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Volume-6 Issue-4 Published on April 30, 2017
Volume-6 Issue-4 Published on April 30, 2017

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S. No

Volume-6 Issue-4, April 2017, ISSN:  2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.



Nidhal Kamel Taha El-Omari, Ahmad H. Al-Omari, Ali Mohammad H. Al-Ibrahim, Tariq Alwada’n

Paper Title:

Text-Image Segmentation and Compression using Adaptive Statistical Block Based Approach

Abstract:  Images and scanned text documents are gradually more used in a vast range of applications. To reduce the needed storage or to accelerate their move through the computers networks, the document images have to be compressed. Traditional compression mechanisms, which are generally developed with a particular image type and purpose, are facing many challenges with mixed documents. This paper describes a statistical block-based technique for an automatic document image segmentation and compression. Based on the number of detected colors in each region of the image, this approach creates a new representation of the image that can produce very highly-compressed document files that nonetheless retain excellent image quality. The proposed algorithm segments the compound document image into blocks of equal size. The blocks are classified into seven different categories. Each category represents an image part that shares the same properties. A new representation of each category is formed and the similar adjacent blocks are merged to form labeled regions sharing the same properties. At the end, to achieve better compression ratio, the different regions of the image are compressed using different compression techniques.

Adaptive Compression, Block-Based Segmentation, Image Document Compression, Image Segmentation, Lookup Dictionary Table (LUD).


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2.       Nidhal Kamel Taha El Omari. (2008). “A Hybrid Approach for Segmentation and Compression of Compound Images”, PhD Dissertation, the Arab Academy for Banking and Financial Sciences.

3.       Nidhal Kamel Taha El-Omari and Arafat A. Awajan. (December 20-22, 2009). “Document Image Segmentation and Compression Using Artificial Neural Network Based Technique”, International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS09), pp. 320-324, Amman, Jordan.

4.       Kai Uwe Barthel et al., (January 2000). “New Technology for Raster Document Image Compression”, SPIE. The International Society for Optical Engineering, Volume 3967, pp. 286-290, San Jose, CA.

5.       Patrice Y. Simard et al., (March 23-25, 2004). “A Foreground/Background Separation Algorithm for Image Compression”, IEEE Data Compression Conference (DCC), pp. 498–507, Snowbird, UT, USA.

6.       Ricardo L. de Queiroz et al., (February 1999). “Mixed Raster Content (MRC) Model for Compound Image Compression”, SPIE the International Society for Optical Engineering, Volume 3653, pp. 1106-1117.

7.       Ricardo L. de Queiroz. (October 8-11, 2006). “Pre-Processing for MRC Layers of Scanned Images”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Atlanta, Georgia, USA, pp.  3093–3096.

8.       Lihong Zheng and Xiangjian He. (2004). “Edge Detection Based on Modified BP Algorithm of ANN”, Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology (RPIT), Volume 36, pp. 119–122.

9.       Guotong Feng and Charles A. Bouman. (October 2006). “High Quality MRC Document Coding”, IEEE Transactions Image Processing, Volume 15, Issue 10, pp. 3152-3169.

10.    Leon Bottou, Patrick Haffner et al., (July 1998). “High Quality Document Image Compression with DjVu”, Journal of Electronic Imaging, Volume 07, Issue 3, pp. 410-425.

11.    Wenpeng Ding et al., (January 30, 2007). “Rate-Distortion Optimized Color Quantization for Compound Image Compression”, Visual Communications and Image Processing Conference, SPIE Proceedings, Volume 6508, pp.  65082Q1-65082Q9, San Jose, CA, USA.

12.    Tony Lin and Pengwei Hao. (August 2005). “Compound Image Compression for Real Time Computer Screen Image Transmission”, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Volume 14, Issue 8, pp. 993-1005.

13.    Wenpeng Ding et al., (2006). “Block-based Fast Compression for Compound Images”, ICME, paper ID 1722, pp. 809–812.

14.    Debargha Mukherjee et al., (June 2002). “JPEG2000-Matched MRC Compression of Compound Documents”, IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Volume 3, pp.  225-228.

15.    Cheng H. and Bouman C. A. (April 2001). “Document Compression Using Rate-Distortion Optimized Segmentation”, Journal of Electronic Imaging, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp. 460–474.

16.    Nidhal Kamel Taha El-Omari et al., (2012). “Innoviate Text-Image Compression Technique”, European Journal of Scientific Research, © EuroJournals Publishing Inc., Volume 88, Issue 4, pp.  603-616.

17.    Gnana King, G.R.1 and Seldev Christopher, C.2. (2014). “Improved block based segmentation algorithm for compression of compound images”, Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp.  3213-3225.

18.    Qindong Sun et al., (2015). “A Method of Image Segmentation based on the JPEG File Stream”, Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences & Engineering, Volume
15, Issue 3, pp.  467-475.

19.    Bo Chen et al., (June 2015). “A new image segmentation model with local statistical characters based on variance minimization”, Applied Mathematical Modelling, Volume 39, Issue 12, pp. 3227-3235.

20.    Gagan Jindal and Sikander Singh Cheema, (2016), “Review Paper of Segmentation of Natural Images using HSL Color Space Based on K- Mean Clustering”,
International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science, Volume 5, Issue 7, pp.  26-29.

21.    Zhanjiang Zhi et al., (2016), “Two-Stage Image Segmentation Scheme Based on Inexact Alternating Direction Method”, Numer. Math. Theor. Meth. Appl., Volume 9, Issue 3, pp.  451-469.

22.    Haifeng Sima et al., (2016), “Objectness Supervised Merging Algorithm for Color Image Segmentation”, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Volume 2016, Article ID 3180357, pp.  1-11.

23.    S.Thayammal, and D.Selvathi., (2013), “A Review On Segmentation Based Image Compression Techniques”, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp.  134-140.

24.    Ian Sommerville, (2015), “Software Engineering”, 10th Edition, Pearson Education, Inc., ISBN-13: 978-0133943030, New York, USA.

25.    Er. Kuldeep Kaur et al., (2016), “Comparative Analysis of Compression Techniques: A Survey”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Volume 03, Issue: 04, pp. 1042-1046.




Akhilesh Kumar Sharma, Brijendra Kumar Sharma

Paper Title:

Development of Sensors on Android Platform

Abstract: Mobile phones play increasingly bigger role in our everyday lives. Today, most smart phones comprise a wide variety of sensors which can sense the physical environment. In this research, we propose and demonstrate my DAM4GSN architecture to capture sensor data using sensors built into the mobile phones. Specifically, we combine an open source sensor data stream processing engine called ‘Global sensor n/w (GSN)’ with the android platform to capture sensor data. We present the design, implementation, evaluation, and user experiences of the Cence-me application, which represents the first system that combines the inference of the presence of individual using off-the self sensor enabled mobile phones with sharing of this information through social networking applications such as face-book and my-space. An android based application that monitors the vehicle through an On Board Diagnostics (OBD-2) interface, being able to detect accidents. 

 DAM4GSN architecture, Cence-Me application, On Board Diagonstics (OBD-2) interface.


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5.       Google Inc. Android developer guide: Sensors, 2011. [Accessed on: 2011-12-26].

6.       GSN Team. Global sensors networks. Technical report, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2009.

7.       GSN Team. Global sensor networks project, 2011. [Accessed on: 2011-12-16].

8.       P. Guillemin and P. Friess. Internet of things strategic research roadmap. echnical report, The Cluster of European Research Projects, 2009.

9.       P. Klasnja, S. Consolvo, T. Choudhury, R. Beckwith, and J. Hightower. Exploring privacy concerns about personal sensing. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Pervasive Computing, Pervasive ’09, pages 176–183, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009. Springer-Verlag.

10.    G. Kortuem, F. Kawsar, D. Fitton, and V. Sundramoorthy. Smart objects as building blocks for the internet of things. Internet Computing, IEEE, 14(1):44–51, 2010.

11.    N. Lane, E. Miluzzo, H. Lu, D. Peebles, T. Choudhury, and A. Campbell. A survey of mobile phone sensing. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 48(9):140 –150, sept. 2010.

12.    M. Lennighan. Total telecom: Number of phones exceeds population of world, May 2011. [Accessed on: 2011-12-30].

13.    Salehi. Design and implementation of an efficient data stream processing system. PhD thesis, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2010.

14.    H. Sundmaeker, P. Guillemin, P. Friess, and S. Woelffl´e. Vision and challenges for realising the internet of things. Technical report, European Commission Information Society and Media, 2010.




Ahmed Sharieh, Raja Masadeh

Paper Title:

Implementing Fair Resource Synchronizer Algorithm for Distributed Mutual Exclusion in Mobile Computing Environment

Abstract:  Mutual exclusion in distributed systems is a critical feature required to coordinate access to shared resources. It is highly needed to be employed in distributed systems including mobile computing environments. Dynamic Resource Synchronizer algorithm (DRS) works on decreasing the amount of messages that transferred in the system by minimizing the amount of sites that are included in the mutual exclusion. In this paper, a DRS algorithm is presented with a simulation study for distributed mutual exclusion that could be used in mobile environments in which nodes communicate with each other based onto specific conditions. Also, ring topology is used, all nodes have a unique identifier, a node failure doesn’t occur, communication links are bi-directional, and First In First Out (FIFO) priority and a partition in a network doesn’t occur. In addition, decreasing the amount of storage which is needed at various sites on the system. The DRS algorithm proved that the mutual exclusion is achieved. Whereas, deadlock and starvation are impossible to occur. Thus development mutual exclusion algorithm is one of the most appropriate for mobile computer systems.

Distributed systems, synchronization, mutual exclusion, mobile computing.


1.       Sharieh, A., Itriq, M., & Dbabat, W. (2008). A dynamic resource synchronizer mutual exclusion algorithm for wired/wireless distributed systems. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(7), 829-834.‏
2.       Badrinath, B. R., Acharya, A., & Imielinski, T. (1994, June). Structuring distributed algorithms for mobile hosts. In Distributed Computing Systems, 1994., Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on (pp. 21-28). IEEE.‏

3.       Liu, D., Liu, X., Qiu, Z., & Yan, G. (2003). A high efficiency Distributed Mutual Exclusion algorithm. In Advanced Parallel Processing Technologies (pp. 75-84). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.‏

4.       Erciyes, K. (2004). Distributed mutual exclusion algorithms on a ring of clusters.In Computational Science and Its Applications–ICCSA 2004 (pp. 518-527). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.‏

5.       Ricart, G., & Agrawala, A. K. (1981). An optimal algorithm for mutual exclusion in computer networks. Communications of the ACM, 24(1), 9-17.

6.       Lejeune, J., Arantes, L., Sopena, J., & Sens, P. (2015). A fair starvation-free prioritized mutual exclusion algorithm for distributed systems. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 83, 13-29.‏

7.       Tamhane, S. A., & Kumar, M. (2012). A token based distributed algorithm for supporting mutual exclusion in opportunistic networks. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 8(5), 795-809.‏

8.       Lodha, S., & Kshemkalyani, A. (2000). A fair distributed mutual exclusion algorithm. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 11(6), 537-549.‏

9.       Ding, Z., Zhou, M., & Wang, S. (2014). Ordinary Differential Equation-Based Deadlock Detection. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, IEEE Transactions on, 44(10), 1435-1454.‏

10.    Du, Y., & Gu, N. (2015, December). Accelerating Reachability Analysis on Petri Net for Mutual Exclusion-Based Deadlock Detection. In 2015 Third International Symposium on Computing and Networking (CANDAR) (pp. 75-81). IEEE.‏

11.    Lodha, S., & Kshemkalyani, A. (2000). A fair distributed mutual exclusion algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 11(6), 537-549.‏

12.    Lamport, L. (1978). Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system. Communications of the ACM, 21(7), 558-565.‏

13.    Jani, K., & Kshemkalyani, A. D. (2004, December). Performance of fair distributed mutual exclusion algorithms. In International Workshop on Distributed Computing (pp. 2-15). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

14.    Kanrar, S., Chattopadhyay, S., & Chaki, N. (2013). A New Link Failure Resilient Priority Based Fair Mutual Exclusion Algorithm for Distributed Systems. Journal of network and systems management, 21(1), 1-24.

15.    Lejeune, J., Arantes, L., Sopena, J., & Sens, P. (2015). A fair starvation-free prioritized mutual exclusion algorithm for distributed systems. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 83, 13-29.

16.    Kundu, S. (2005, December). Deadlock-Free distributed relaxed mutual-exclusion without revoke-messages. In International Workshop on Distributed Computing (pp. 463-474). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.‏

17.    Suzuki, I., & Kasami, T. (1985). A distributed mutual exclusion algorithm. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), 3(4), 344-349.

18.    Singhal, M. (1989). A heuristically-aided algorithm for mutual exclusion in distributed systems. IEEE transactions on computers, 38(5), 651-662.‏

19.    Raymond, K. (1989). A tree-based algorithm for distributed mutual exclusion. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS), 7(1), 61-77.‏

20.    Itriq, M., Dbabat, W., & Sharieh, P. (2013). Adaptive Dynamic Resource Synchronization Distributed Mutual Exclusion Algorithm (ADRS). Journal of Theoretical & Applied Information Technology, 53(3).‏

21.    Altamony, H., Alshurideh, M., & Obeidat, B. (2012). Information Systems for Competitive Advantage: Implementation of an Organisational Strategic Management Process. Proceedings of the 18th IBIMA Conference on Innovation and Sustainable Economic Competitive Advantage: From Regional Development to World Economic, Istanbul, Turkey, 9th-10th May.

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23.    Masa’deh, R., Tayeh, M., & Al-Jarrah, I. M. (2015). Accounting vs. Market-based Measures of Firm Performance Related to Information Technology Investments. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 9 (1), 129-145.

24.    Shannak, R., Obeidat, B., & Almajali, D. (2010). Information Technology Investments: A Literature Review. Proceedings of the 14th IBIMA Conference on Global Business Transformation through Innovation and Knowledge Management: An Academic Perspective, Istanbul-Turkey, 23rd-24th June, pp.1356-1368.





Jincy Das, Judith Mercy Praveena S, Mirna Genesia Asian, A. Monisha, R. Sindhuja

Paper Title:

Communication and Obstacle Detection System for the Disabled using Arduino Lilypad

Abstract: This paper proposes the design of a hand glove using Arduino Lilypad and Zigbee for the people with disability in hearing, speaking and vision. There are nearly 900,000 people who are deaf and dumb and 285 million people who are blind. This device would help for   communication by the bending of flex sensors which are fixed on the glove and the obstacles are detected by Ultrasonic sensor. And the combination of input is processed by the microcontroller Arduino Lilypad. The processed value is transmitted through the Zigbee to Microcontroller- AT89S2051 and the sign language is recognized and the corresponding value is obtained through LCD and speaker. The obstacle is sensed by Ultrasonic sensor and the person is alerted through vibration. The proposed system is compact, wireless and easy to use.

Arduino Lilypad, Flex sensor, Hand glove, Microcontroller- AT89S2051, Ultrasonic sensor, Vibration motor, Voice module-WTV040, Zigbee-CC2500.


1.       Arslan Arif, Syed Tahir Hussain Rizvi, Iqra Jawaid, Muhammad Adam Waleed, Muhammad Raheel Shakeel “Techno-talk: An American Sign Language (ASL) Translator.2016 International Conference on Control, Decision and Information Technologies (CoDIT) – IEEE Conference Publications.
2.       P.Vamsi Praveen, K.Satya Prasad “Electronic Voice to Deaf and Dumb People Using Flex Sensor”. International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering – Vol.4, Issue 8, August 2016.

3.       Dhiraj Gupta, Pankhuri Singh, Khushbu Pandey, Jaya, Solanki “Design and Development of a Low Cost Electronic Hand Glove for Deaf and Blind”. IEEE-2015, 2nd International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom).

4.       Neha Niharika, Heena, Bhavnesh Jaint “An Electronic Aid for the Mobility of Visual Impaired “ IEEE-2015.

5.       Ranjit A Wagh, Dr.U.B.S. Chandrawat “Hand Gloves for Deaf and Mute Person using Flex Sensor a Survey”. International Conference on Global Trends in Engineering, Technology and Management ICGTETM – 2016.

6.       Thuong N.Hoang, Ross T.Smith, Bruce H.Thomas “Ultrasonic Glove Input Device for Distance Based Interaction”.

7.       Adam Keyes, Mathew D’Souza and Adam Postula “Navigation for the Blind Using a Wireless Sensor Haptic Glove “- 4th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing MECO – 2015.

8.       Mrs.Neela Harish, Dr.S.Poonguzhali “Design and Development of Hand Gesture Recognition System for Speech Impaired People”. - International Conference on Industrial Instrumentation and Control (ICIC) – 2015 May.

9.       J.Thilagavathy, A.Jeyapaul Murugan, S.Darwin “Embedded Based Hand Talk Assisting System for Deaf and Dumb. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT) – Vol.3, Issue 3, 2014 March.

10.    Leah Buchley and Michael Eisenberg. “The Lilypad Arduino: Toward Wearable Engineering for Everyone – IEEE.





Mena Ahmed, Abdul Halim Ghazali, Thamer Ahmed Mohammad, Badronnisa Yusuf, Aminuddin Abdul Ghani

Paper Title:

Hydraulic Simulation of Flow Around Spur Dikes

Abstract:  The morphological changes of rivers, which are manifested by bed and banks deformations, show a direct relationship with water flow and sediment transport. Spur dikes are among the most common structures used to regulate velocity distribution and control sedimentation in a river section. This paper aims to simulate the hydraulic properties of steady turbulent flow in a straight rectangular open channel which has spur dikes with various configurations, such as number, alignment and lengths. The effects of the spur dikes on the velocity distribution have been evaluated three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) method. The simulated results from the model are calibrated and validated using data obtained from physical model. Different scenarios with spur dikes were simulated, and the results were demonstrated using the isovels, velocity magnitudes and mass exchange between spur dikes fields and main flow. Eventually, each scenario gives a better understanding on employing spur dikes for river restoration, enhancing navigation (by increasing water depth and rearranging the thalweg line), and protecting abutments and pump intakes against erosion as well as creating stable aquatic habitat.

 Hydraulic simulation, velocity distribution, spur dike, river restoration.


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6.       Hinterberger, C. “Three-dimensional and depth-average large eddy simulation of shallow water flows” Ph.D. thesis, Karlsruhe Univ., Karlsruhe, Germany, 2004.

7.       Kuhnle, R. A., Jia, Y., & Alonso, C. V., “Measured and simulated flow near a submerged spur dike” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 134 (7), 2008, 916–924.

8.       McCoy, A., Constantinescu, S. G., & Weber, L., “Exchange processes in a channel with two vertical emerged obstructions” Flow Turbul. Combust, 77, 2006, 97–126.

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10.    McCoy, A., Constantinescu, G. & Weber, L. J., “Numerical investigation of flow hydrodynamics in a channel with a series of groynes” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 134(Feb.), 2008, 157–172.

11.    Melville, B. W. “Pier and Abutment Scour: Integrated Approach” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 123(2), 1997, 125-136.

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18.    Tominaga, A., Ijima, K. & Nakano, Y. “Flow structures around submerged spur dikes with various relative height,” Proc. of 29th IAHR Congress, Beijing, China, Theme D, Hydraulic Structures, 2001, 421-427.

19.    Uijttewaal, W., & Van Schijndel, S. A. H. “The complex flow in groyne fields: Numerical modeling compared with experiments” Proc., River Flow 2004, Naples, Italy, 1331–3838.

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Meenal P.Talekar, Ravindra Kale

Paper Title:

Review on Cryptoleq: Single Instruction Set Abstract Machine

Abstract: Today data communication mainly depends upon digital data communication, where is data security is prior requirement which become crucial now days in every sector. So in order to protect it, various methods and Algorithm have been implemented. Cryptography combines Science, Mathematics, Computer Engineering and Networking. The purpose of this research paper is (i) to find the best cryptographic algorithm for computations (ii) to study the Cryptoleq system which (iii) and finally the comparison of performance of algorithm with Cryptoleq and without Cryptoleq.

single instruction machine, heterogeneous computer, mathematical computations, encryption.


1.       Oleg Mazonka, Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos, “Cryptoleq: A Heterogeneous Abstract Machine for Encrypted and Unencrypted Computation” in (2016).
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3.       J. Zimmerman, “How to obfuscate programs directly,” in Advances in Cryptology. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015, pp. 439–467.

4.       S. Halevi and V. Shoup. HElib: Design and Implementation of a Homomorphic-Encryption Library, accessed on Nov. 13, 2015.

5.       D. Apon, Y. Huang, J. Katz, and A. J. Malozemoff, “Implementing cryptographic program obfuscation,” in Proc. IACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch., 2014, p. 779.

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7.       P. T. Breuer and J. P. Bowen, “A fully homomorphic crypto-processor design,” in Engineering Secure Software and Systems. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2013, pp. 123–138.

8.       Naser A W S and Bin Md Fadli (2013), “ Use of Cryptography in Cloud Computing”, pp. 179-184, proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Control System Malaysia.

9.       Shahzadi Farah et al.”An Experimental Study on Performance Evaluation of Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms”, Recent Advances in information Science, Proceeding of the 3rd European Conf. of Computer Science, (EECS-12)  2012.

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Ananya Kalita, Arnob Bormudoi, Mimi Das Saikia

Paper Title:

Probability Distribution of Rainfall and Discharge of Kulsi River Basin

Abstract: The frequency analysis of daily rainfall data of 24 years was carried out to determine the annual one day maximum rainfall and discharge of Ukiam. For evaluation of observed and expected values Weibull’s plotting position Gumbel, Log Pearson and Log normal probability distribution functions were fitted. For determination of goodness of fit chi square test was carried out by comparing the expected values with the observed values. The results found showed that the Log Pearson and Log Normal were the best fit probability distribution for determination of annual one day maximum rainfall and discharge for different return periods respectively.

  Probability distribution, Chi-Square Value


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13.    Kumar, A.,K. K. Kaushal and R.D. Singh (2007). Prediction of annual maximum daily rainfall of Almora based on probability analysis . Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 35 : 82-83.

14.    Kumar Rajneesh and Bhardwaj Anil (2015). Probability analysis of return period of daily maximum rainfall in annual data set of Ludhiana, Punjab Indian J. Agric. Res., 49 (2) : 160-164.

15.    Prakash C, Rao DH(1986). Frequency Analysis of rain data for crop planning (Kota). Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 14(2):23-26.

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17.    Subudhi, R. (2007). Probability analysis for prediction of annual maximum daily rainfall of Chakapada block of Kandhamal district in Orissa. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 35: 84-85.

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19.    Vivekanandan, N. (2012). Intercomparison of Extreme Value Distributions for Estimation of ADMR. International Journal of Applied Engineering and Technology, 2(1) : 30-37.





Sandeep C. S, Sukesh Kumar A, Susanth M. J.

Paper Title:

The Online Datasets Used to Classify the Different Stages for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

Abstract:  Alzheimer Disease (AD) is one of the common forms of dementia which is an irreversible neurodegenerative progressive disorder of the brain which affects the elderly population above the age of 65. Alzheimer is a brain disease that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. It is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Alzheimer symptoms are characterized by memory loss that affects day-to-day function, difficulty performing familiar tasks, problems with language, disorientation of time and place, poor or decreased judgment, problems with abstract thinking, misplacing things, changes in mood and behavior, changes in personality and loss of initiative. There are different types of tests associated with AD such as neuropsychological tests, laboratory tests and various imaging modalities for the early diagnosis of AD. Although these tests are available, they are inadequate for the definite diagnosis of the disease. In this paper we focus on the databases related to AD such as ADNI (Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative), OASIS (Open Access Series of Imaging studies), Alz Gene, AD&FTDMDB (The Alzheimer Disease & Frontotemporal Dementia Mutation Database), (CAMD) Alzheimer's disease Database and NAAC( National  Alzheimer’s  Coordinating  Center), TREAD (Trajectory-Related Early Alzheimer’s Database), Coalition Against Major Diseases use of the soft computing techniques and image analysis from the different imaging modalities in an efficient way for making a definite diagnosis and early prediction of AD. Our aim is to predict the early diagnosis in a reliable manner such that to combine the values of different tests with the help of soft computing techniques to develop software tool for a definite diagnosis.

Alzheimer Disease, Dementia, ADNI, OASIS, AlzGene, AD&FTDMDB, TREAD, NAAC. Soft Computing techniques, image analysis.


1.       Sandeep C S, Sukesh Kumar A, Susanth M J "The Early Diagnosis Of Alzheimer Disease (Ad) Using CAMD, TREAD And NAAC Databases" International Journal for Science and Advance Research In Technology, ISSN ONLINE 2359-1052, IJSART - Volume 3 Issue 3 –MARCH 2017:366-371
2.       A Review on the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) through Different Tests, Techniques and Databases AMSE JOURNALS –2015-Series: Modelling C; Vol. 76; N° 1; pp 1-22 Submitted June 2014; Revised Dec. 26, 2014; Accepted Feb. 20, 2015

3.       Sandeep C.S, Sukesh Kumar.A, “A Review Paper on the Databases Used for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease(AD)”, in proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems , EASA College of Engineering, Coimbatore, India, ISBN 978-93-83459-33-9, Apr 2014, p.145

4.       Sandeep C.S, Sukesh Kumar.A, “A Review Paper on the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease(AD) through Profiling of Human Body Parameters”, Scientistlink, Coimbatore, India, 2013, International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Communications (IJCSEC), Vol.1 Issue.1, pp. 21-29, December 2013.

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13.    Harvey, R.A., P.C. Champe, B.D. Fisher, 2006. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Microbiology. 2nd Edn., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, ISBN-10: 0781782155,pp: 432.

14.    Cummings, J.L., H.V. Vinters, G.M. Cole and Z.S. Khachaturian, 1998. Alzheimer’s disease: etiologies, pathophysiology, cognitive reserve and treatment opportunities. Neurology. 51: 2-17. PMID: 9674758

15.    Yaari, R. and J. Corey-Bloom, 2007. Alzheimer’s disease: Pathology and pathophysiology. Semin Neurol. 27: 32-41.


17.    Meha Fatima Aftab and Rizwana S. Waraich /, a review of biochemical markers for early diagnosis of alzheimer’s disease ,American Journal of Neuroscience 3 (2) (2012) 54-62





22.    David Darby1 , Amy Brodtmann1 , Michael Woodward1 , Colin Masters2 , 1 Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville VIC, Australia; 2 University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia THE TRAJECTORY-RELATED EARLY ALZHEIMER’S DATABASE (TREAD) STUDY,P4-188




26.    A good introduction to evolutionary computing: http://




Purushottam Sahu, Santosh Kumar Mishra, Shatendra Kumar Sahu

Paper Title:

Surface Alloying of Aluminum Alloy (Lm4) With Iron Powder using Tig Welding

Abstract: Development of Fe–Al composite layer by utilizing combination surface alloying process with blend of Al and Fe powders has been examined to enhance the surface hardness of cast aluminum amalgam LM4, business Al–Si compound substrate. Tungsten Arc welding procedure is utilized to adjust the surface. Components, for example, welding current, welding speed, terminal to work separation are changed to the composite the surface of LM4 with preplaced press covering on the substrate at different levels of welding current (3-6mm/sec) and cathode to work remove (2-3mm) in the argon gas protecting. The microstructure of the alloyed layer changed with expanding Fe content from hypo-eutectic structure to hyper-eutectic structure. Hardness of the surface changed LM4 combination shifts from HV98.96 to HV141.9 as for the elements chose and their levels [25]. The alloyed examples with low warmth input demonstrates high hardness when terminal to work separation is kept steady, as the cathode to work remove increments small scale hardness additionally increments. The greatest increment in hardness is 40.25% accomplished at Welding current 100A, welding speed 5mm/sec, Electrode to work separate 3mm because of the best possible dissemination of iron particles into the substrate bringing about the arrangement of Al-Fe  intermetallic.

 HV98.96 to HV141.9, LM4, Utilizing Combination, (3-6mm/sec), Intermetallic.


1.       A.K. Gaiduchenko, S.G. Napara-Volgina (1995), Development of iron powder metallurgy, Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics, retrieved 13 December 2013
2.       "What is iron powder?". JFE Steel Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2014.

3.       "Applications of Iron Powder". JFE Steel Corporation. Retrieved 8 January 2014


5.       http:/Type equation here./


7.       R.L. Smith & G.E. Sand land, "An Accurate Method of Determining the Hardness of Metals, with Particular Reference to Those of a High Degree of Hardness," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. I, 1922, p 623–641.


9.       ASTM E384-10e2

10.    ISO 6507-1:2005

11.    Vickers Test. Instron website.
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14.    H.C Man, S Zhang, T.M Yue, F.T Cheng, Laser surface alloying of NiCrSiB on Al6061 aluminium alloy, Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 148, Issues 2–3, December 2001, Pages 136-142, ISSN 0257-8972.

15.    Yongqing Fu, A.W. Batchelor, Yanwei Gu, K.A. Khor, Huting Xing, Laser alloying of aluminium alloy AA 6061 with Ni and Cr. Part 1. Optimization of processing parameters by X-ray imaging, Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 99, Issue 3, 23 February 1998, Pages 287-294, ISSN 0257-8972,

16.    Yongqing Fu, Andrew W Batchelor, Laser alloying of aluminium alloy AA 6061 with Ni and Cr. Part II. The effect of laser alloying on the fretting wear resistance, Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 102, Issues 1–2, 1 April 1998, Pages 119-126, ISSN 0257-8972,

17.    H.C. Man, S. Zhang, F.T. Cheng, Improving the wear resistance of AA 6061 by laser surface alloying with NiTi, Materials Letters, Volume 61, Issues 19–20, August 2007, Pages 4058-4061, ISSN 0167-577X,

18.    M.H. Staia, M. Cruz, Narendra B. Dahotre, Microstructural and tribological characterization of an A-356 aluminium alloy superficially modified by laser alloying, Thin Solid Films, Volumes 377–378, 1 December 2000, Pages 665-674, ISSN 0040-6090,

19.    P Petrov, Electron beam surface remitting and alloying of aluminium alloys, Vacuum, Volume 48, Issue 1, January 1997, Pages 49-50, ISSN 0042-207X,

20.    Almeida, M. Anjos, R. Vilar, R. Li, M.G.S. Ferreira, W.M. Steen, K.G. Watkins, Laser alloying of aluminium alloys with chromium, Surface and Coatings Technology, Volume 70, Issues 2–3, January 1995, Pages 221-229, ISSN 0257-8972,

21.    Takashi Ishikawa, Nobuki Yukawa, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Yutaka Suzuki, Takashi Jimma, Formability of superplastic aluminium alloy processed by mechanical alloying, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 68, Issue 3, 15 August 1997, Pages 236-240, ISSN 0924-0136,

22.    K.G. Budinski, Surface Engineering for Wear Resistance, Prentice-Hall, 1988

23.    J.R. Davis, Ed., Surface Engineering for Corrosion and Wear Resistance, ASM International and IOM Communications, 2001

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25.    S. Lampman, Introduction to Surface Hardening of Steels, Heat Treating,Vol4, ASM Handbook,1991, p 259–267




Hazem Samih Mohamed

Paper Title:

Numerical analysis on Pre-Stressed Steel I-Beams

Abstract: Pre-stressing with external tendon is one of the most efficient techniques for rehabilitation of existing structures, strengthening of steel structures, controlling the structure deflection and reduction of the construction cost. This paper consisting of a parametric study to investigate the effect of several parameters on the structure behavior. The key variables examined were the number of deviator, eccentricity of the external tendon, pre-stressing technique. ANSYS software has been used to analyze and simulate the process of applying the pre-stressing force and the structure loads. Geometrical imperfections and buckling modes of the unloaded beam are taken into consideration as an initial condition. The results show that these variables impose additional challenges on the accurate prediction of pre-stressed steel structures performance during its service life.

Tendon; External pre-stressing; ANSYS; Steel I-beam; Deviator


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7.       Aparicio, A. C., Ramos, G., and Casas, J. R. (2002). "Testing of externally prestressed concrete beams." Engineering Structures, 24(1), 73-84.

8.       Aravinthan, T., Witchukreangkrai, E., and Mutsuyoshi, H. (2005). "Flexural behavior of two-span continuous prestressed concrete girders with highly eccentric external tendons." ACI Structural Journal, 102(3), 402-411.

9.       El-Ariss, B. (2004). "Stiffness of reinforced concrete beams with external tendons." Engineering Structures, 26(14), 2047-2051.

10.    Lou, T. J., and Xiang, Y. Q. (2006). "Finite element modeling of concrete beams prestressed with external tendons." Engineering Structures, 28(14), 1919-1926.

11.    Ariyawardena, N., and Ghali, A. (2002). "Prestressing with unbonded internal or external tendons: analysis and computer model." Journal of Structural Engineering, 128(12), 1493-1501.

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13.    Chen, S., and Jia, Y. (2010). "Numerical investigation of inelastic buckling of steel–concrete composite beams prestressed with external tendons." Thin-Walled Structures, 48(3), 233-242.

14.    Chen, S., and Zhang, Z. (2006). "Effective width of a concrete slab in steel–concrete composite beams prestressed with external tendons." Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 62(5), 493-500.

15.    Lorenc, W., and Kubica, E. (2006). "Behavior of composite beams prestressed with external tendons: Experimental study." Journal of constructional steel research, 62(12), 1353-1366.

16.    Oh, J. Y., Lee, D. H., and Kim, K. S. (2012). "Accordion effect of prestressed steel beams with corrugated webs." Thin-walled structures, 57, 49-61.

17.    Aydin, Z., and Cakir, E. (2015). "Cost minimization of prestressed steel trusses considering shape and size variables." Steel and Composite Structures, 19(1), 43-58.

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21.    Gosaye, J., Gardner, L., Wadee, M. A., and Ellen, M. E. (2014). "Tensile performance of prestressed steel elements." Engineering Structures, 79, 234-243.

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26.    Belletti, B., and Gasperi, A. (2010). "Behavior of prestressed steel beams." Journal of Structural Engineering, 136(9), 1131-1139




Akshay Ashok Sonawane, Sultan Shahajahan, Azhar Rehaman

Paper Title:

Design and Fabrication of an Inline Pipe Inspection Robot

Abstract:  already there are various designs available in the case of an inline-pipe inspection robot. This research paper aims at preparing a new design along with its fabrication process. For a start we studied the readily available deigns and there advantages as well as limitations. We have used CATIA V5R19 to design our robot. The key factors we have considered while in the process of design are mobility, safety in operation, steer ability, and the most important one is size and shape adaptability. Our model is a wireless flexible pipe inspection robot which is capable to pass through a pipe with diameter in range of 6-9 inches. We can detect various defects such as cracks, corrosion, buckles, etc.

 inline pipe-inspection, mobility, shape adaptability, wireless.


1.        Ankit Nayak , S. K. Pradhan, “Design of a New In-Pipe Inspection Robot,” in 12th Global congress on manufacturing and management, GCMM 2014.
2.        Lee Vuen Nee, I. Elamvazuthi, Timothy Ganesan, M.K.A. Ahamed Khan and S. Parasuraman, “Development of a Laboratory-scale Pipeline Inspection Robot,” in 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Intelligent Sensors (IRIS 2015).

3.        Kentarou Nishijima, Yixiang Sun, Rupesh Kumar Srivastava Harutoshi Ogai, Bishakh Bhattacharya, “Advanced pipe inspection robot using rotating probe,” in The Fifteenth International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics 2010 (AROB 15th ’10), B-Con Plaza, Beppu,Oita, Japan, February 4-6, 2010.

4.        Nur Shahida Roslin, Adzly Anuar, Muhammad Fairuz Abdul Jalal, Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari, “A Review: Hybrid Locomotion of In-pipe Inspection Robot,” in 2012 International Symposium on Robotics and Intelligent Sensors.

5.        Xin Li, Wuyi Yu, Xiao Lin, and S. S. Iyengar, “On Optimizing Autonomous Pipeline Inspection,” in IEEE Transactions On Robotics, Vol. 28, No. 1, February 2012.

6.        Hanaa Said Salim Al-Hajry and G.R. Rameshkumar, “Designand Testing of Pipeline Inspection Robot,” in International Journal of Engineering Innovation & Research  Volume 2, Issue 4, ISSN: 2277 – 5668.

7.        Ankit Nayak, S. K. Pradhan, “Investigations of Design Issues Related To In-Pipe Inspection Robots,” in International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2014).

8.        Atul A. Gargade, Dr. Shantipal S. Ohol, “Development of In-pipe Inspection Robot,” in IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-ISSN: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 13, Issue 4 Ver. VII (Jul. - Aug. 2016), PP 64-72.

9.        E Navin Prasad, M Kannan, A Azarudeen and N Karuppasamy, “Defect Identification In Pipe Lines Using Pipe Inspection Robot,” in IJMERR.

10.     Dr. Sharanabasappa C. Sajjan , Naveen Srivatsa H.S, Dinesh Kumar P, “Design And Development Of Pipe Inspection Robot,”  in  TROI.




Vivek Kumar, Namrata Patil, Bhavesh Zope

Paper Title:

Solar Panel Selection for 5KW System

Abstract: The theme of this project work is solar panel selection which capacity is 5KW. The first phase of the project is introduction, prospects, configuration about Photo-Voltaic systems (PV systems) and study of photo-voltaic cells, modular and array. The second phase includes the selection of solar panel, efficiency, economic considerations and calculations of the photo-voltaic system. The photo-voltaic technology is an off-shoot of the evaluation in semiconductor technology during 1980s. Several different base materials and doping materials were tried during early 1980s. By mid 1980s the silicon has been adopted as base material for producing photo-voltaic cells by almost all the photo-voltaic cell manufacturers. They work on principle of the light energy of the sun is directly converted in to electrical energy.

  photo-volatic; cell; modular; array


1.    Dr V.M. Domkundwar, and Anand V. Domkundwar, “Dhanpat Rai & Co. (P) LTD,” Phil. , page. 11.8-11.15.
2.    D.P. Kothari, “Renewable energy source and emerging techonologies”, 2nd ed. PHI Learning PVT LTD Delhi-110092, page.129-132.

3.    G.N. Tiwari, “Solar Energy Fundamental, Design, Modellingand Applictaion” Revised edition , Narosa Publication House new Delhi, page. 452.

4.    J. B Gupta, “A course in electrical Power,” S.K Kataria & Sons, page. I, 131.

5.    H.A. Kazem, “Renewable Energy in Oman: Status and Future Prospects”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, vol. 15, page. 3465-3469, .




Nazrin Nazar, A. Nizad

Paper Title:

Effect of Treated Recycled Aggregate on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Abstract: The non-availability of materials is one of the major factors affecting the progress of construction. Natural resources are becoming insufficient to meet the increasing demand in construction. As a solution to the above problems, recycled aggregates from the demolished waste are now being used as replacement of natural aggregates. But the use of recycled aggregates drastically decreases the strength of concrete. This is mainly due to old mortar on the surface of aggregate which render the surface porous and makes it of inferior quality. Recent literatures suggests surface treatment to improve the strength. Therefore in this study, recycled aggregate that is treated in dil. HCl to remove the loose mortar is used instead of recycled aggregate. Also fibre reinforced concrete is now being widely used in industry due to its abrasion resistance, shrinkage control and impact resistance. The objective of this study is to find out the combined effect of treated recycled aggregate with polypropylene fibres and the strength properties are compared with that of conventional concrete. Mix proportion is done for M25 concrete. Natural coarse aggregate is replaced by treated recycled coarse aggregate in proportions of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%. In all mixes the proportion of polypropylene fibre is kept constant at 0.2% by volume of concrete. From the test results it is inferred that the use of concrete, containing up to 60% replacement of natural coarse aggregate with treated recycled coarse aggregate can be economically and judiciously encouraged for structural applications.

Fibre reinforced concrete, polypropylene fibre, recycled aggregate, treated recycled aggregate.


1.       Akca, K. R., O. Cakik, M. Ipek (2015) Properties of polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete using recycled aggregates, Construction and Building Materials, 98, pp.  620-630.
2.       Dharani, N., A. Ashwini, G. Pavitha and G. Arulraj (2013) Experimental investigation on mechanical properties of Recron 3s fibre reinforced hyposludge concrete, International Journal Of Civil Engineering And Technology, 4, pp. 182-189.

3.       Dilbas, H. and O. Cakir (2014) An investigation on mechanical and physical properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) with and without silica fume, Construction and Building Materials, 61, pp. 50–59.

4.       Ede, A. N. and A. O. Ige (2014) Optimal polypropylene fibre content for improved compressive and flexural strength of concrete, Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 11, pp. 129-135.

5.       Ismail, S. and M. Ramli (2013) Engineering properties of treated recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for structural applications, Construction and Building Materials, 44, pp. 464–476.

6.       Kakooei, S., H. M. Akil, M. Jamshidi and J. Rouhi (2012) The effects of polypropylene fibres on the properties of reinforced concrete structures, Construction and Building Materials, 27, pp. 73-77.

7.       Khan, S., R. A. Khan, A. R. Khan, M. Islam and S. Nayal  (2015) Mechanical properties of polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete for M 25 & M 30 mixes: A comparative study, International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science, 1, pp. 327-340.

8.       Kwan, W. H., M. Ramli, K. J. Kam and M. Z. Sulieman (2012) Influence of the amount of recycled coarse aggregate in concrete design and durability properties, Construction and Building Materials, 26, pp. 565–573.

9.       Madhavi, T. C., L. S. Raju and D. Mathur (2014) Polypropylene fibre reinforced concrete: A Review, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering , 4, pp. 114-119.

10.    Manzi, S., C. Mazzotti and M. C. Bignozzi (2013) Short and long-term behaviour of structural concrete with recycled concrete aggregate, Cement & Concrete Composites, 37, pp. 312–318.

11.    Wagih, A. M., H. Z. Karmoty, M. Ebid and S. H. Okba (2013) Recycled construction and demolition concrete waste as aggregate for structural concrete, Housing and Building National Research Center, 9, pp. 193–200.





Swati A.Patil, Suraj P. Ahirrao, Priya V. Chumble, Manali R. Navale, Tausif N. Mulani

Paper Title:

Industrial Waste Water Management by Implementing Wetland Ecosystem

Abstract: Constructed wetlands are natural alternative to technical methods of wastewater treatment, however our understanding of the complex processes caused by the plants, micro organisms, soil matrix and the substances in the wastewater, and how they all interact with each other, is still rather incomplete. The main objective of this project is to compare the parameters of industrial waste water sample which is treated by wetland ecosystem with another industrial waste water samples without applying wetland ecosystem. The Principle of this is to perform a preliminary comparative study between some coagulants on the removal of suspended solids organic matter and testing the Chemical and Biochemical Oxygen Demand from the industrial waste water. For implementation of wetland ecosystem, we are going to study specific plants which can be used for wetland ecosystem.

 industrial wastewater, characteristics of wastewater, constructed wetland, wetland ecosystem


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2.       Calheiros, C. S. C., Rangel, A. O. S. S., and Castro, P. M. L. “Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater” Water Res., 41, 1790–1798, (2007)

3.       Hans G. Peterson. "Use of constructed wetlands to process agricultural wastewater" Canadian Journal of Plant Sci. 78: 199–210(1998)

4.       Kapoor, A., Viraraghavan, T. Fungal Biosorption-an alternative treatment option for heavy metal bearing wastewater: a review. Bioresource. Technol. 53: 195-206(1995)

5.       Kadlec, R. H. and S. D. Wallace “Treatment Wetlands, Second Editions" Florida, CRC Press.(2009)

6.       Mungur, A. S., Shutes, R. B., Revitt, D. M., and House, M. A.“An assessment of metal removal by a laboratory scale wetland.” Water Science. Technol., 35(5), 125–133(1997)

7.       Villaescusa, I., Martinex, M., and Miralles, N. “Heavy metal uptake from aqueous solution by cork and yohimbe bark wastes.” J. Chem. Technol.Biotechnol., 75, 812–816(2000.)

8.       Knight, R.L., and Kadlec, R. H. “Treatment wetlands”, Lewis,Boca Raton, Fla. (1996)

9.       Siedel K. Patent: System for purification of polluted water. Washington DC.(1973)

10.    Barker, D. J. and Stuckey, D. C.“A review of soluble microbial products (SMP) in wastewatertreatment systems.” Water Research, 33(14), 30633082(1999).