaic systems,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 90, pp.1555–1578, 2006.

20.     R Kadri, JP Gaubert, “An Improved Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter Based on Voltage-Oriented Control,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.58, no. 1, pp.66-75, 2011.

21.     B. M. Wilamowski and X.Li, “Fuzzy system based maximum power point tracking for PV system,” 28th Annual Conf. of the IEEE Ind. Electron. Society, vol.4, pp. 3280–84, 2002.
22.     H. Boumaaraf, A. Talha and O. Bouhali, “Modeling and control of grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” Journal of Electrical Engineering vol. 14, no. 3,2014.
23.     I.-S. Kim, M.-B. Kim, and M.-J. Youn, “New maximum power point tracker using sliding-mode observer for estimation of solar array current in the grid-connected photovoltaic system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.53, no.4, pp.1027 –1035, 2006.

24.     E. Koutroulis, K. Kalaitzakis, and N. C. Voulgaris, “Development of a microcontroller-based, photovoltaic maximum power point tracking control system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 46–54, 2001.

25.     J.-A. Jiang, T.-L.Huang; Y.-T. Hsiao, and C.-H. Chen, “Maximum Power Tracking for Photovoltaic Power Systems,”Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 8, no 2, pp. 147-153 ,2005.

26.     T. Noguchi, S. Togashi and R. Nakamoto, “ ShortCurrent Pulse-Based Maximum-Power-Point Tracking Method for Multiple Photovoltaic-and Converter Module System,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no.1, pp. 217-223, 2002.




Adarsh S, Asha S

Paper Title:

Human Action Recognition Using Joint Positions from Depth Videos

Abstract:    Human Action Recognition using visual information in a given image or sequence of images, has been an active area of research in computer vision applications. The image captured by conventional camera does not provide the suitable information to perform comprehensive analysis. However, depth sensors have recently made a new type of data available. Most of the existing work focuses on body part detection and pose estimation. A growing research area addresses the recognition of human actions based on depth images. In this paper, the following contributions are made: the proposed method makes an efficient representation of human actions by constructing a feature vector based on the human’s 3D joint positions. These locations are extracted fromdepth videos which are taken with the help of Microsoft Kinect sensor. Experiments were performed on a new dataset Kinect Action Dataset (KAD-10). The data set consists of 3D sequences of 10 indoor activities performed by 10 individuals in varied views. Then these feature vectors are given to K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN) classifier to perform the action classification task which results in action labels.

   Video surveillance, Depth sensor, Body part labeling, Depth image features, Randomized decision forest, joint position estimation, k-nearest neighbour algorithm


1.       Alexandros André Chaaraoui, Pau Climent-Pérez, and Francisco Flórez-Revuelta, "A Review on Vision Techniques Applied to Human Behaviour Analysis for Ambient-Assisted Living" In the International Journal of Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 39, Issue 12, September 2012.
2.       Ronald Poppe, "A Survey on Vision-Based Human Action Recognition," In Image and Vision Computing Journal,Volume 28, Issue 6, pp 976-990, June 2010.

3.       J. K. Aggarwal and M. S. Ryoo. Human activity analysis: A review. In ACM Computing Surveys, 2011.

4.       I. Laptev, M. Marszalek, C. Schmid, and B. Rozenfeld, “Learning realistic human actions from movies,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. CVPR, Anchorage, AK, USA, pp. 1–8,

5.       N. Dalal and B. Triggs, “Histograms of oriented gradientsfor human detection,” in Proc. IEEE Computer Soc. Conf. CVPR, San Diego, CA, USA, 2005, pp. 886–893.

6.       O. Chapelle, V. Vapnik, O. Bousquet, and S. Mukherjee, “Choosing multiple parameters for support vector machines,”Mach. Learn., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 131–159, 2002.

7.       I. Laptev, “On space-time interest points,” Int. J. Comput. Vis., vol. 64, no. 2–3, pp. 107–123, Sept. 2005.

8.       Alexandros Iosifidis, Anastasios Tefas, and Ioannis Pitas, "Multi-view Human Action Recognition: A Survey," In Proceedings of the 2013 Ninth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP '13), Beijing, China, pp. 522-525,October 2013.

9.       Vennila Megavannan, Bhuvnesh Agarwal, and R.Venkatesh Babu, "Human Action Recognition using Depth Maps," In proceedings of the International Conference on Signal Processing and Communications (SPCOM),Bangalore, India, pp. 1-5, July 2012.

10.     Lulu Chen, Hong Wei, James Ferryman, "A Survey of Human Motion Analysis Using Depth Imagery," In Pattern Recognition Letters, Volume 34, Issue 15, pp. 1995–2006,November 2013.




Ruben C. Martinez, Roberto L. Avitia, Marco A. Reyna, Miguel M. Bravo

Paper Title:

Implementation of a Novel Powered Ankle-Knee Prosthesis for Lower Limb Amputees and a Control Strategy Proposal

Abstract:    In this work we present the second stage of a powered ankle-knee prosthesis design and construction for individuals with a lower limb amputation. The prosthetic leg is composed of two modules; the knee module and ankle module, they can operate independently or in conjunction. The ankle module is comprised of a unidirectional spring configured in parallel with a linear actuator. This spring is intended to store energy in dorsiflexion, and then released it to assist power plantar flexion. The knee module consists of a series elastic actuator and a linear solenoid actuator attached to the actuators transmission. Also we are presenting a control strategy of the prosthesis, using techniques of force, position and impedance.

   Powered Prosthesis, Mechanical Design, Lower Limb Amputees.


1.       D. A. Winter, 1991. The Biomechanics and motor control of Human gait: Normal, elderly and pathological, Waterloo Biomechanics, vol. 2.
2.       G. R. Colborne, S. Naumann, P.E. Longmuir, and D. Berbrayer, 1992. Analysis of mechanical and metabolic factors in the gait of congenital below knee amputees: A comparsion of the SACH and Seattle feet, Ammer. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil.,vol. 71 no. 5, pp. 272-278.

3.       E.J. Rouse,  L.M. Mooney, E.C. Martinez-Villalpando and H. M. Herr, 2013. A clutchable series-elastic actuator: design of a robotic knee prosthesis for minimum energy consumption. IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics.

4.       Au, S.K., Weber, J., and Herr, H., 2009. Powered Ankle-Foot Prosthesis Improves Walking Metabolic Economy, Robotics, IEEE Transactions. 25, (1), pp. 51-66.

5.       R. C. Martinez, R L. Avitia, M. A. Reyna, 2014. A Low Cost Design of Powered Ankle-Knee Prosthesis for Lower Limb Amputee: Preliminary Results, In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices,  pp. 253-258.




Gayathri R, Smitha P. S

Paper Title:

Bandlet Based Video Completion Scheme After Selective Text Removal

Abstract:    This paper presents a semi-automatic video text detection and removal along with a video completion scheme. In the video text detection stage, accurate edge locations are detected using a new type of image representation called as bandlets. Text locations are found by taking Stroke Width Transform (SWT) of the edge map and are grouped using Connected Components (CCs). Motion analyses of the video frames are done in order to preserve the spatial and temporal consistency of the video. After removing the unwanted text regions, an automatic inpainting scheme is employed to fill in the regions with appropriate data. The proposed inpainting scheme takes advantage of both structural and hybrid inpainting techniques. Evaluation of the approach is done using the user prepared video dataset along with ICDAR competition results. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of both video text detection approach and completion technique, thereby the entire video.

   Bandlets, Connected Components, Spatial and temporal consistency, Stroke Width Transform


1.        B Epshtein, E Ofek, Y Wexler, “Detecting Text in Natural Scenes with Stroke Width Transform”, Micsosoft Corporation.
2.        S Mallat,G Peyre, “Orthogonal Bandlet Bases for Geometric Images Approximation” in Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, Vol.000, (2000).

3.        P Shivakumara, T Q Phan, C L Tan, “A Laplacian Approach to Multi-Oriented Text Detection in Video” in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol .33, No.2, Feb 2011.

4.        T H Tsai, C L Fang, “Text-Video Completion Using Structure Repair and Texture Propagation”, in IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, Vol.13, No.1, Feb 2011.

5.        Y F Pen, X Hou, C L Liu, “A Hybrid Approah to Detect and Localize Texts in Natural Scene Images”, in IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol.20, No.3, March 2011.

6.        A Mosleh, N Bouguila, A B Hamza, “Automatic Inpainting Scheme for Video Text Detection and Removal”, in IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 22, No.11, Nov 2013.

7.        A Mosleh, N Bouguila, A Ben Hamza, “Bandlet-based sparsity regularization in video inpainting” in J. Vis. Commun. Image R. 25 (2014) 855–863.




Linta Raj, Ancy S. Anselam, Sakuntala S. Pillai

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis of Speech Enhancement Techniques in Code Excited Linear Prediction Coders

Abstract:   Emerging digital speech applications in various fields like wireless and multimedia created a demand for high quality speech. Speech in uncontrolled environment contains degradation components like background noise, thus the ultimate aim of speech enhancement algorithm is to reduce the noise or to improve the quality and intelligibility of corrupted speech. Different methods have been proposed for enhancing the speech quality. These enhancement methods can be used to improve the quality of speech coded using low bit – rate speech coders  like Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) coder. This paper reports the performance evaluation of Spectral subtraction and Wiener noise reduction methods in CELP coder. The obtained results explain the performance evaluation of the speech enhancement algorithms and show improvements both qualitatively and quantitatively.

   CELP Coder, Noise reduction, Spectral subtraction, Speech enhancement.


1.       S. F. Boll, "Suppression of acoustic noise in speech using spectral subtraction", IEEE Trans. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, vol. ASSP 27, pp.113-120, April 1979.
2.       S. F. Boll, "Suppression of acoustic noise in speech using SABER method", Proceedings of IEEE International Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Tulsa, PP. 606-609, April 1978.

3.       Y. Ephraim and D. Malah, "Speech Enhancement using minimum mean square error spectral amplitude estimator", IEEE Trans. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, vol.ASSP-32, no.6,pp.1109-1121.

4.       C. Plapous, C. Marro, P. Scalart and L. Mauury, "A two-step noise reduction technique", in Proc. IEEE  Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Montreal, Canada, Vol. 1,PP.289-292.

5.       C. Plapous, C. Marro, and P. Scalart, "Speech enhancement using harmonic regeneration",in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Philadelphia, Vol.1,pp. 157-160, March 2005.

6.       Schroeder, Manfred and Atel,"Code Excited Linear aprediction (CELP): High quality speech at very low bit rates",IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing(ICASSP), Vol.10, PP>937-940, April 1985.

7.       Ancy S. Anselam and Sakuntala S. Pillai,"Performane evaluation of Code Excited Linear Prediction coders at various bit rates", IEEE Int. Conf. on Computation, Power, Energy, Information and Communication, 2014.




Minu Maria Joseph, Nandan S

Paper Title:

Uncoordinated Cooperative Jamming with Phase Shift Beam Forming for Physical Layer Security

Abstract:    Wireless networks are widely popular because of its broadcast nature, which makes it easily accessible. This ease of accessibility also makes it vulnerable to eavesdropping, thus raising security concerns. An information-theoretic viewpoint has found conditions for reliable and secure communication and overcomes the disadvantages of traditional cryptographic techniques. One method that ensures such perfect secrecy is by cooperative jamming. The jamming signal is such that it degrades the eavesdropper’s channel without affecting the channel of the legitimate receiver, thus ensuring security in communication. An uncoordinated jamming approach such as local nulling does not require any public information and makes use of only the helper-receiver channel information. This paper proposes a scheme which is a hybrid combination of local nulling and phase shuft beamforming such that the secrecy rate achievable with local nulling is maximized.

   Beam forming, physical layer security, secrecy rate, uncoordinated cooperative jamming.


1.       S. Luo, J. Li and A. P. Petropulu, “Uncoordinated Cooperative Jamming for Secret Communications”, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 8, No. 7, pp. 1081-1090, July 2013.
2.       A.  Mukherjee, S. A. A. Fakoorian, J. Huang and A. L. Swindlehurst, “Principles of Physical Layer Security in Multiuser Wireless Networks: A Survey”, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, Issue. 99, pp. 1-24, February 2014.

3.       A. D. Wyner, “The Wiretap Channel”, The Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 54, No.8, pp. 1355-1387, October 1975.

4.       L. Wang, C. Cao, M. Song and Y. Cheng, “Joint Cooperative Relaying and Jamming for Maximum Secrecy Capacity in Wireless Networks”, IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC), pp. 4448-4453, June 2014.

5.       R. Negi and S. Goel, “Secret Communication using Artificial Noise”, IEEE 62ndVehicular Technology Conference, pp. 1906-1910, September 2005.

6.       S. Goel, and R. Negi, “Guaranteeing Secrecy using Artificial Noise”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 2180-2189, June 2008.

7.       J. Huang and A. L. Swindlehurst, “Secure Communications via Cooperative Jamming in Two-hop Relay Systems”, IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), pp. 1-5, December 2010.

8.       L. Dong, Z. Han, A. P. Petropulu and H. V. Poor, “Cooperative Jamming for Wireless Physical Layer Security”, IEEE/SP 15th Workshop on Statistical Signal Processing, pp. 417-420, September 2009.

9.       J. Wang, and A. L. Swindlehurst, “Cooperative Jamming in MIMO ad-hoc networks”, 2009 Conference Record of the 43rd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Nov 2008, pp. 1719-1723.

10.     S. Luo, J. Li and A. P. Petropulu , “Physical Layer Security with Uncoordinated Helpers Implementing Cooperative Jamming”, IEEE 7th Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM), pp. 97-100, June 2012.

11.     H. Wang, M. Luo, X. Xia and Q. Yin, “Joint Cooperative Beamforming and Jamming to Secure AF Relay Systems With Individual Power Constraint and No Eavesdropper’s CSI”, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 39-42, January 2013.

12.     Wang, M. Luo, Q. Yin, and X. Xia, “Hybrid Cooperative Beamforming and Jamming for Physical-Layer Security of Two-Way Relay Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 8, No. 12, pp. 2007-2020, December 2013.




Nimisha Susan Jacob, Ancy S. Anselam, Sakuntala S. Pillai

Paper Title:

Performance Analysis of CS-ACELP Speech Coder

Abstract:    In modern communication systems, number of users to access the wired and wireless networks has increased rapidly. Consequently, the use of channel capacity has to be increased.  Speech compression aims to compress the speech signal to attain maximum channel capacity with lower bit rate and highest quality. G.729 is one of the widely used standard in ITU-T for speech compression. This paper presents the analysis of CS-ACELP coder based on the objective measurements. Also the perceptual quality of the reconstructed speech was analyzed from the spectrogram based on the parameters pitch, intensity and formants.

  Conjugate Structure Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction (CS-ACELP), International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunications (ITU-T), Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Speech coding 


1.       ITU-I Rec. G.729, “ Coding of speech at 8kbps using Conjugate - Structure – Algebraic – Code - Excited Linear-Prediction(CS-ACELP” March 1996.
2.       Atti, V.; Spanias, A., "A simulation tool for introducing algebraic celp (ACELP) coding concepts in a DSP course," Digital Signal Processing Workshop, 2002 and the 2ndSignal Processing Education Workshop. Proceedings of 2002 IEEE 10th , vol., no., pp.306,311, 13-16 Oct. 2002

3.       Cheng-Yu Yeh; Yue-huan Zhong, "An efficient algebraic codebook search for G.729 speech codec," Computer Applications and Information Systems (WCCAIS), 2014 World Congress on , vol., no., pp.1,4, 17-19 Jan. 2014

4.       ITU-T Recommendation P.862, “Perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ): An objective method for end-to-end speech quality assessment of narrow-band telephone networks and speech codecs,” Feb. 2001.

5.       R. Salami, et al., “Design and description of CS-ACELP: A toll quality 8 kb/s speech coder”, IEEE Trans. Speech and Audio Processing, Vol.6, No. 2, pp. 116-130, March 1998.

6.       K. Ubul, A. Hamdulla and A. Aysa, “A Digital Signal Processing teaching methodology using Praat,” IEEE 4th International Conference on Computer Science and Education, pp. 1804–1809, 2009.

7.       S. H. Hwang, “Computational improvement for G.729 standard,” Electronics Letters, Vol. 36, No. 13, pp. 1163-1164, June 2000

8.       Chen, F.K.; Yang, J.-F.; Yan, Y.-L., "Candidate scheme for fast ACELP search," Vision, Image and Signal Processing, IEE Proceedings - , vol.149, no.1, pp.10,16, Feb 2002 doi: 10.1049/ip-vis:20020151




Anju Krishna V, Paul Thomas

Paper Title:

Classification of EMG Signals Using Spectral Features Extracted from Dominant Motor Unit   Action Potential

Abstract:    In this paper, disease classification of electromyogram (EMG signal) based on the spectral features extracted from the dominant motor unit action potential (MUAP) is discussed. This scheme provides an improved accuracy and reduces the computational complexity to a great extend. The MUAPs are extracted from the EMG signal using a matlab program known as EMGLAB and the highest energy MUAP is selected as dominant MUAP. The main goal of this study is to extract the relevant spectral features for the classification so that the redundant features can be eliminated. For spectral feature extraction direct and DWT based methods are used. K-nearest neighborhood (KNN) classifier is used for the classification purpose. The performance is evaluated using three clinical dataset in terms of specificity sensitivity and accuracy. The results show that the classification based on the proposed method gives better accuracy than the existing methods for disease classification.

   Electromyography (EMG), motor unit action potential (MUAP), EMGLAB, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS), Myopathy, K-nearest neighborhood (KNN) classifier.


1.       A. B. M. S. U. Doulah, Student Member, IEEE, S. A. Fattah, Member, IEEE, W.-P. Zhu, Senior Member, IEEE ,  and M. O. Ahmad, Fellow, IEEE "Wavelet domain feature extraction scheme based on dominant motor unit action potential of EMG signal for neuromuscular disease classification", IEEE Trans. On Biomedical circuits
and systems, vol.  8, no.  2 , April 2014.

2.       H. Christensen and A. Fuglsang-Frederiksen, “Power spectrum and turns analysis of EMG at different voluntary efforts in normal subjects,” Electromyogr. Clin.
Neurophysiol. vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 528–535, Aug.1986.

3.       A. Fuglsang-Frederiksen, “The utility of interference pattern analysis, “Muscle and Nerve, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 18–36, Jan. 2000.

4.       T. Y. Fukuda, J. O. Echeimberg, J. E. Pompeu, P. R. G. Lucareli, S. Garbelotti, R. O. Gimenes, and A. Apolinario, “Root mean square value of the electromyographic signal in the isometric torque of the quadriceps, hamstrings and brachial biceps muscles in female subjects,” J.Appl. Res., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 32–39, 2010

5.       K. Tohru, “Investigation of parametric analysis of dynamic EMG signals by a muscle-structured stimulation study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 280–288, Mar. 1992

6.       F. G. Nihal and K. Sabri, “Classification of EMG signals using PCA and FFT,” J Med. Syst. , vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 15–25, 2005.

7.       H. J. Hermens, T. A. M. Bruggena, C. T. M. Batena, W. L. C. Rutten, and H. B. K. Boom, “The median frequency of the surface EMG power spectrum in relation to motor unit firing and action potential properties,” J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 15–25, 1992.

8.       M. Bernardi, F. Felici, M. Marchetti, F. Montellanico, M. F. Piacentini, and M. Solomonow, “Force generation performance and motor unit recruitment strategy in muscles of contra lateral limbs,” J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. , vol. 9, pp. 121–130, 1999.

9.       K. Englehart, B. Hudgins, and A. Philip, “A wavelet-based continuous classification scheme for multifunction myoelectric control,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 302–311, 2001.

10.     C. S. Pattichis, C. N. Schizas, and L. T. Middleton, “Neural network models in EMG diagnosis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 486–496, May 1995.

11.     C. D. Katsis, T. Exarchos, C. Papaloukas, Y. Goletsis, D. I. Fotiadis, and I. Sarmas, “A two-stage method for MUAP classification based on EMG decomposition,” Comput. Biol. Med., vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1232–1240, Jan. 2007.

12.     C. S. Pattichis and M. S. Pattichis, “Time-scale analysis of motor unit action potentials,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1320–1329, Nov. 1999.

13.     M. Nikolic, “Detailed analysis of clinical electromyography signals EMG decomposition, findings and firing pattern analysis in controls and patients with myopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis” Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Health Science, Univ. Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2001 [Online]. Available:, data are available as dataset N2001.

14.     Angkoon Phinyomark  , Pornchai Phukpattaranont, Chusak Limsakul “Feature reduction and selection for EMG signal classification” Expert systems with applications 39 (2012) 7420-7431.




Wasim Akram Mandal, Sahidul Islam

Paper Title:

Fuzzy Inventory Model for Weibull Deteriorating Items, with Time Depended Demand, Shortages, and Partially Backlogging

Abstract:    In this paper fuzzy inventory model for deteriorating item with time depended demand rate, shortages under partially backlogged is formulated and solved. The backlogging rate is taken to be inversely proportional to the waiting time for the next replenishment. Fuzziness is applying by allowing the cost components (holding cost, shortage cost, etc). In fuzzy environment it considered all required parameter to be triangular fuzzy numbers. The purpose of the model is to minimize total cost function. 

   Inventory, Deteriorating, Fuzzy number, Shortages, Partially backlogged, Triangular fuzzy number.


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Harinandan Tunga, Diya Saha

Paper Title:

Graphical User Authentication Techniques for Security: a Comparative Study

Abstract:     Nowadays, user authentication is one of the important topics in information security. Strong text-based password schemes could provide with certain degree of security. However, the fact that strong passwords are difficult to memorize often leads their owners to write them down on papers or even save them in a computer file. Graphical User Authentication (GUA) has been proposed as a possible alternative solution to text-based authentication, motivated particularly by the fact that humans can remember images better than text. In recent years, many networks, computer systems and Internet based environments try used graphical authentication technique for their user’s authentication. All of graphical passwords have two different aspects which are usability and security. Different techniques for GUA have been proposed in literature over the past few years such as-Recognition Based Technique[2], Recall Based Technique[2]. This paper presents a survey of comparative study between different techniques of GUA.

   Graphical User Authentication, Recognition Based Techniques, Recall Based Techniques.


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3.       Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications,ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 4, Issue 5( Version 6), May 2014, pp.179-185, 179 | P a g e, “Image Based Authentication Using Persuasive Cued Click Points”, Ankita R Karia, Dr. Archana B. Patankar.

4.       Comparative Study Of Graphical User Authentication Approaches’, Radhika and Siddhartha Sankar Biswas, ISSN 2320–088X. IJCSMC, Vol. 3, Issue. 9, September 2014, pg.361 – 375.

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Pankaj Deep Kaur, Gitanjali Sharma

Paper Title:

Performance of Scalable Data Stores in Cloud

Abstract:    Cloud computing has pervasively transformed the way applications utilized underlying infrastructure like systems and software. System designers are in fast track pursuit of deploying applications/services over cloud to benefit from its elastic, scalable and pay-as-you-go model. Owing to the fact that many applications on cloud are extensively data driven, data management systems, hosting these applications, embody a vital component in cloud software store. However, maintaining performance of database read/write operations under fluctuating workloads, both regionally and globally, is quite challenging. In this context, distributed scalable data stores in cloud have promised high performance and reliable services through rapid partitioning, replication, elasticity and automated manager for self-management. Thus, the success of cloud computing paradigm critically depends on scalable, elastic and automated DBMSs. This paper discusses state-of-art of techniques and technologies utilized for cloud databases. It presents concepts of partitioning, replication, elastic scalability and automatic manager for management. The paper also addresses challenges faced by DBMSs designers.

   Amdahl’s Law, Elasticity, Scalability.


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Jianguo LIANG, Hiroyuki NARAHARA, Hiroshi KORESAWA, Hiroshi SUZUKI

Paper Title:

Verification Experiment on Cooling and Deformation Effects of Automatically Designed Cooling Channels for Block Laminated Molds 

Abstract:    In plastic injection molding process, poor mold cooling conditions will cause the molding defects such as deformation, warpages of the products. An efficient cooling design can significantly reduce the cooling time, and in turn increase the productivity of the injection molding process. On the other hand, severe warpage and thermal residual stress in the product may result from non-uniform cooling. Warpage and sink marks can significantly affect product quality, especially in terms of appearance and precision. In this study, the uniformity of cooling and the deformation effect were observed in the injection mold with the automatically designed cooling channel through a verification experiment. Based on the molding experiment, the cooling and deformation effects were investigated. Results of resin cooling uniformity, temperature distribution of molding parts and deformation of mold were demonstrated.

  Injection molding process, Cooling channel, Automatic design, Verification experiment, Rapid prototyping, Block laminated molds


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3.       Koresawa, H., Sakashita, M., and Suzuki, H., Automatic design for parting line on injection mold, ANTEC, (2001), pp.937-941.

4.       Matsumoto, T., Tanaka, M., and Yamamura, A., Optimization of cooling channels of injection mold using GA and BEM. Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (A), Vol.66, No.641 (2000), pp.14-19.

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8.       Liang, J., Narahara, H., Koresawa, H., Suzuki, H., Automatic Design of Cooling Channels for Block Laminated Molds: A Resolution Study, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Vol.2, No.6 (2013), pp.52-60.




M. Thirupathi, N. Madhavi, K. Simhachalam Naidu

Paper Title:

Design and Analysis of a Fuel Injector of a Liquid Rocket Engine

Abstract:    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing and combustion process. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in Liquid Rocket Engines (LREs) are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. Suitable atomization and mixing must be followed, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels can be minimized. The injector implementation in Liquid Rockets determines the percentage of the theoretical performance of the nozzle that can be achieved. A poor injector performance causes unburnt propellant to leave the engine, giving unpleasant and poor efficiency. Injectors can be as simple as a number of small diameter holes arranged in carefully constructed patterns through which the fuel and oxidiser travel. The speed of the flow is determined by the square root of the pressure drop across the injectors, the shape of the hole and other details such as the density of the propellant. The performance of an injector can be improved by either using a superior propellant combustion, increasing the mass flow rate or by reducing the size & increasing the number of orifices on the injector plate. In the current project, the last method is applied. The first two methods are not applied due to exceptionally high cost of superior propellants & because the feed system is pressure feed and not pump feed.

   The speed of the flow is determined by the square root of the pressure drop across the injectors.


1.       Rocket Propulsion Elements, George P. Sutton, Oscar Biblarz. 7th Edition. Wiley-Interscience, 2001