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Exploring Innovation| ISSN:2249-8958(Online)| Reg. No.:61902/BPL/CE/2011| Published By BEIESP| Impact Factor: 5.02| UGC Approved Journal
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Volume-6 Issue-6 Published on August 30, 2017
01
Volume-6 Issue-6 Published on August 30, 2017

 Download Abstract Book (It will be upload on August 30, 2017)

S. No

Volume-6 Issue-6, August 2017, ISSN:  2249-8958 (Online)
Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. 

Page No.

1.

Authors:

Joseph Zacharias, Vijayakumar Narayanan

Paper Title:

Full Duplex Radio over Fiber System with Carrier Recovery and Reuse in Base Station and in Mobile Unit

Abstract:  A novel full duplex Radio over Fiber (RoF) system extending from the central office (CO) to the mobile unit using a single continuous wave laser in the central station is proposed. Mobile unit is designed without a high frequency local oscillator. An optical frequency comb is generated in which one frequency is used as carrier for modulating data. The frequency for uplink is obtained from other comb signal. A large number of comb lines can be utilized along with the data comb line. Thus the frequency of operation of the base station can be selected by switching to different comb lines. The modulation scheme QAM accounts for greater spectral efficiency for the system. The proposed system is viable for high bandwidth communication and cost effective. 

Keywords:
  Full duplex, Optical comb, RoF


References:

1.     M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, J. George, J.Lightwave   Technology, 25(11), 3301 (2007).
2.     Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 18(16), 1726 (2006).

3.     Kaszubowska, L. Hu, L. Barry, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 18(4), 562  (2006).

4.     M. Larrod, A. Koonen,Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Trans. on 56(1), 248 (2008).

5.     L. Chen, Y. Shao, X. Lei, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 19(6), 387 (2007).

6.     C. Zhang, T. Ning, J. Li,  Optics Communications 344, 65 (2015).

7.     Y. T. Hsueh, M. F. Huang, S. H. Fan,  G. K. Chang, Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE 23(15), 1085(2011)

8.     Ting Su, Jianyu Zheng, Zhongle Wu, Min Zhang, Xue Chen, Gee-Kung Chang, Opt. Express,8,(2015)

9.     M. A. Hameed, R. Hui, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 26(17), 1734 (2014).


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2.

Authors:

Durgam Kumaraswamy, B.V. Sanker Ram

Paper Title:

Appliance of Soft Switching Scheme over Fuel-Cell based Power Conversion Improvement via Fuzzy Nature

Abstract: In PV based Solar and Tele-Communication industries power efficient DC-to-DC converters are required to manage the Fuel Cell Systems. These DC-DC converters should be high in power and efficiency as well as it should have low Electro Magnetic Induction [EMI]. The main motto of this systems are to raise the power by using Step-Up Conversion and improving the soft switching ratio. The usage of Coupled inductor and Isolated Transformers are satisfying the needs of higher voltage supply and soft switching scenario. For transforming the electro chemical energy into electrical energy fuell cells are needed, as well as this fuel cells are used to attain high efficiency, lower emitting ratio and speeder operating power while conversion. Several approaches have been already realized to these kind of DC-to-DC power conversion scenarios but failure free scenario of fuel cell systems needs the elimination of bad voltage switchings, requiring higher inputting power as well as large ranging of outputs with higher energy efficiency. For getting out from these faults we need a special Soft Switching nature of MOSFETs and resulting rectifiers. The proposed methodology combines the scenario of Fuzzy logical controllers [FLC] with Soft Swtching to attain higher efficiency over fuel cells and its performance improvements over anycase of output strategies. This nature will eliminates the losses os power occurred in switching strategies and reducing the back recovering losses and its nature as well as providing the trustworthy conditions in circuit nature and this kind of design eliminates the large circulations over initial stages. The proposed results will be experimentally proven by using MATLAB SIMULINK and Hardware Circuit Scenarios.

Keywords:
 Fuzzy Logic, DC-to-DC, Fuel Cell [FC], Electro Magnetic Induction [EMI], Soft Switching.


References:

1.      J. E. Larminie and A. Dicks, Fuel Cell Systems Explained. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley, 2000.
2.      M. Ordonez, P. Pickup, J. E. Quaicoe, and M. T. Iqbal, “Electrical dynamic response of a direct methanol fuel cell,” IEEE Power Electron. Soc. Newslett., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 10–15, Jan. 2007.

3.      J. Wang, F. Z. Peng, J. Anderson, A. Joseph, and R. Buffenbarger, “Low cost fuel cell converter system for residential power generation,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1315–1322, Sep. 2004.

4.      J. Wang, M. Reinhard, F. Z. Peng, and Z. Qian, “Design guideline of the isolated DC-DC converter in green power applications,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Motion Control Conf., 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1756–1761.

5.      R. Gopinath, S. Kim, J. Hahn, P. N. Enjeti, M. B. Yeary, and J.W. Howze, “Development of a low cost fuel cell inverter system with DSP control,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1256–1262, Sep. 2004.

6.      L. Palma and P. N. Enjeti, “A modular fuel cell, modular DC-DC converter concept for high performance and enhanced reliability,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1437–1443, Jun. 2009.

7.      G. Holmes, P. Atmur, C. C. Beckett, M. P. Bull,W. Y. Kong,W. J. Luo, D. K. C. Ng, N. Sachchithananthan, P. W. Su, D. P. Ware, and P. Wrzos, “An innovative, efficient current-fed push-pull grid connectable inverter for distributed generation systems,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 2006, pp. 1504–1510.

8.      E.-H. Kim and B.-H. Kwon, “High step-up resonant push-pull converter with high efficiency,” IET Power Electron., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 79–89, 2009.

9.      S. Jung,Y. Bae, S. Choi, and H. Kim, “A lowcost utility interactive inverter for residential fuel cell generation,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2293–2298, Nov. 2007.

10.   H. Kim, C. Yoon, and S. Choi, “A three-phase zero-voltage and zerocurrent switching DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 391–398, Feb. 2010.

11.   J. Mason, D. J. Tschirhart, and P. K. Jain, “New ZVS phase shift modulated full-bridge converter topologies with adaptive energy storage for SOFC application,” IEEE
Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 332–342, Jan. 2008.

12.   X. Kong and A. M. Khambadkone, “Analysis and implementation of a high efficiency, interleaved current-fed full bridge converter for fuel cell system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 543–550, Mar. 2007.

13.   H. Cha and P. Enjeti, “A novel three-phase high power current-fed DC/DC converter with active clamp for fuel cells,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 2007, pp. 2485–2489.

14.   Averberg, K. R. Meyer, and A. Mertens, “Current-Fed Full Bridge Converter for Fuel Cell Systems,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 2008, pp. 866–872.

15.   M. Nymand and M. A. E. Andersen, “High-efficiency isolated boost DCDC converter for high-power low-voltage fuel-cell applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 505–514, Feb. 2010.

16.   J.-M. Kwon, E.-H. Kim, B.-H. Kwon, and K.-H. Nam, “High-efficiency fuel cell power conditioning system with input current ripple reduction,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 826–834, Mar. 2009.

17.   M. H. Todorovic, L. Palma, and P. N. Enjeti, “Design of a wide input range DC-DC converter with a robust power control scheme suitable for fuel cell power conversion,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 1247–1255, Mar. 2008.
18.   R. L. Andersen and I. Barbi, “A three-phase current-fed push-pull DC-DC converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 358–368, Feb. 2009.
19.   J.-M. Kwon and B.-H. Kwon, “High step-up active-clamp converter with input-current doubler and output-voltage doubler for fuel cell power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 108–115, Jan. 2009.

20.   Y. Lembeye, V. D. Bang, G. Lefevre, and J.-P. Ferrieux, “Novel halfbridge inductive DC-DC isolated converters for fuel cell applications,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 203–210, Mar. 2009.


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3.

Authors:

Vinay Agrawal, Rajesh Gupta, Manish Goyal

Paper Title:

A Study on Seismic Analysis of High Rise Irregular Floor Plan Building with Different Position of Shear Walls

Abstract:  The primary objective of any structural system is to support various types of loads acting either vertically or Horizontal or acting jointly with adequate safety. Any structural system should be designed in such a way that each and every element of the system should have ample rigidity, stiffness and strength against the anticipated loads. Any structural frame system with a provision of RC shear wall shows a desirable safety and stability up to 30 stories building height in lateral loads resistance. A RC framed shear wall is a combination of beams, columns interacting with reinforced concrete shear wall. Shear wall provide lateral stiffness to the building by cantilever action. In this study a G+19 story unsymmetrical [Floor plans] commercial building [L>3.6 least lateral dimension of building ], H> 3.3 least lateral dimension of building and  is modeled with different position of shear walls and analysis conducted for joint displacement, Storey drift, Storey stiffness and Base shear force. These models are modeled with ETABS for static analysis as per IS 1893 -2002. The analysis results for different models are plotted to compare and to know the behavior of RCC frame structure with different position of shear walls.

Keywords:
  Shear Wall, Core Wall, Bare Structure frame, static analysis, lateral loads.


References:

1.      IS: 875 (Part 1), 1987, “Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) for Building and Structures, Dead Loads”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
2.      IS: 875 (Part 2), 1987, “Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other Than Earthquake) for Building and Structures, Dead Loads”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi 

3.      IS: 1893 (Part 1), 2002, “Criteria for Earthqauke Resistant Design of Structures- General Provisions and Building”, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

4.      Arnold C and Reitherman R,- 1982, Building Configuration and Seismic Design , John Wiley-USA

5.      Romy Mohan and C Prabha, “Dynamic Analysis of RCC Building with Shear Wall”-Oct 2011, “International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Vol-4, No 06 SPL,
Oct 2011

6.      L. Tersa Gauvara-Perez, 2012, Soft Story and Weak Storey in Earthquake Resistant Design: A Multidisciplinary Approach

7.      Bahador Bagheri, Ehsan Salimi Firoozabad and Mohammadreza Yahyaei, 2012, Comparative Study of the Static and Dynamic Analysis of Multi Storey Irregular Building, “International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, construction and Architectural Engineering, VOl-6, No:11,2012

8.      Vikas Govalkar, P.J.Salunke, N.G. Gore, July-2014, Analysis of Bare Frame and Infilled Frame with Different Position of Shear Wall, “International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IRJTE). ISSN:2277-3878, Vol-3, July-2014

9.      S.Uttamraj, K. Mythill,, “Analysis of Soft Storey For Multistory Building in Zone-4”, “International Journal  of Research and Innovation (IJRI), Vol-1, Issue-1, Sep-2014

10.   Ashwinkumsr Balaso Karnale, Dr. D.N. Shinde, Sep-2015, Comparative Seismic Analysis of High and Low Rise Building with Shear Walls. “International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol-4, Issue 9, Sep-2015

11.   Software Package, ETABS


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4.

Authors:

M. Nagaraju Naik, P. Raveendrababu

Paper Title:

Low Resolution to High Resolution Image Projection with Spectral, Noise Removal and Edge Preservation Coding Techniques

Abstract: Many technical papers were presented in the improvement of accuracy and visual quality. Image coding is developed over a long period with various enhancement techniques. In the area of digital image processing resources required in optimized methods for better representation of higher resolutions for progressive image processing. More research work required towards high-resolution representation in real time applications and focused more optimization methods for efficient system representation. But available resources are limited due to noise, due to the noisy overall system accuracy and efficiency will decrease. Fourier transform represents less accuracy and visual quality because projecting energy with noise in all the directions. Hence we propose a lower dimensional coding system with higher accuracy with spectral band interpolation; inter-frame correlative for noise removal and finally adaptive edge preservation for smooth representation. The proposed technique gives more accuracy and projected in the higher grid and hence the obtained system is robust.

Keywords:
 Accuracy, Interpolation, Image Coding, Spectral Band, Edge Preserving.


References:

1.        P. Vandewalle, S. Su and  M. Vetterli etal, “A frequency domain approach to registration of aliased images with application to super-resolution”, EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol.6, 2006.
2.        S. C. Park, M. K. Park, and M. G. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview”, Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE, vol. 20(3), pp. 21–36, 2003.

3.        Deepesh Jain, “Super resolution using Papoulis-Gerchberg Algorithm”.

4.        N. Bharati, A. Khosla and N. Sood, “Image reconstruction using cubic b-spline interpolation”, India Conference(INDICON), Annual IEEE, pp. 1–5, 2011.

5.        Kwok-Wai Hung,Wan-Chi Siu, “Single Image Super Resolution using Iterative Wiener Filter”, ICASSP, IEEE, 2012.

6.        T. Tajbakhsh, “Combined Demosaicing and Adaptive Filtering on CFA Images”, IEEE Tenth International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, ISCE '06, 2006.

7.        J. Allebach and P. W. Wong, “Edge-Directed Interpolation”, in ICIP, 1996.

8.        YunfeiBai, Jing Hu, YupinLuo, “Self-Adaptive Blind Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction”, 3rd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP2010), 2010.

9.        S. KumarMaurya, P. KumarMishra, R. KumarSingh and A. Kumar Misra, “Image enhancement by spline interpolation and adaptive power spectrum cut-off of filtered images”, in Advances in Engineering, Science and Management(ICAESM), International Conference on. IEEE, pp.423–428, 2012.

10.     H. A. Aly and E. Dubois, “Specification of the observation model for regularized video up-sampling,” IEEE Trans. Video Processing, vol. 14, pp. 567-576, May 2005.

11.     Y.-M. Zhu, “Generalized sampling theorem”, Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Transactions, vol. 39(8),     pp. 587–588, 1992.

12.     M.Irani and S.Peleg, “Motion analysis for image enhancement: resolution, occlusion and transparency”, JVCIP, 1993.

13.     S. Izadpanahi, “Motion based video super resolution using edge directed interpolation and complex wavelet transform”, signal processing, Elsevier, vol. 93(7), pp. 2076-2086, 2013.   

14.     Wong, “Adaptive Bilateral Filtering of Image Signals using Local Phase Characteristics”, Signal Process. (Elsevier), Vol. 88, pp.1615, 2008.

15.     Xiuju Liang, ZongliangGan, “Improved Non-Local Iterative Back Projection Method for Image Super-Resolution”, Sixth International Conference on Image and Graphics, ICIG, 2011.

16.     J. Storkey, “Dynamic structure super-resolution”, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp.1319–1326, 2003.

17.     T. Mitsunaga and S.K. Nayar, “Radiometric self-calibration”, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol.1,  pp. 374–380. 1999.

18.     Rujul R, Makwana Nita and D Mehta, “Single Image Super-Resolution VIA Iterative Back Projection Based Canny Edge Detection and a Gabor Filter Prior”, International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering, IJSCE, Vol. 3(1), 2013.

19.     H. Engl, M. Hanke, A. Neubauer, “Regularization of Inverse Problems, Dordrecht”, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.

20.     N. Nguyen, G. Golub, P. Milanfar, “Blind Restoration/Super Resolution with Generalized Cross-Validation using Gauss-Type Quadrature Rules”, in Conference Record of the -Third Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, vol. 2,  pp. 1257–1261, 1999.

21.     Mohamed K, Hardie R, “A Collaborative Adaptive Wiener Filter for Image Restoration using a Spatial Domain Multi-Patch Correlation Model”, Eurasia J Adv Signal Process. 2015.


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5.

Authors:

Shubhangi D. C, Vijeta V Chature

Paper Title:

Utility of RFID, Virtual Agent for Supervising the Individuals with Dementia

Abstract:  Various update frameworks have been created to help elderly individuals with dementia. The current update frameworks do not have the attention to human setting, the thoughtful human-machine communication, and the adaptability of individual adjustment. To adapt to the constraints, we are as of now concentrate on another update benefit for individuals with dementia. In particular, we misuse a BLE-based indoor situating framework to catch the present area and setting of the patient, instead we use RFID Tags for Indoor position system . We then utilize a virtual operator framework for rich co-operations. we build up a timetable administration framework for customized updates. To coordinate these heterogeneous frameworks, we re-plan and convey the frameworks as three administrations with Web-API: Location Service, Agent Service, and Schedule Service. These administrations are approximately incorporated by Coordinator Service, in view of the administration arranged design, In this paper, we initially show the framework engineering, and after that we talk about the key thought to actualize the administrations. We likewise illustrate "update at the passage" as a handy situation of the proposed administrations.

Keywords:
Dementia, IPS, GPS, Virtual Agent, Wi-Fi, RFID, Android.


References:

1.      M. Prince, A. Wimo. M. Guerchet, Y.T. W. Gemma-Claire Ali, and M. Prina, "World Alzheimer report 2015", Alzheimer's Disease International, August 2015.
2.      World Alzheimer Report 2016, "Improving healthcare for people living with dementia", Alzheimer’s Disease International.

3.      Yuki Kashio, Shinsuke Matsumoto, Seiki Tokunaga, Sachio Saiki    and Masahide Nakamura, " Design and Implementation of Service Framework for Presence Sensing in Home Network System",  Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Digital Information, Networking, and Wireless Communications, Moscow, Russia 2015.

4.      F.J.M. Meiland , A. Reinersmann , B. Bergvall Kareborn, D. Craig , F. Moelaert, M.D. Mulvenna, " Development and evaluation of an ICT device for people with mild dementia ", COGKNOW.

5.      Ricardo Castellot Lou, Angele Giuliano, and Maurice D. Mulvenna," State of the Art in Electronic Assistive Technologies for People with Dementia ".

6.      Josef Hallberg, Basel Kikhia, Johan E. Bengtsson, Stefan Sävenstedt, Kåre Synnes, " Reminiscence Processes Using Life-Log Entities for Persons with Mild Dementia "

7.      Masahide Nakamura, Akihiro Tanaka, Hiroshi Igaki, Haruaki Tamada, Ken-ichi Matsumoto, "Constructing Home Network Systems and Integrated Services Using Legacy Home Appliances and Web Services ", International Journal of Web Services Research, 5(1), 81-97, January-March 2008.

8.      Jaewoo Chung, Matt Donahoe, Chris Schmandt, Ig-Jae Kim, Pedram Razavai, Micaela Wiseman," Indoor Location Sensing Using Geo-Magnetism ", MIT Media Laborator.

9.      Frank Sposaro, Justin Danielson, Gary Tyson, "iWander: An Android Application for Dementia Patients", Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida.


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6.

Authors:

Prahlad Kumar Rahul, Garima Tiwari

Paper Title:

Extraction of Material Parameters of Z-Shaped Split Resonator Metamaterial Atom

Abstract: In today’s scenario an artificially constructed meta-materials have become the topic of significant interest, because these material shows the electromagnetic characteristics. In order to achieve negative electrical permittivity and negative magnetic permeability NRW method is presented. The propagation of electromagnetic waves is determined by a two fundamental characteristic quantities such as the electrical permittivity ε and the magnetic permeability μ. In this paper, by the use of CST simulator which is based on Finite element method, S parameters are extracted. By the use of MATLAB script, the permittivity and permeability curves are calculated. Perfect electric and perfect magnetic (PE-PM) boundary conditions methods are employed in CST to extract the S parameters. To excite the structure, wave ports are used.

Keywords:
 permeability, permittivity, S11 parameter, S21 parameter.


References:

1.      V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of _ and μ,” Sov. Phys.—Usp, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 509–514, 1968.
2.      S. Awasthi, A. Biswas and M. J. Akhtar, “Compact Bandstop Filter Using Triangular Metamaterial Mushroom Resonators,” Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference Proceedings (APMC), December 2012, pp. 217-219.

3.      Z. M. Thomas, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. Wu and J. A. Kong, “Enhanced Microstrip Stopband Filter Using a Metamaterial Substrate,” Microwave  and Optical Technology Letters, 48, 8, February 2006, pp. 1522-1525.

4.      Tseng and C. Chang, “Improvement of Return Loss Bandwidth of Balanced Amplifier Using Metamaterial-Based Quadrature Power Splitters,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, 18, 4, April 2008, pp. 269-271.

5.      K. W. Eccleston, “Planar N-way Metamaterial Power Divider,” Asia Pac ifi c Microwave Conference (APMC), December 2009, pp. 1024-1027.

6.      H. Kim and C. Seo, “Inverse Class-F Power Amplifier Using the M metamaterial Structure on the Harmonic Control Circuit,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 50, 11, February 2008, pp. 2881-2884.

7.      Tseng and C. Chang, “Microwave Push-Pull Power Amplifier Using Metamaterial-Based Baluns,” Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference (APMC), December 2008, pp.1-4.

8.      R. O. Ouedraogo and E. J. Rothwell, “Metamaterial Inspired Patch Antenna Miniaturization Technique,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, July 2010, pp. 1-4.

9.      B. Brito,A. G. d’Assuncao, R. H. C. Maniçoba, X. Begaud, “Metamaterial Inspired Fabry-Pérot Antenna with Cascaded Frequency  Selective Surfaces,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 55, 5,

10.   May 2013, pp. 981-985.

11.   M. S. Sharawi, A. B. Numan, and D. N. Aloi, “Isolation Improvement in a  Dual-Band Dual-Element MIMO Antenna System Using Capacitively  Loaded Loops,” Progress In Electromagnetic Research, 134, 2013, pp. 247-266.

12.   C. R. Simovski, Belov, A. P. Bavel and S. He, “Backward Wave Region and Negative Material Parameters of a Structure Formed by Lattices of Wires and Split-Ring Resonators,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, AP-51, 10, October 2003, pp. 2582-2591.

13.   20.   D.   R.   Smith,   D.   C.   Vier,   Th.   Koschny   and   C.  M. Soukoulis,“Electromagnetic Parameter Retrieval from Inho mogeneous Metamaterials,” Physics Review E, 71, 3, 2005, 036617.

14.   Ahmad B. Numan and Mohammad S. Sharawi, “Extraction of Material Parameters for Metamaterials Using a Full-Wave Simulator”, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 55, No. 5, October 2013.

15.   Monika Dhillon and Pradeep Dimri, “Design of Metamaterials in HFSS and Extraction of Permittivity and Permeability using NRW Method”,  International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 4, Special Issue May 2015.


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7.

Authors:

Ajinkya B. Kashmire, H. V. Shete, N. D. Jadhav

Paper Title:

A Study of Surface Roughness in Drilling of EN-9 Steel using Taguchi Approach

Abstract:  Drilling is one of the most common and fundamental machining processes. In machining, Carbide twist drills with diameter of 10 mm are used. Most of automotive components are manufactured using a conventional machining process, such as turning, drilling, milling, shaping and planning, etc.. These focus on producing high quality products in time at minimum cost. The surface roughness is considered to be a measure of the quality of a product. The aim of the present work is to optimize cutting conditions (Cutting speed, feed and cutting fluid pressure) parameters for minimum Surface Roughness in drilling of EN-9 using Taguchi Approach. Experiments were conducted based on the design of experiments (DOE) and followed by optimization of the results using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to find the minimum surface roughness.

Keywords:
Surface Roughness, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Design of Experiments (DOE), Taguchi.


References:

1.      Anil Jindal. “Analysis of Tool Wear Rate in Drilling Operation using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM),” Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 11, No.1(2012), pp.43-54.
2.      C. Manikandan, B. Rajeswari, “Study of Cutting Parameters on Drilling EN24 Using Taguchi Method,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) IJERTV2IS70094, Vol. 2 Issue 7, July – 2013 ISSN: 2278-0181.

3.      N. G. Patil, Ameer Asem, R. S. Pawade, D.G. Thakur, P.K. Brahmankar, “Comparative study of high speed machining of Inconel 718 in dry condition and by using compressed cold carbon dioxide gas as coolant,” New Production Technologies in Aerospace Industry - 5th Machining Innovations Conference (MIC 2014), Procedia CIRP 24 ( 2014 ) 86 – 91.

4.      I. Sultana, M. M. H. Chowdhury and N. R. Dhar, “Optimization of flow rate and pressure of high pressure coolant in turning AISI-4320 steel: temperature, chip reduction coefficient and surface roughness,” proceedings of the 4th BSME-ASME international conference on thermal engineering 27-29 December, 2008, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

5.      Anselmo Eduardo Diniz, Ricardo Micaroni,,“Influence of the direction and flow rate of the cutting fluid on tool life in turning process of AISI 1045 steel,” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 47 (2007) 247–254.

6.      Sudesh Garg, Ravi Kumar Goyal, “A Study of Surface Roughness in Drilling of AII H11 Die Steel using Face Centered Design,” IJIRST Volume 1, Issue 12, (May 2015), ISSN: 2349-6010.


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8.

Authors:

Simma Ranjitha, Pasumarthy Srikanth

Paper Title:

Design of Decoders using Mixed Logic for Various Applications

Abstract: In this paper, a mixed-logic design of decoders, combining modified GDI logic, transmission gate logic, and pass transistor logic has been proposed. A novel topology is presented for the 2-4 decoders: a 15- transistor topology on the intension of achieving low power and low delay. Further, three decoders 3-8, 4-16 and 5-32 are implemented by using mixed-logic 2-4 decoders. MGDI technique uses same number of transistors present in CMOS the main difference is the providing input signals to the source and gate terminals. These all proposed decoders reduce the power and delay compared to conventional CMOS decoders. The proposed 2x4 decoder is implemented to decrease power; increase the performance is used in full adder and 4×4 bit SRAM array. Finally simulations are done by using CMOS 130nm mentor graphics tool to give a significant improvement in power and delay.

Keywords:
 Decoders; sense amplifier; SRAM cell; high speed; mixed logic; MGDI logic.


References:

1.      Dimitrios  Balobas   and   Nikos   Konofaos, “Design of Low-Power High-Performance 2–4 and 4–16 Mixed-Logic Line Decoders”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, vol.64, no.2, February 2017.
2.      V. Bhatnagar, A. Chandani, and S. Pandey, “Optimization of row decoder for 128 × 128 6T SRAMs,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. VLSI-SATA, 2015, pp. 1–4.

3.      K. Mishra, D. P. Acharya, and P. K. Patra, “Novel design technique of address decoder for SRAM,” Proc. IEEE ICACCCT, 2014, pp. 1032–1035.

4.      N. Lotze and Y. Manoli, “A 62 mV 0.13 μm CMOS standard-cell based design technique using Schmitt-trigger logic,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 47–60, Jan. 2012.

5.      N. H. E. Weste and D. M. Harris, CMOS VLSI Design, a Circuits and Systems Perspective, 4th ed. Boston, MA, USA: Addison-Wesley, 2011.

6.      M. A. Turi and J. G. Delgado-Frias,  Decreasing energy consumption in address decoders by means of selective pre-charge schemes,” Microelectron. J., vol. 40, no. 11, pp 1590–1600, 2009.

7.      D. Markovi´c, B.  Nikoli´c, and V.     G.OklobdÅžija, “A general method in synthesis of pass-transistor circuits,” Microelectron. J., vol. 31, pp. 991–998, 2000.

8.      R. Zimmermann and W. Fichtner, “Low-power logic styles: CMOS versus pass-transistor logic,” IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1079– 1090, Jul. 1997.

9.      V.  G.  Oklobdzija and B.  Duchene, “Pass-transistor dual value logic for low-power CMOS,” in Proc. Int. Symp. VLSI Technol., 1995, pp. 341–344.

10.   M. Suzuki et al., “A 1.5 ns 32b CMOS ALU in double pass-transistor logic,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., 1993, pp.90–91.

11.   X.  Wu, “Theory of transmission switches and its application to design of CMOS digital circuits,” Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 349–356, 1992.

12.   K. Yano et al., “A 3.8-ns CMOS 16 × 16-b Multiplier using complementary pass-transistor logic,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 388–393, Apr. 1990.


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9.

Authors:

K. Kiran Kumar, S. Suresh Kumar

Paper Title:

Effect of Friction on Extrusion of Non-Ferrous Alloys- Modelling and Simulation

Abstract:  Extrusion is a process used to create jobs of a fixed cross sectional profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross section in this particular problem the radius of an Aluminum cylindrical bar is reduced 33% by an extrusion process. The generation of heat due to plastic dissipation in side the bar and the frictional heart generation at the work piece/die inter face are considered. This analysis has been performed in ABACUS/standard. A fully coupled temperature- displacement analysis is performed with the die kept at a constant temperature. In ABAQUS/standard the die is modeled with CAX4T elements made into an iso thermal rigid body using the *RIGID BODY, ISO THERMAL option are made with an analytical rigid surface. The results obtained with ABAQUS/standard. After analyzing and simulating on two different materials ALUMINIUM & COPPER it is observed that copper offers better extrusion capabilities as compared to aluminum.

Keywords:
 ABAQUS, CAX4T, ISO, RIGID BODY, ISO THERMAL, ALUMINIUM & COPPER, ABAQUS


References:

1.      Fuh-Kuo Chena, Wen-Chan Chuang, Shan Torng “Finite element analysis of multi-hole extrusion of aluminum-alloy tubes” Journal of Materials Processing Technology 201, Volume 150–155, 2008.
2.      Lontos.A.E, Soukatzidi.F.A, Demosthenou.D.A, Baldoukas.D.K, “Effect Of Extrusion Parameters And Die Geometry On The Produced Billet Quality Using Finite Element Method” Greece Manufacturing Engineering (ICMEN), Volume 1-3, 2008.

3.      Tiernan.P, Hillery.P.T, Draganescu.M and Gheorghe.M, “Modelling of cold extrusion with experimental verification” Journal of Materials Processing Technology,Volume 168, Issue 360–366, 2008.                       

4.      Flitta.I and Sheppard.T, “Nature of friction in extrusion process and its effect on material fiow” Volume 139, Issues 331972-344969

5.      Alexander.J.M, “Hydrostaticextrusion”. ISBN10: 0263517098 / 0-263-51709-8 ISBN13: 9780263517095, Publication Date: 1971.

6.      Betzalel Avitzur, “Metal forming processing analysis, McGraw-Hill education, ISBN:007002510X,  EAN:9780070025103

7.      Bridge man.P.W, “Physics of high pressure”. Dover Publications, 1970 - 398 pages

8.      Carmai.S.J.J, Pitakthapanaphong.S, Sechjarern.S, “3DFinite element analysis of metal flow in hot aluminium extrusion of T-shaped profile with various offset pockets”. Volume 31, ISSUE 2, 2008.

9.      Drozda et.al., “Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook: Forming”, Volume 2, 1984, SME, ISBN 0872631354.

10.   Fuchs, “Hydrostatic pressure and its role in metal forming”,Mechanical Engineering. Conover Mast Publications., 1967

11.   Gosh.A and Mallik, “Manufacturing Science”. Ellis Horwood, 1986- 433 pages

12.   Lambert and other “A theory on the mechanical of axisysmmetric exit through conical die”. Volume 91, Issues 10696-24063, 1988.

13.   Oberg et.al., “Machinery's Handbook”, New York: Industrial Press, ISBN 0-8311-2635- Volume 3, 2008.

14.   Pugh “Redundant work and friction in the Hydrostatic Extrusion”,Mech.Engg. Science,1964.

15.   Sortais.H.C and kobtyshi, “An optimum die profile for axisymmertric extrusion.” Publisher Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2003.

16.   Yenger and Rice “Fluid flow Lubricating in the Hydrostatic Extrusion” Mechanical Engineering. Publisher Mc Graw-Hill book company, inc., 1935.


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10.

Authors:

S. Mohan Kumar, K. Kiran Kumar

Paper Title:

Optimization Techniques in Turning Operation by using Taguchi Method

Abstract: Manufacturing of any product requires different machining processes to get desired finished component. This project refers to the optimization of process parameters in turning process using Taguchi method (L9) in order to obtain efficient Material Removal Rate (MRR). EN 24 is used as work-piece for carrying out experiment to optimize Material Removal Rate which is influenced by three machining parameters namely spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut.  Different experiments are done by varying one parameter and keeping other two fixed so that optimized value of each parameter can be obtained. In this project dry turning operation of EN 24 graded steel is performed using HSS tool. The range of cutting parameters at three levels are spindle speed (200, 350 and 500 rpm), feed rate (0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 mm/rev), depth of cut (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) respectively. Taguchi method is a good method for optimization of various machining parameters as it reduces number of experiments. Taguchi orthogonal array is designed with three levels of process parameters and ANOVA is applied to know the influence of each parameter on Material Removal Rate. For the given set of conditions, spindle speed influences more on Material Removal Rate followed by feed rate and depth of cut.

Keywords:
(L9), (MRR), (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm), ANOVA, (200, 350 and 500 rpm), rate (0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 mm/rev),


References:

1.      Singh H. and Kumar P., (2006), “Optimizing Feed Force for Turned Parts through the Taguchi Technique”, Sadhana, Volume 31, Number 6, pp. 671–681.
2.      Ahmed S. G., (2006), “Development of a Prediction Model for Surface Roughness in Finish Turning of Aluminium”, Sudan Engineering Society Journal, Volume 52, Number 45, pp. 1-5.

3.      Mahmoud E. A. E. and Abdelkarim H. A., (2006), “Optimum Cutting Parameters in Turning Operations using HSS Cutting Tool with 450 Approach Angle”, Sudan Engineering Scoeiety Journal, Volume 53, Number 48, pp. 25-30.

4.      Bala Murugan Gopalsamy, Biswanath Mondal and Sukamal Ghosh , (2009), “Taguchi method and ANOVA: An approach for process parameters optimization of hard
machining while machining hardened steel”, Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research Vol. 68, pp. 686-695

5.      Rama Rao S, Padmanabhan. G, (2012), “Application of Taguchi methods and ANOVA in optimization of process parameters for metal removal rate in electrochemical machining of Al/5%SiC composites”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 2, Issue 3, pp.192-197

6.      Ashish Yadav, Ajay Bangar, Rajan Sharma, Deepak Pal,(2012), “ Optimization of Turning Process Parameters for Their Effect on En 8 Material Work piece Hardness by Using Taguchi Parametric Optimization Method” International Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (IJMIE),  Volume-1, Issue-3, 2012

7.      M. Kaladhar, K. Venkata Subbaiah, Ch. Srinivasa Rao ,(2012), “ Determination of Optimum Process Parameters during turning of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steels using Taguchi method and ANOVA”, International Journal of Lean Thinking Volume 3, Issue 1

8.      Ranganath M S, Vipin, (2013), “Optimization of Process Parameters in Turning Operation Using Taguchi Method and Anova: A Review”, International Journal of Advance Research and Innovation Volume 1 (2013) 31-45

9.      T. Sreenivasa Murthy, R.K.Suresh, G. Krishnaiah, V. Diwakar Reddy, (2013), “Optimization of process parameters in dry turning operation of EN41B alloy steels with Cermet tool based on the Taguchi method”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue , pp.1144-1148

10.   Vikas B. Magdum, Vinayak R. Naik, (2013), “Evaluation and Optimization of Machining Parameter for turning of EN 8 steel”, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume4, Issue5

11.   Taquiuddin Quazi, Pratik gajanan more, (2014), “Optimization of Turning Parameters Such as Speed Rate, Feed Rate, Depth of Cut for Surface Roughness by Taguchi Method”, Asian Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation 02 (02) 2014 (05-24)

12.   Anand S.Shivade, Shivraj Bhagat, Suraj Jagdale, Amit Nikam, Pramod londhe, (2014), “Optimization of Machining Parameters for Turning using Taguchi Approach”, International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE)ISSN:2277-3878,Volume-3, Issue-1

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11.

Authors:

Lalita Gupta

Paper Title:

Microwave Based Moisture Measurement System for Granular Materials: A Review

Abstract: In the recent years, development of a non-destructive and non-contacting type moisture measurement system has attracted considerable interest. Because of their inherent nature of being nondestructive, non-conductive medium and having deep penetrative properties, Microwaves have been the traditional choice in this kind of research. This paper is a comprehensive review of Microwave Based Measurement System used for grains and pulses. In this paper, moisture measurement and calibration techniques for the system are presented. The objective of the paper is to provide the readers a broad perspective of microwave based techniques for measurement of moisture in bulk in silos or in sacks.

Keywords:
 Bulk density, Complex Permittivity, Moisture Measurement, Temperature Compensation


References:

1.      ASAE S352.2 Moisture Measurement-Unground grain and seeds, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI, ASAE, 1995, ASAE Standards 1995
2.      T. J. Kelleners, D. A. Robinson, P. J. Shouse, J. E. Ayars, and T. H. Skaggs, Frequency Dependence of the Complex Permittivity and Its Impact on Dielectric Sensor Calibration in Soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., Vol. 69, pp 67-76, January– February2005

3.      Samir Trabelsi, Andrzej W. Krazsewski and Stuart O. Nelson, New Density-Independent Calibration Function for Microwave Sensing of Moisture Content in Particulate Materials, IEEE , IEEE Transactions On Instrumentation And Measurement, Vol. 47, No. 3, June 199, pp 613-622

4.      Samir Trabelsi and Stuart O. Nelson, Microwave Moisture Meter for Granular and Particulate Materials, Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), 2010 IEEE, pp 1304-1308

5.      El Sabbagh, Richard B. Russell, Ramahi, O.M. ; Trabelsi, S. ; Nelson, S.O. ; Khan, L, Use of Microstrip Patch Antennas in Grain and Pulverized Materials Permittivity Measurement, Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2003, IEEE, Vol 4, pp 42-45

6.      Stuart O. Nelson, Samir Trabelsi, and Andrzej W. Kraszewski, Principles of Microwave Moisture Measurement in Grain,

7.      Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2002. IMTC/2002. Proceedings of the 19th IEEE, Vol 1, pp 99-102

8.      A.W. Kraszewski, S. Trabelsi, S.O. Nelson, Simple Grain and Moisture Content Determination from Microwave Measurements, Transactions of the ASAE, 1998 American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 41, pp 129-134

9.      Ki-Bok Kim, Jong-Heon Kim, Seung Seok Lee, and Sang Ha Noh, Measurement of Grain Moisture Content Using Microwave Attenuation at 10.5 GHz and Moisture Density, IEEE Transactions On Instrumentation And Measurement, Vol. 51, No. 1, February2002

10.   Yangjun Zhang and Seichi Okamura, A Density-Independent Method For High Moisture Content Measurement using a Microstrip Transmission Line, International Microwave Power Institute, Journal of Microwave Power & Electromagnetic EnergyVol. 40, No.2, 2006

11.   A.R. von Hippel, Dielectrics and Waves. New York: Wiley, 1954, p. 26


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12.

Authors:

Manish Shrivastava

Paper Title:

Glimpses of Smart Cities using Internet of Things

Abstract:  IoT will solve main problems faced by the people living in cities like pollution, traffic congestion and shortage of energy supplies etc. Products like cellular communication enabled Smart Belly trash will send alerts to municipal services when a bin needs to be emptied. Smart city is another powerful application of IoT generating curiosity among world’s population. Smart surveillance, automated transportation, smarter energy management systems, water distribution, urban security and environmental monitoring all are examples of internet of things applications for smart cities. We know IoT applications cover wide range of domain but in this paper we cover IoT application related to smart city like Smart Parking, Smart Lighting, Smart Roads, Structural Health Monitoring etc.

Keywords:
  About four key words or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas.


References:

1.   https://www.elprocus.com/architecture-of-wireless-sensor-network-and-applications/
2.   http://in.pcmag.com/networking-communications-software/38970/feature/what-is-cloud-computing

3.   http://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/definition/cloud-computing

4.   www.tutorialspoint.com/embedded_systems/es_overview.htm

5.   https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2016/08/10-youtube-videos-explaining-the-real-world-applications-of-internet-of-things-iot/

6.   https://www.ibm.com/blogs/internet-of-things/smart-lighting-solutions-india/
7.   https://techcrunch.com/2016/07/13/how-iot-and-machine-learning-can-make-our-roads-safer/
8.   A Bahga and V Madisetti, “Internet of Things: A Hands-On Approach,” University Press India Private Limited.


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13.

Authors:

Allam Srivani, M. Lakshmi Prasanna Rani

Paper Title:

Low Power and High Performance ALU using Dual Mode Transmission Gate Diffusion Input (DMTGDI)

Abstract: Using Dual Mode Transmission Gate Diffusion Input Logic (DMTGDI), a four bit ALU has been designed. The ALU can perform four arithmetic and four logical operations. Dual Mode Transmission Gate Diffusion Input (DMTGDI) logic has been promising in realizing increased functionality on a chip. The main advantage of this new logic called DMTGDI is low power and high performance. For low power applications there are so many conventional techniques are available. For reducing power consumption, sub-threshold circuit design is the one of the most important techniques. But the circuit in sub-threshold region operates with so many sensitivities and constraints. Mostly the performance of the circuit which is operated in sub-threshold region is degraded. To increase the performance of the circuit in sub-threshold region one of the most effective logic used is called as Dual Mode Logic (DML). So DML is the one of the techniques used for high speed. Another important technique is established for reducing power consumption is called Transmission Gate Diffusion Input (TGDI). In the next step, we propose to use Transmission Gate Diffusion Input (TGDI) as a foundation for new Dual Mode logic called “DMTGDI or Dual Mode Transmission Gate Diffusion Input” logic. So DMTGDI combines the advantages of both DML and TGDI. Simulations have been performed in mentor graphics tool using 130nm. Pre-layout simulation results reveal that ALU design using DMTGDI logic is more advantageous than ALU design using conventional CMOS logic.

Keywords:
 ALU, TGDI, DML, DMTGDI, CMOS.


References:

1.      Chandra Srinivasan, A Thesis “arithmetic logic unit (alu)” design using reconfigurable CMOS logic” Bachelor of Engineering, Mysore University, 1997.
2.       A. Srivastava and D. Govindarajan, “A fast ALU design in CMOS for low voltage operation”, J. of VLSI Design, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 315- 327, 2002.

3.       A. Srivastava and C. Srinivasan, “ ALU Design using Reconfigurable CMOS Logic”,  Proc. of the 45th IEEE 2002 Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems ,
vol.2, pp. 663- 666, Aug. 2002.

4.      S. Kumar Gupta, A. Ray chowdhury, K. Roy, Digital computation in subthreshold region for ultra-low power operation: a device circuit architecture co-design perspective, Proc. IEEE 98 (2) (2010) 160–190.

5.      I. Levi, A. Kaizer man, A.Fish, Low voltage dual mode logic: model analysis and parameter extraction, Micro electron. J. 44(2013)553–560.

6.      A. Kaizerman, S. Fisher, A. Fish, Subthreshold dual mode logic, IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 21 (5) (2013) 979–983.

7.      Elahe  Rastegar  Pashaki, M.Shalchian Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of  Technology, 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran, Iran “Design and simulation of an ultra-low power high performance CMOS logic: DMTGDI” Integration, the VLSI journal 55(2016)194–201.

8.        R. J. Baker, H.W. Li and D.E. Boyce, CMOS Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation, IEEE Press, 1998.

9.       D. Radhakrishnan, “Low - voltage low - power CMOS full adder” , IEE Proceedings -Circuits, Devices and Systems, vol.148, pp. 19  - 24, Feb. 2001

10.   A.M. Shams and M.A. Bayoumi, “A novel high-  performance CMOS 1 - bit full- adder cell”,  IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, vol. 47, pp. 478 –481, May 2000.  


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14.

Authors:

P. Manimekalai, P. Selvarajan

Paper Title:

Studies of Unodped Glycine, Cesium Chloride Doped Glycine and Rubidium Chloride Doped Glycine Crystals  

Abstract:  Glycine is one of the simplest amino acid that has no asymmetric carbon atom and is optically inactive. It is mixed with other organic or inorganic salts and acids to obtain new complexes and these complexes have improved chemical stability, thermal, optical, mechanical, electrical, linear and nonlinear optical properties. Many glycine based crystals are known to be having interesting properties and in this work, cesium chloride and rubidium chloride are separately added in small amounts into the lattice of glycine crystals to get the doped samples for the research work. Single crystals of undoped, cesium chloride doped and rubidium chloride doped glycine were grown by solution method and grown crystals were analyzed by various characterization techniques. Solubility was measured for the samples. XRD study was carried out to find the crystal structure and hardness study was done on the crystals to find the mechanical strength. Second harmonic generation studies were carried out to find SHG efficiency. Density and structural characterization was performed for the samples. Photoconductivity studies were carried out for the samples and the results are discussed.

Keywords:
  Doping, glycine, crystal growth, characterization, XRD, hardness


References:

1.      D. Eimert, S. Velsko, L. Davis, F.Wang, G. Loiaceono, G. Kennedy, IEEE    J. Quantum Electron. 25 (1989) 179.
2.      M.D. Aggarwal, J. Choi,W.S.Wang, K. Bhat, R.B. Lal, A.D. Shield, B.G. Penn, D.O. Frazier, J. Crystal Growth 204 (1999) 179.

3.      P.Selvarajan,  J.Glorium ArulRaj, S.Perumal  J. Crystal Growth 311 (2009) 3835.

4.      D. Rajan Babu, D. Jayaraman, R. Mohan Kumar, R. Jayavel, J. Crystal Growth (2002) 121.

5.      Ramesh Kumar, S. Gokul Raj, R. Sankar, R. Mohan, S. Pandi, R. Jayavel, J. Crystal Growth 7 (2004) 213.

6.      S.Hoshino, T.Mitsui, F.Jona, R.Pepinsky, Phys.Rev.115 (1959) 323.

7.      Hung-Wen Li, Gu-Shen Yu, Herbert L. Strauss, J. Phys. Chem. B102 (1998) 298.

8.      S. Natarajan, K. Ravikumar, S.S. Rajan, Z. Kristallogr. 168 (1984) 75.

9.      Tapati Mallik, Tanusree Kar, Cryst. Res. Technol. 40 (2005) 778.

10.   R. Muralidharan, R. Mohankumar, P.M. Ushasree, R. Jayavel,P. Ramasamy, J. Crystal Growth 234 (2002) 545.

11.   J.K. Mohan Rao and M.A. Vishwamitra, Acta Crystallogr. B 28 (1972)1484.

12.   S.A. Martin Britto and S. Natarajan, Mater. Lett.,  62 (2008) 2633-2636.

13.   R. Shanmugavadivu, G. Ravi and A. Nixon Azariah, J. Phys. and Chem.      Solids, 67(2006)1858-1861.

14.   M.R. Suresh Kumar, H.J. Ravindra and S.M. Dharmaprakash, J. Cryst.  Growth,  306 (2007)361-365.

15.   C.S.Towler, R.J. Davey, R.W. Lancaster, C.J. Price, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (2004) 13347.

16.   G.D. Profio, S. Tucci, E. Curcio, E. Drioli, Cryst. Growth Des. 7 (2007) 526.

17.   P.Yasotha, R.Thiagarajan, P.Sagunthala, Int. J. Chem. Phys. Sci. 4(2015)99.

18.   P.Manimekalai and P.Selvarajan, J. Chem.Pharma. Res. 7(2015)691-696.

19.   A. Siva Dhas, P. Selvarajan, and T. H. Freeda,   Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 24 (2009) 584.

20.   Richard E.Marsh, Acta Cryst. 11(1958)654.

21.   S.K. Kurtz, T.T. Perry, J. Appl. Phys. 39 (1968) 3798.

22.   B.W. Mott, Micro Indentation Hardness Testing, Butterworths, London (1956).

23.   R. H. Bube, Photoconductivity of solids, Wiley, New York (1981).
 

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